Method of making decorative articles using amber

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of decorative articles using amber and amber production wastes as filler and may be used for making decorative construction boards. Proposed method comprises preparation of filler, binder and mould, filling said binder in mould, curing it, extracting the article and drying to condition. Note here that article is cured at pressure to complete hardening. Note also that filler is the first to be filled in said mould, then binder is poured therein. Note that in pouring the binder absolute pressure is kept in said mould not exceeding 30 kPa. Note that pouring is carried out from below while, after pouring, absoluter pressure of up to 100-300 kPa is created to complete hardening. Note that pressure feed moment is selected to make binder viscosity be increased by not over 30% at said moment. After extraction, the articled is sliced into thin plates.

EFFECT: reduced labor input.

4 cl, 4 ex, 4 tbl

 

The invention relates to the production of art and decorative items using as filler amber amber waste production and can be used for the manufacture of decorative plates for coating surfaces in buildings, structures or other structures.

There is a method of making decorative items with filler made of amber (RF patent 2151700). The disadvantage of the invention is that the form for making pour ready for a lot of molding, consisting of resin, hardener and amber chips, which leads to deterioration of the quality of the finished product the appearance of a large number of bubbles in the finished product both on its surface and inside of the product.

There is a method of producing a decorative coating containing succinic particles (patent WO 2010023261). The disadvantage of the invention is most complicated to manufacture due to the inclusion in the composition of the additional layer, which is the coating of the base layer containing the amber crumb. In addition, an additional layer is more sensitive to external abrasive load, which can lead to deterioration of the quality of the coating.

Closest to the proposed method according to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method of manufacture of the population decorative items using amber (RF patent 2181670), including the preparation of filler, binder and forms, pouring the liquid molding material into the form, extract, extracting the product and its final drying, and exposure of products are made under pressure until it is completely cured.

The disadvantage of the method described above is the most complicated to manufacture due to the necessity of the application of great pressure in the manufacture of products, as well as low quality products due to the presence of air inclusions in the finished product.

The challenge which seeks the proposed solution, reducing the complexity of manufacturing by simplifying the production technology and improving the quality of finished products.

To solve this problem is proposed a method of manufacturing decorative items with amber, including the preparation of filler, binder and forms, fill a binder in the form, extract, extracting the product and its final drying, and exposure of products are made under pressure until it is fully cured, characterized in that the first form fall asleep filler, then fill in a binder, and in the process of filling a binder in the form of supported absolute pressure of not more than 30 kPa, and fill from the bottom, and at the end fill in the form creates an absolute pressure of 100-300 kPa to full the th solidification, the moment pressure is chosen from the condition of exceeding the viscosity of the binder at the time of filing of the pressure not more than 30%, and after removing the product from the mold it is cut into thin slices.

The method, characterized in that the filler used amber waste production.

The method, characterized in that the filler is added chopped fiberglass.

The method, characterized in that the filler is subjected to sonication in a bath of distilled water, followed by drying.

The physical essence of the invention lies in the fact that the quality of the finished product is greatly influenced by the number and size of bubble inclusions. When filling in the form the binder in the binder and on the interface binder-amber formed bubble inclusions, which by reducing the pressure to 30 kPa significantly increase in size, this increases the contact area with a binder. The intensity of dissolution of air in the bubble is in the binder increases. The longer holds such contact, the less becomes the bubble. With increasing pressure up to 100-300 kPa bubble decreases abruptly and may even disappear.

The proposed method is implemented as follows.

On the Desk of the autoclave was set form, which was filled in amber is the second mass, consisting of chips of amber in various fractions. Size fractions of amber ranged from 2-3 mm 15-18 mm

The autoclave was created absolute pressure of not higher than 30 kPa. Submission binder was carried out bottom-up, i.e. in the lower part of the form with the gradual filling in the form. At the end of the casting resin in the autoclave was created pressure is 100-300 kPa. Curing took place at room temperature 24°C, without additional heating. After completion of the curing process, the pressure is reduced to atmospheric, the form is disassembled and the finished product is received from the form. The size of the form for the manufacture of 400×220×250 mm, Then the finished product is cut into a circular saw to size the thickness of not more than 10 mm

For the manufacture of binders were used resin (Polylite 32032-20), curing agent (peroxide No. 11).

The embodiments of the present invention.

Example 1. At different pressures in the autoclave during the casting resin.

Has conducted a number of experiments with different pressure in the autoclave during the form filling mix resin with hardener (binder). The pressure level was equal to 30, 50, 80, 100 kPa. After curing, the pressure level was set equal to 100 kPa, i.e. equal to atmospheric. In each experiment from the formed product was cut a number of samples of equal area, which PR is was considered under a microscope with 20x magnification. This was determined by the number of bubble of air inclusions (visible under the microscope) and the maximum size of the bubble. The results of the experiment are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
Pressure (kPa)The number of bubbles per unit areaThe maximum bubble size (mm)
30120,8
50140,8
80190,8
100280,9

As can be seen from the results of the experiment, the pressure at which the pouring and curing of the binder is directly proportional effect on the number of bubbles in the cured product, but has virtually no effect on the size of the bubble.

Example 2. At the time of submission of high blood pressure.

After pouring the resin in the molds a number of extracts time before applying pressure with simultaneous measurement of the viscosity of the binder. Installed the following excerpts: 5 min, 15 min, 20 min On the pressure was supplied value of 300 kPa in all experiments.

At the end of each extracts was determined by the change in viscosity of the binder; the number of bubbles per unit area; the maximum size of the bubble. Experimental data are presented in Table 2.

Table 2
The exposure time, minThe change in viscosity, %The number of bubbles per unit areaThe maximum bubble size, mm
51040,2
153020,0 (not defined)
203920,3

As can be seen from the experiment results, when applying pressure to the viscosity change of 30%, the number of bubbles decreased, and when the supply pressure when reaching the binder viscosity is not more than 30% more number of bubbles was minimal, and the size of the bubble at this magnification (20) cannot be determined.

Example 3. According to the invention.

In example 3 was conducted a number of experiments n is the determination of the influence of high pressure, set after the end of the fill binders. And fill were always conducted at a pressure of 30 kPa. After pouring the binder was applied pressures of 100, 200 and 300 kPa.

The moment pressure is 15 minutes after the beginning of the fill.

It was also determined the number of bubbles per unit area and the maximum size of the bubble. The results of the experiment are presented in Table 3.

Table 3
Pressure, kPaThe number of bubbles per unit areaThe maximum bubble size (mm)
10090,8
20070,6
30060,3

As can be seen from the results of the experiments are shown in tables 1 and 2, the best combination is to fill a binder at a pressure of 30 kPa and a flow pressure of 300 kPa at the end of the pouring and curing at this pressure.

Example 4. According to the invention prototype.

Submission binder in a form prepared by the weight of a filler carried the eh at a pressure of 100 kPa. After casting the liquid molding composition (binder) on the form that contains the liquid molding composition with a filler was applied pressing pressure of 3 MPa and produced the shutter speed to fully cure.

The molding pressure was carried out on a hydraulic press with the use of special tooling (punch - matrix), allowing to transfer pressure to the molding material mixture with the filler. After the molding was carried out the determination of the number of bubble inclusions per unit area and the maximum size of the bubble (see Table 4).

Table 4
Pressure, MPaThe number of bubbles per unit areaThe maximum bubble size (mm)
3240,3

As can be seen from Table 4, the maximum bubble size does not exceed 0.3 mm when the number of bubbles 24, i.e. the optical properties of the resulting product in the present invention are obtained almost an order of magnitude better than in the invention of the prototype. The maximum bubble size in the present invention turned out to be the same as in the invention of the prototype, but if e is ω, the pressure was much less.

Application of the proposed technology for decorative products can reduce the complexity of their production while improving quality. The result is a possibility of significant quantities of recycled amber cheap raw materials, namely amber waste production.

1. Method of making decorative articles with amber, including the preparation of filler, binder and forms, fill a binder in the form, extract, extracting the product and its final drying, and exposure of products are made under pressure until it is fully cured, characterized in that the first form fall asleep filler, then fill in a binder, and in the process of filling a binder in the form of supported absolute pressure of not more than 30 kPa, and fill from the bottom, and at the end fill in the form creates an absolute pressure of 100-300 kPa until complete solidification, and the time pressure is chosen from the condition of exceeding the viscosity of the binder at the time pressure is not more than 30%, and after removing the product from the mold it is cut into thin slices.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the filler used amber waste production.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the filler is added chopped fiberglass.

4. With whom persons according to claim 1, characterized in that the filler is subjected to sonication in a bath of distilled water, followed by drying.



 

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