Accelerating structure with parallel link

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: accelerating structure (AS) comprises coaxially arranged accelerating resonators not connected to each other, besides, each resonator has a linkage diaphragm for input of microwave capacity, a throughput resonator with high internal Q, having output diaphragms by number of accelerating resonators included into the AS, every of which is combined with a linkage diaphragm of an appropriate accelerating resonator, and an input diaphragm for input of microwave capacity from a generator, besides, coefficients of transfer of specified diaphragms meet the following ratios: T1=[1+(T0/T-T/T0)2/4]-1/2; T<T0, where T and T1 - coefficients of transfer of accordingly output and input diaphragms of a throughput resonator. T0 - coefficient of transfer of a linkage diaphragm of an accelerating resonator, when no throughput resonator is available.

EFFECT: reduced size of a hole in linkage diaphragms of accelerating resonators of an accelerating structure and thus their reduced impact at a structure of an accelerating field, critical connection with a supply wave guide remains.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to accelerator technology can be used to create particle accelerators.

Known accelerating structure (AMT) with a parallel connection, containing a coaxially located unrelated accelerating resonators, in which the microwave power is supplied to each accelerating the cavity from the inlet of the waveguide through an individual aperture [1, 2]. The transmission coefficient of the orifice due accelerating cavities chosen so that the communication CONDITION with the feeding waveguide, given the accelerated beam current was close to the critical linkage [3].

However, when choosing a gear ratio of the diaphragms due accelerating cavities it is necessary to consider that the more accelerated beam current, the greater the ratio, the greater the size of the holes in the diaphragm connection. The holes in the diaphragm connection distort the structure of the accelerating field in the US, and the stronger, the larger the size. When the distortion of the structure of the accelerating field in addition to the main accelerating fashion experience fashion with the transverse component of the electric field, which leads to violations of the beam acceleration. The size of the holes and, accordingly, the degree of influence on the structure of the accelerating field can be reduced by reducing the gear ratio of the apertures of communication. However, if this is not achieved the critical is Kai communication, there are reflections from the US - decreases the level of the input microwave power, decreases efficiency.

When the wave propagation in the walls of the waveguide and resonator losses occur. As PTO in accelerating resonators decreases the amplitude of the wave in the inlet of the waveguide, which leads to the need to change (increase) gear ratio, and, consequently, increase the size of the respective diaphragms communication. This complicates the calculation, simulation and design CONDITION. In addition, because of the arising of reflections appears the necessity of individual items matching of each accelerating cavity with inlet waveguide [1, 2], which also complicates the design.

The objective of the invention is to develop a design CONDITION that can provide a critical link given the current accelerated beam at simultaneous reduction gear ratio of the diaphragms due accelerating cavities and given the dependence of the amplitude of the accelerating field from the longitudinal coordinates of the structure without additional individual elements of coordination, due to changes in design MODE.

The problem is solved stated accelerating structure with parallel connection, which, as known to US, contains a coaxially located unrelated accelerating resonators, each of which is the meet of the aperture due to input microwave power. In contrast to the known, the claimed CONDITION is supplied through a resonator with high quality factor with the output aperture on the number of incoming in CONDITION accelerating cavities, each of which is aligned with the aperture corresponding accelerating cavity, and an input aperture for the input microwave power from the generator, and the transmission ratios of these diaphragms satisfy the relations:

T1=[1+(T0/T-T/T0)2/4]-1/2; T<T0where T and T1- transfer coefficients, respectively, and output apertures passing resonator, T0- transfer coefficient of the diaphragm due accelerating cavity in the absence of flow resonator.

Pass resonator in the stated CONDITION is made of the short-circuited at the ends of the segment retarding structures with low losses, the phase velocity of wave propagation which coincides with velocity accused of particles, and the output aperture communication are located at the equivalent points of the slow-wave structure. A version of the cut slow-wave structure is a rectangular waveguide loaded with pins.

Introduction in CONDITION flow resonator with high quality factor allows to increase the amplitude of the wave incident on the aperture due accelerating cavities MUSTACHE that gives opportunities is to reduce the size of the communication holes in the diaphragm and, accordingly, the distortion of the field in the resonators, as well as to simplify the design CONDITION with parallel connection by eliminating the individual elements of the communication settings of each accelerating cavity. High quality and increase the amplitude of the field is achieved by execution of the entry of the resonator short-circuited at the ends of the segment retarding structures with low losses. In the slow-wave structure excited by a standing wave, the maximum value of the magnetic field which are output aperture aligned with the apertures due accelerating cavities. Due to this, the adjacent accelerating cavities diaphragms connection connected to the electrically equivalent points slow-wave structure, and at the same apertures without additional matching elements are excited electromagnetic waves with equal amplitudes and a phase shift of PI. By varying the size of the holes is achieved given the dependence of the amplitude of the field in the accelerating cavities along the axis of the MUSTACHE. For example, the growing dependence necessary to ensure the capture mode acceleration at low energies of the beam in the injection part of the accelerator. The phase velocity of wave propagation in the slow-wave structure is chosen coincident with the speed of accelerated charged particles, due to which both the realised synchronism of ions and accelerating harmonic electromagnetic fields in the US. When performing slow-wave structure in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide to reduce the phase velocity of the wave to the velocity of ions specified waveguide-loaded pins.

The figure 1 presents the scheme declared the accelerating structure. The figure 2 shows a simplified schematic diagram used for measurements.

The CA contains a coaxially located accelerating resonators 1 cylindrical type with views of oscillation F010each of which has a aperture connection 2. To accelerate the resonator 1 is connected through passage resonator 3, the output aperture which is aligned with the orifice connection 2. Diaphragms diaphragms 2 are due accelerating cavities 1 and the output apertures of the exciting flow of the resonator 3, which is common to all of accelerating resonators made of the short-circuited at the ends of the segment inhibiting structure is a rectangular waveguide, short-circuited at the ends and excited by the oscillations of H10N-1where N is the number of accelerating cavities. The output of the diaphragm 2 are in the areas of the peaks of the magnetic field passing resonator 3. The relationship between him and the accelerating cavity 1 is performed by the magnetic field. The input microwave power from the generator through the entrance aperture 4 through the waveguide 5. To enter the accelerated beam in the serve holes 6. The pins 7 in pass-through resonator 3 are intended to reduce the phase velocity of the wave in the waveguide type wavelength H10) to rate accelerated charged particles.

Accelerating structure operates as follows.

The microwave power from the generator served by the waveguide 5 through the inlet aperture 4 pass resonator 3, which is excited by the appearance of oscillations of H10N-1with the maxima of the magnetic field output of the diaphragm 2. The amplitude values of the specified fields in the field maxima are the same, the vectors of the fields in the adjacent diaphragms opposite to each other. Through hole connection in the corresponding aperture 2 each accelerating cavity 1 is excited by the oscillation of F010with the component of the accelerating electric field directed along the axis of the structure. With equal-sized holes in the diaphragm connection 2, the same dobratsch and sizes in the adjacent accelerating cavities 1 are excited electromagnetic waves with equal amplitudes and opposite phases. In accordance with the accepted terminology, CA is excited to p-type oscillations and can be used to accelerate charged particles whose velocity is close to the phase velocity of the wave in slow-wave structure of the segment which made passing the resonator 3. By varying the size hole dia is rahmah connection 2 you can change the ratio of the amplitudes of the fields in the accelerating cavities and to achieve a specified field distribution along the axis of the structure, including homogeneous, when the amplitude value of the accelerating fields in all the resonators are the same. The input beam on the axis of the structure, in the region of the maximum accelerating field of the accelerating cavity 1 through the opening 6.

The coefficients of transmission apertures communication flow resonator is determined in accordance with the mathematical expressions. To substantiate the validity of these expressions will give consideration to the passage of microwave power through the aperture in the waveguide, if it fall UHF waves on both sides. In particular, in this mode working diaphragm connection CONDITION with the supply line under excitation from the generator [3]. By definition, when the wave amplitude and microwave power propagating in the waveguide is equal and2/2 [4]. Let the resonance frequency of the diaphragm due accelerating cavity MUSTACHE falls stimulating wave with amplitude a, and the amplitude of the wave incident on the aperture from the other side (the amplitude of the wave in the resonator RU), equal to b. Then the amplitude of the wave radiated from the US in leading the waveguide through the diaphragm connection, is determined from the relation: c=b, where T is the transmission coefficient of the diaphragm connection, and the amplitude of the reflected wave is equal to (c-a) at low T [4]. Accordingly transmitted to the resonator US microwave power P=and2/2-(c-a)2/2=Tab(Tb)2/2≅Tab and Tb/2<<A. That is they way if the amplitude of the wave incident on the aperture due accelerating cavity CONDITION, equal and microwave power P transmitted in this resonator is determined from the ratio R≅Tab and, consequently, it is possible to reduce T by increasing and saving & Improving amplitude waves reach before entering the MOUSTACHE, letting the microwave power from the generator passing through the resonator with high q, is connected to the MUSTACHE.

In the stated CONDITION in pass-through resonator 3 sets standing wave due to the two waves propagating towards each other. One of the waves (hereinafter referred to wave a1falls diaphragm connection 2, the second (next - wave and2) on the input aperture 4. Wave a1excites accelerating resonators 1.

Let the considered communication device, comprising accelerating cavities 1 and pass resonator 3, the feeding waveguide 5 is close to critical communications.

The coefficient of transmission of the diaphragm due 2 each accelerating cavity is equal to T, the transmission coefficient of the input aperture 4 pass resonator 3 is equal to T1the wave amplitude in the input waveguide 5 is equal to and, respectively, the microwave power from the generator Rg=and2/2, the amplitude of the wave in passing the resonator is incident on the diaphragm 2, is equal to a1accordingly, the power of this wave R'=a12/2, am is litude waves in pass-through resonator, incident on the aperture 4, equal and2the amplitude of the waves in accelerating resonator is equal to b. When communication is close to critical, provided small loss in pass-through resonator, we can write the relation:

where N is the number of accelerating cavities.

Equation (1) provides that a2T1the amplitude of the wave radiated from the lock cavity in the inlet of the waveguide is equal tothe amplitude of the reflected wave from the input aperture of the resonator. These waves at the resonant frequency have opposite phases, the full amplitude reflected from the passing wave resonator is equal to zero. Thus, the relation (1) corresponds to the critical condition due to input into the device.

Equation (2) defines the relationship between a wave with amplitude a1incident on the diaphragm due accelerating cavities, and waves in passing and accelerating resonators with amplitudes respectively and2and b, under the condition of small losses in pass-through resonator.

Equation (3) represents the conservation of energy in the system under the condition of small losses in pass-through resonator. In accelerating resonators is introduced all the microwave power from the generator WG=and2/2, this power is equal to the difference between falling mo is the activity of the diaphragm due accelerating cavities a 12/2 and reflected from them the power of a22/1.

In the known device prototype excitation of the accelerating cavities is carried out without an additional pass of the resonator. While accelerating resonators excites the wave incident on the aperture 2 directly from the inlet of the waveguide 5. Even in this case, when a critical communication CONDITION with the inlet waveguide averaged transmission coefficient of the diaphragm due accelerating cavity input in CONDITION equal to T0the amplitude of the incident wave from the generator to the inlet of the waveguide, as in the first case (in the presence of passing the resonator) is equal to a, the amplitude of the waves in accelerating resonator is also equal to b. Then a=NT0b, and, respectively, b=a/NT0.

Substituting the last expression for b in equation (3) and (2)above, taking into account (1), for the gain of the input aperture passing resonator T1and power of the waves impinging on the diaphragm due accelerating cavityreceived:

where, as above, WG=and2/2 - microwave power from the generator. For any T, T0the fraction (T2+T02)/T0≥1, so always P'≥Pg(equality occurs at T=T0while T1=1). In obtained from the relations (4), (5) the coefficients T and T0enter symmetrically, therefore, choosing T<T0and setting the gear ratio of the input aperture passing resonator T1in accordance with the above equation (4), provide critical communication with the intake duct.

Thus, when the excitation of US passing through the resonator, due to the increased level of microwave power incident on the diaphragm due accelerating cavities CONDITION can be performed, the ratio of T<T0i.e. the reduced size of the holes in these apertures and thereby reduced the degree of influence of diaphragms communication CONDITION on the structure of the accelerating field, while retaining the critical link US with the feeding waveguide.

Mapping devices known and declared, was held on the layouts. To simplify the measurements of the accelerating structure was modeled only one accelerating cavity (Figure 2). Your prototype, there is no aperture 4, the remaining elements are similar. Accelerating and passing the resonator was modeled pieces of rectangular waveguide length 116 mm with a cross-section 72×34 mm2. As diaphragms communication was used flat plate of the same thickness 3 mm with hole connection for input microwave power.

In the inventive device (Figure 2) input microwave power from the inlet of the waveguide 5 Boscoreale resonator 1 was carried out through the intermediate resonator 2, educated segment of the waveguide 3, a restricted orifice 4 and 2. The device prototype microwave power in the accelerating cavity 1 was injected directly from the inlet of the waveguide 5 through the aperture 2. In this case, the waveguide was removed and the aperture 4, was replaced with the aperture 2 to aperture with a big hole connection.

In both cases, the variation of hole sizes, communication was achieved critical communication over the entrance, was measured self-q-switched accelerating Qmoustache.and pass QAveresonators and dimensions of communication. The values of the coefficients of the transfer apertures were calculated from the measured dimensions of the holes and the thickness of the diaphragms using HFSS. The results of measurements and calculations are shown in the table, the frequency f0=2442 MHz.

The experimental results confirm that the introduction in the accelerating structure pass resonator with high quality factor significantly (several times) to reduce the size of the communication holes in the diaphragm connection accelerating cavities CONDITION, thereby to reduce their impact on the structure of the accelerating field while maintaining critical communication CONDITION with the inlet of the waveguide, while in the US there are no additional matching elements accelerating cavities with the feeding waveguide.

LITERATURE

2. Ivannikov V., Chernousov UD, Sobolev IV Accelerating structure with parallel connection. Technical physics letters, 1986, t, N12, s.

3. Zverev BV, Sobenin I.E. the Electrodynamic characteristics of the accelerating cavities. M.: Energoatomizdat. 1993.

4. Altman J. Devices microwave. M: Peace. 1968.

1. Accelerating structure (AMT) with a parallel connection, containing a coaxially arranged, unrelated accelerating resonators, each resonator has a diaphragm connection, characterized in that it is provided through a resonator with high quality factor with the output aperture on the number of incoming in CONDITION accelerating cavities, each of which is aligned with the aperture corresponding accelerating cavity, and an input aperture for entry of microwave power from the generator, and the transmission ratios of these diaphragms satisfy the relations T1=[1+(T0/T-T/T0)2/4]-1/2; T<T0where T and T1- transfer coefficients, respectively, and output apertures passing resonator, T0- transfer coefficient of the diaphragm due accelerating cavity in the absence of flow resonator.

2. The CA according to claim 1, characterized in that the lock cavity made in the form of short-circuited at the ends of the OTP the lubricant slow-wave structure with low losses, the phase velocity of wave propagation which coincides with the velocity of the accelerated particles, and the output aperture communication are located at the equivalent points of the slow-wave structure.

3. The CA according to claim 2, wherein the slow-wave structure is made of a segment of a rectangular waveguide loaded with pins.



 

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