Method of increasing rate and completeness of fuel oxidation in combustion systems

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of intensifying fuel oxidation in combustion systems involves increasing the rate of oxidation, raising oxidation temperature and/or increasing the rate of increase of oxidation temperature. The method involves adding a catalytic additive to an oxidant and/or fuel before or during the fuel oxidation process, where the catalytic additive is a solid substance, its solution or suspension, or a liquid substance or its emulsion, in form of a separate catalytic substance or a catalytic mixture of substances. The catalytic substance or at least one of the substances in the catalytic mixture contains at least one functional carbonyl group and has in the infrared spectrum at least one intense absorption band in the region from 1550 to 1850 cm-1. Said catalytic substance or at least one substance in the catalytic mixture is selected from: monocarboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof; dicarboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof; carboxylic acid salts; dicarboxylic acid salts; carboxylic acid amides; dicarboxylic acid amides; carboxylic acid anilides; dicarboxylic acid anilides; carboxylic acid esters; dicarboxylic acid monoesters or diesters; carboxylic acid imides; dicarboxylic acid imides; carbonic acid diamide; acyclic and cyclic carbonic acid esters; urethanes; aminocarboxylic acids whose molecules contain amino groups (NH2 groups) and carboxyl groups (COOH group); peptides and proteins whose molecules are built from a-amino acid residues linked by peptide (amide) bonds C(O)NH. The catalytic additive is added in amount of 0.0000001-01 wt %. The fuel used is solid, gaseous or liquid fuel selected from AI-92 petrol, diesel or masout.

EFFECT: faster fuel oxidation, high oxidation temperature, higher rate of increase of oxidation temperature, higher enthalpy of combustion products, more complete fuel combustion, fewer solid deposits on engine parts, reduced harmful emissions with exhaust gases, reduced fuel combustion.

5 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg, 9 ex

 

The invention relates to the technology of oxidation and can be used in systems burning solid, liquid and gaseous fuels used in a wide range of industries (roasting, smelting, pyrometallurgy etc), utilities (waste incineration, boilers and so on), energy (various types of internal combustion engines, thermal power installation and the like), etc. to obtain work and/or energy.

Oxidation, in the narrow sense, the connection of any substance with oxygen. In a broader sense - any chemical reaction, the essence of which consists in taking away electrons from atoms or ions. The most important oxidants include oxygen, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine, fluorine, potassium permanganate, and others. The oxidation process is among the most common in nature and technology. Such, for example, the combustion of all fuels, corrosion of metals.

Burning can occur in systems with an open flame (for example, boilers, coal, gas and oil, and furnace) and closed by a flame (e.g., gasoline, diesel and gas turbine internal combustion engines).

Currently known large Arsenal of ways to intensify the process of oxidation of the fuel. To do this, use physical, chemical, and is konstruktivnye methods of influence on the kinetics of the process, to accelerate the burning or decomposition of the fuel particles.

It is known that metal-containing additives to fuels catalyze the burning of carbon and thus reduce emissions in the form of solid particles or by inhibiting the agglomeration of solid particles (alkali metals), accelerate the oxidation of carbon at the maximum temperature of the combustion by increasing the concentration of hydroxyl radicals (alkaline earth metals), or by increasing the rate of catalytic oxidation by lowering the light-off temperature of solid particles (transition metals).

The prior art method of improving combustion and slag by the RF patent №2304610 (publ. 20.08.2007, including the introduction into the combustion system catalytic additive, and the additive is introduced into the fuel before combustion.

The known method has the versatility of a fuel - solid, liquid and gaseous aggregate state of the catalytic additive, but has its drawbacks. The additive is a multicomponent mixture of mn containing ORGANOMETALLIC compounds, compounds of alkali metal and magnesium-containing compounds that can be introduced into the process separately by themselves, but the presence of each is required. Also used as an additive substances have to the gdy its targeted: the mixed metal catalyst reducing emissions of solid carbon particles due to the catalysis of carbon burnout; magisteriate connection - improving properties of the slag generated by the combustion of fuel. There are reasonable grounds to believe that the supplements have insufficient effect on the combustion process, since it provides for the introduction of additional additives that improve combustion, provided that they do not adversely impact on the number and sludge formation that characterizes the way is not effective enough. In addition, the additive is introduced exclusively into the fuel before the combustion process and does not ensure the completeness of combustion (oxidation), which leads to operational concerns.

There is a method of catalysis combustion of fuel in the patent of Russian Federation №2386078 (publ. 10.04.2010, including the introduction into the combustion system fuel additives and fuel and the additive is introduced simultaneously or separately.

The method allows to reduce the pollution created by the emissions of the combustion chamber and provides a more efficient and clean combustion in comparison with the known solutions. The method can improve thermal efficiency of fuel combustion by maintaining the temperature of the flame combustion system and reduce levels of excess air, and reduce the amount of soot that is deposited on in the morning the surfaces of the system fuel combustion.

Catalytic additive contains one or more inorganic salts or one or more compounds containing the metal, but if you use only one connection, the Supplement must contain a salt of platinum or rhodium is very expensive metals. In addition, only platinum allows for the embodiment of the method in internal combustion engines to increase the speed of combustion, resulting supported the flame and increases power. Therefore, not all substances additives have polyprolene action.

Substance additives, broken down into elemental form in the zone of oxidation, create traditional elements of combustion, which catalyze reactions with oxygen molecules and radicals formed as intermediaries in the process of combustion. Increasing the concentration of oxygen atoms and the formation of free radicals increases the burning rate and, accordingly, the efficiency of the process during the residence time of the additive in the zone of oxidation.

The disadvantages of the known method include a limit on the aggregate state of the additive - aerosol, the need for pre-cooking and ensure its stability, the need to create a system of delivery of aerosol requiring complex hardware design for the filing of an aerosol under pressure.

When all the Dostoinstvo the known method does not ensure complete combustion of the fuel, since unburned carbon is to be deposited in the combustion system. The presence of unburned carbon is an indicator of the inefficiency of burning.

There is a method of improving the operation of incinerators in patent No. 2366690 (publ. 10.09.2009,) adopted for the prototype, including an introduction to the combustion system of the additive, and the additive is introduced into the fuel in the furnace or the installation of combustion after firing.

The method is universal in the fuel and on the aggregate state of the supplements, but it is used multicomponent catalytic additives (an alloy comprising at least two metals, each component alloy has a narrow focus actions)is carried out, preferably, multi-level input and fuel in the furnace at pre-defined points of entry, the choice of which affects the achievement of the functional result of the method. There is a need for more introduction of the catalyst combustion. In the case of using the method with respect to the liquid fuel in order to dissolve the alloy in the fuel, it is treated with an organic compound, using sophisticated equipment in the process. The importance of determining combustion conditions make known method is very dependent on permanently changing (using the method in practice) properties used tons of the fuel, the composition of the mixture of air/fuel and other factors. The discrepancy between the calculated data with the conditions in the system of oxidation of fuel will lead to non-repeatable results, including not provide the desired combustion efficiency.

The present invention is the creation of an efficient way to increase the speed and completeness of oxidation of fuel, flexible fuel (solid, liquid or gaseous), which will increase the enthalpy of the combustion products (at work), the density of the radiant flux (energy), the rate of oxidation, temperature and rate of rise of temperature during the oxidation of the fuel through the use of catalytic additives, universal place, the moment it is added to the system oxidation of the fuel and the aggregate state, while simplifying the method and its hardware design in the whole spectrum of applications.

In addition, the applicant believes that is used according to the present invention the catalytic additive promotes more complete combustion of the fuel in the amount of oxidation, and not on the surfaces of the specified volume. Products of incomplete burning of the fuel is also subjected to further oxidation, which, ultimately, increases the completeness of combustion and, consequently, depend on the operational advantage of the a, in particular, the lack of solid deposits and, accordingly, the need for cleaning during operation of the devices and communications, as well as minimizing environmental problems.

Thus realization of the possibility of increasing the rate of oxidation, temperature and rate of rise of temperature during oxidation due to the introduction of the additive according to the present technical solution, which allows you to target the process at an acceptable high production speeds, with a maximum possible reduction of the oxidant.

All known methods, in contrast to declare, characterized by the lack of efficiency of flow branching chain reactions of oxidation, especially low-temperature fuels.

The problem is solved by the proposed method increases the speed and completeness of oxidation of fuel in combustion systems, including the use of catalytic additives introduced into the oxidizer and/or fuel prior to or during the oxidation of the fuel, which represent solid, its solution or suspension, or liquid substance or emulsion, in the form of individual catalysts or catalyst mixtures. This catalytic substance or at least one of the substances catalytic mixture is chosen from the series: monocarboxylic acids and their anhydrides; dicarbonic the e acid and their anhydrides; salts of carboxylic acids; salts of dicarboxylic acids, amides of carboxylic acids; amides of dicarboxylic acids; anilide carboxylic acid; anilide dicarboxylic acids, esters of carboxylic acids; monetary and diesters of dicarboxylic acids, imides of carboxylic acids; imides of dicarboxylic acids; diamid carbonic acid; esters of carbonic acid acyclic and cyclic; urethanes; aminocarbonyl acid molecules which contain an amino group (NH2group) and carboxyl group (COOH group); peptides and proteins, molecules are built from residues of α-amino acids, connected by a peptide (amide) bonds C(O)NH, and the additive is introduced in the amount of from 0.0000001 to 0.1 wt.%, and as fuel use solid, or liquid, or gaseous fuel or a mixture.

The comparative analysis shows that the inventive method differs from the closest analogue is the multifunctional input additives due to the multifunctional nature of the substances additives (in the prototype multifunctional achieved by the creation of a special alloy, in which each metal performs certain functions, requires the introduction of combustion modifiers and special additional additives), there is no need to use numerical hydrodynamic models or measurements to detect about the which led to creation of zones for the introduction of chemicals, another mechanism of action of additives on the oxidation process - it is a spin catalyst (prototype - chemical interaction of the additive with the fuel and oxidant), another basic structure of supplements that have not experienced before using any special effects (prototype - use alloy metals, which have to be made, requiring in some cases even causing additional coating on the particles to dissolve in the fuel).

Enter the individual catalysts or catalytic mixture of substances increase the enthalpy of the combustion products (at work), the density of radiant flux (energy), the oxidation rate, temperature and rate of rise of temperature during the oxidation of the fuel by increasing the rate of recombination of free radicals.

When considering the conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy, and the efficiency of thermal processes is extremely important thermodynamic property is the enthalpy. Enthalpy is the energy content of the system, including the internal energy and the work done on the system. The enthalpy of the gaseous combustion products H (kJ/kg) is equal to the product of the mass of products of combustion M on their heat and combustion temperature Tgi.e. N=CMTg.

The transfer of energy and from combustion products mainly by radiant heat transfer. Heat transfer by radiation is carried out by means of electromagnetic waves. Thermal radiation is the process of distribution in space of the internal energy of a radiating body by electromagnetic waves. Pathogens of these waves are material particles included in the composition of the material. The basis for practical calculations of emission gases based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. As a result, the density of integral radiation from the surface of the gas layer is determined by the equation:

where εgthe degree of blackness of the gas layer, depending on temperature, pressure and thickness of the gas layer, with0=5,67 W(m2·K4- the ratio of black-body radiation. For H2And CO2the values of eggiven in the form of nomograms, convenient for practical calculations. The degree of blackness of gas mixtures will be determined as the sum of the degrees of the black individual components. The density of radiant flux transferred from the gas to the surrounding walls (shell), is calculated by the equation:

where εgthe degree of blackness of gas when the gas temperature Tg;g- absorbing capacity of the gas at the temperature of the shell Tarticle;- effective degree black shell.

The applicant theoretically justified, h what about the greater efficiency of processes, based on the oxidation of the fuel can be ensured if it will be possible to provide greater oxidation rate, temperature and rate of rise of temperature due to the introduction of additives, compared with the same oxidation conditions, but without supplementation.

The applicant also theoretically proved that it is possible to find a substance or mixture of substances, which would increase as the enthalpy of the gaseous products of combustion, and the density of radiant flux by increasing the rate of oxidation and thus increasing the temperature of combustion.

The practical effect of adding catalysts or catalytic mixture of substances that increase the speed and completeness of oxidation of fuel is manifested in a significant increase in the enthalpy of the gaseous products of combustion and density of the radiant flux transferred from the gas to the surrounding walls. This can be performed a greater amount of mechanical work and/or transferred to a larger amount of thermal energy at a fixed number of input fuel, or the fuel can be reduced in order to obtain a given amount of work and energy. In any case, there is a significant increase in the efficiency of this process.

The term "catalytic" used by the applicant because the led to achieve a technical result substances exhibit the properties of spin catalyst", i.e. induces the electrons in the outer electron shells of free radicals transitions between triplet and singlet States. The phrase "spin catalysis" and "spin the catalyst" adopted in spin chemistry, a science which examines the laws of behavior of the spins and magnetic moments of the electrons and nuclei. Based spin chemistry on the universal and fundamental principle, which States that any chemical reaction is allowed only if the full back of the reactants and products are the same. In the absence of spin identities reaction prohibited.

The applicant believes that, with effects on the spin dynamics of free radicals in the oxidation of components of the fuel by means of the "catalytic" substance, can significantly change the enthalpy and density of the radiant flux of the resulting process gas.

Combustion is the process of connection of a substance with oxygen, involving the release of energy. To begin the process of combustion, the combustible material must first be heated to the ignition temperature. Started the burning process may continue provided that, if as a result of combustion of a substance stands out enough heat to maintain the temperature of ignition. When burning is the splitting of molecules of combustible material, comprising the mostly of carbon and hydrogen H, as well as the splitting of the oxidant (oxygen O2), fragments (free radicals have an unpaired electron in the outer electron shell) then come into connection (recombine) with the formation of combustion products, mainly N2And CO2. The energy released during the combustion, in the first moment after the reaction is concentrated in the resulting reaction fragments of molecules or radicals. These activated, i.e. with excess energy, the radicals again react. As a result of such consecutive reactions a chain process.

In combustion reactions is important not only molecular and spin dynamics, which plays in elementary chemical acts in a dual role. On the one hand, it actively affects the mechanism and the kinetics of the reaction. On the other hand, the spin dynamics is very sensitive to molecular dynamics of elementary chemical act. Of spin chemistry it is known that chemical reactions are controlled by two fundamental factors - energy and spin. While the prohibition of chemical reactions on the back insurmountable. If the chemical reaction of colliding electrons in the outer electron shells of free radicals have antiparallel spins (↑↓ - projection of the spins on the axis of quantization), i.e. the total spin is zero (S=0), nahodjas is in the singlet state, the formation of the chemical bond occurs. If the interacting electrons have parallel spins(↑↑, ↓↓, →→) i.e. the total spin equal to unity (S=1), while in the triplet state, the molecule can be formed only in a triplet, the excited state. As such States usually lie high in energy, in most cases, chemical reactions in a triplet pair is impossible.

According to the rule of Wigner statistical weight of meetings of two free radicals in the singlet state is 1/4, and the statistical weight of meetings in the triplet state is equal to 3/4. In most cases, the ground state products of a chemical reaction is a singlet, and therefore, one should expect that only a quarter of the meetings recombining radicals can give the reaction product. Such processes are, as a rule, proceeds beactivated, i.e. the activation energy of the reaction is close to zero. The resulting molecule is in the electronic ground state. The reaction proceeds quickly and efficiently, if the molecule has the ability to give energy released during bond formation, to other particles or to redistribute it among many vibration modes.

If you use "spin the catalyst that will facilitate the conversion of pairs of electrons in the outer electron shells approaching is dikalov of the triplet spin States in the singlet, this ratio (3/4 to 1/4) can be changed in the direction of increasing convergence in the singlet state. The action of spin catalyst is not associated with a decrease in the activation energy of interaction. The magnetic interaction approaching free radicals with spin catalyst" make a negligibly small contribution to the energy of interaction, but they alter the spin state of electrons in the outer electron shells, remove the spin prohibition of recombination of radicals. Thus, the "spin the catalyst controls the interaction inducyruya the electrons in the outer electron shells approaching free radicals transitions between triplet and singlet States, which are characterized by different energy ability. Increasing the probability approaches of free radicals in the singlet state, will increase the number of recombinations with the formation of the final products of combustion energy release per unit of time, which will lead to an increase in the temperature of combustion.

The increase in combustion temperature will cause an increase in the enthalpy of the gaseous combustion products N=CMTg(kJ/kg) and a significant increase in the density of the integral radiation from the surface of the gas layer, since according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law in the formula (Tg/100)4.

All of the ways is to intensificate oxidation of the fuel and using physical (pressure increase during combustion and the temperature of the supplied fuel and oxidant, exposure to electric and magnetic fields), chemical (injection of additional oxidant or catalyst decomposition and combustion) and design (fine crushing and pulverization, the intensification of mixing) methods of influence on the kinetics of the process are reduced, ultimately, to increase the probability of connection of the fuel with the oxidizer. The proposed method increases the speed and completeness of oxidation of the fuel in the combustion equipment allows to intensify the oxidation process, using a non-technical, has been largely outmoded methods and influence on the spin dynamics of free radicals during the oxidation process through the introduction of very small quantities of substances, acting as a "spin catalysts", in the zone of oxidation.

This method of operation is achieved not only by increasing the temperature and rate of rise of temperature, but also reduce chemical and mechanical underburning of fuel, resulting in the reduction of carbon deposits in the combustion zones with lower temperature and reducing oxidized components (CO and CH) in the oxidation products.

Table 1 shows the data obtained experimentally by using a calorimeter, showing an increase in the rate of rise of temperature of water in calorimeter 1 minute after which jihane fuel depending on the use as an additive for a specific substance or mixture of substances compared with the standard oxidation conditions. Since calorimetric bomb is filled with oxidizer (oxygen) under high pressure, and other factors, with the exception of the described method does not affect the increase in the rate of combustion. Listed in the name column 3 of table 1 reduction g/tons of coal equivalent is a measure of the concentration in the bomb - grams per tonne of fuel.

0,35-0,42
Table 1.
The class of substancesSubstanceConcentration in the bomb, g/equivalent per tonneThe temperature change of the water in the calorimeter after 1 minute after combustion, °C
Liquid fuel (Dean)Solid fuel (coal)Gaseous fuel (methane)
netwith the addition ofnetwith the addition ofnetwith the addition of
Salts of carboxylic acidssodium acetate2,5-3,0 of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
ammonium acetate2,0-3,0of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Salts of dicarboxylic acidsammonium oxalate2,5-3,5of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
the potassium oxalate3,5-4,0of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Amides of carboxylic acidsthe ndimethylacetamide5,0-6,0of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,3-0,50,9-1,2
benzamid4,0-5,5of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Amides of dicarboxylic acidsthe oksamid5,0-6,0of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
succinamic3,0-4,0of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Anilide carboxylic acidsthe acetanilide1,0-1,5of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
formanilide2,0-2,5of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Anilide dicarboxylic acidsoxanilic1.5 to 2.5of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
succinamide2,0-3,0of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Esters of carboxylic acidsthe ethyl acetate0,5-1,0of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
butalbutal07-1,2 of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Monetary and diesters of dicarboxylic acidsoctylphthalate0,6-0,7of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
dibutyl0,6-0,8of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
The imides of carbonvisionimide acetic acid0,9-1,0of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
imide propionic acid0,85-1,0of 0.2-0.3 0,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Imides of dicarboxylic acidsimide adipic acid0,7-0,8of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
succinimide0,75-0,9of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2

Full amide of carbonic aciddiamid carbonic acid (urea)2,0-2,5of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Esters of carbonic acid (carbonates organic) acyclic and cyclic dibutylsebacate0,08-0,12of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
propylene carbonate0,09-0,14of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Urethanesethylcarbamate1,0-2,0of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
propellernet0,5-0,6of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Aminocarbonyl acidglycine2,5-3,5of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-a 0.1 0,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
lysine0,9-1,5of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Peptides and proteinscarnosine3,0-4,0of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Protamine2,5-3,5of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
Mixture of substancesureaof 0.2-0.3of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
kasna acid 0,15-0,25
the ethyl acetate0,5-0,6
urea0,2-0,30of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
oxalic acid0,25-0,35
benzamid0,3-0,4
succinimide0,25-0,35of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
succinic anhydride0,3-0,4
formanilide0,55-0,65
the ethyl acetate0,3-04 of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
oxanilicof 0.2-0.3
ammonium acetate0,25-0,35
octylphthalate0,5-0,55of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
glycine0,6-0,65
the potassium oxalate0,4-0,5
succinamide0,25-0,35of 0.2-0.30,5-0,70,12-0,150,35-0,420,3-0,50,9-1,2
ureaof 0.2-0.3
carnosine0,15-0,25
/p>

Due to the introduction of the additive according to the present technical solution, you can maintain the target process at the greatest possible reduction of the oxidant, which entails reducing the number of carry out from the zone of combustion heat from the exhaust gases, and can further increase the combustion temperature.

Catalytic additive of the present invention, increasing the speed and completeness of the oxidation of the fuel, when used in practice in any particular application, the improved performance of devices that implement the inventive method, and optimizes functional results during their operation.

The additive according to the invention is effective when used in the following range of applications, which is not limiting the invention in its embodiment in practice.

The application of the proposed method in the operation of internal combustion engines as a piston working in cycles, Otto, Diesel or Trinkler and gas turbine plants can increase the efficiency of these engines. On reciprocating internal combustion engines through the use of catalytic additives increases the speed of combustion and the combustion temperature of the fuel, respectively, by increasing the enthalpy of the combustion products, which leads to an increase of the maximum pressure of the combustion qi is La and maximum pressure rise, this leads to the increase in the average indicator of the pressure and thus increases the indicator of engine efficiency throughout the load range. In gas turbines the use of this method also results in an increase of the velocity and temperature of combustion of the fuel, respectively, by increasing the enthalpy of the combustion products and the pressure in the combustion chamber, thereby increasing the efficiency of the installation. Increasing the completeness of oxidation of fuel in internal combustion engines, the proposed method provides a reduction of carbon formation on the inner cavities of the combustion chambers and allows you to improve the environmental performance of the engine by reducing oxidized compounds (CO, CH, and ash) in the exhaust gases.

Applying the proposed method in the technological processes associated with the burning of materials (limestone, cement clinker, building materials (bricks, ceramics, clay)), by increasing the combustion temperature and density of the radiant flux can lead these processes with greater speed or changing speed technology to reduce fuel consumption.

This method can be applied in all processes of pyrometallurgy, together metallurgical processes occurring at high temperatures. During burning (oxidation, sulfamethizole, rehabilitation, calcific and others), melting (domann the th, open-hearth, basic oxygen, and others), the conversion of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, refining and agglomeration of the proposed method due to the possibility of obtaining higher temperatures and more complete oxidation allows processes to the maximum process speed and/or reduce the specific consumption of fuel and/or oxidant.

Upon receipt of thermal energy in the heat of the proposed method, increasing the density of radiant flux, enthalpy of combustion products and complete oxidation of the fuel, increases the efficiency of the boilers as a solid (layer, chamber and combustion in a fluidized bed), and liquid and gaseous fuels. Increasing the completeness of oxidation of fuel in boilers, the proposed method provides a reduction of carbon formation on heat transfer surfaces and allows to improve the environmental performance of boilers by reducing oxidized compounds (CO, CH, and ash) in the exhaust gas.

In all the above applications the proposed method allows the use of lower quality fuels with high ash content and water content, low combustion temperature and so on), because by increasing the speed and completeness of oxidation eliminates problems during fuel combustion. All known methods, in contrast, allow yamago, characterized by a lack of efficiency of flow branching chain reactions of oxidation, especially low-calorie fuels.

Due to the decrease of revenues in the combustion zone of the atmospheric air, and therefore the contained nitrogen, and also due to the effect of the catalyst on the spin dynamics during decomposition and oxidation during combustion of fuel, there is a decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides. What is an advantage of the described method, since the temperature increase of the combustion in other ways leads to increased emissions of oxides of nitrogen.

Examples of implementation of the present invention are illustrated by the following practical results.

Example 1. In the course of research on the engine stand with the use of all necessary equipment was filmed over 120 indicator diagrams on various modes of engine operation T-520 on standard gasoline AI-92, and then the same operation modes were tested engine on petrol with the introduction of catalytic additives (in particular, ammonium acetate) according to the claimed method in an amount of 1 g per 1000 l of gasoline.

The most significant results were obtained when the engine is operating in the mode n=1250 min-1and the amount of torque average of 0.35 Mkraj. A typical indicator diag is Amma, obtained in this mode of operation of the engine, represented in figure 1 (at the angle of ignition advance, equal to 5° PCV (rotation of the crankshaft)and figure 2 (at the angle of ignition advance, equal to 15° PCV), the processing results of indicator diagrams presented in table 2.

Table 2.
Ed. MEAs.The ignition advance angle, °PKV
515
AI-92AI-92 + SupplementAI-92AI-92 + Supplement
Mean indicated pressure piMPa0,2960,3140,3990,407
The maximum pressure of the cycle, pzMPa1,151,461,932,17
The position of the point z relative to TDC, φz 32,023,915,211,0
The maximum rate of pressure rise, dp/dφmaxMPa/°PKV0,0260,0480,0970,120

Analysis of the results shows that using an additive increase of the maximum pressure of the combustion cycle ranged from 12.5 to 27% (at different angles ignition timing).

At this point the maximum pressure of the cycle in all cases, moves closer to TDC (top dead center).

You may notice that the change of the course of the curve of pressure rise when working with addition and without in all cases begins with the development of the combustion air-fuel mixture from the separation point of the curve of the combustion curve compression). On the curve of the extension line of the indicator diagram by burning an air-fuel mixture with the additive and without it is almost identical, i.e. the additive used in the process of expansion has no effect.

It should be noted that the completeness of the indicator diagram noticeably increases (increases the area under the curve changes intracylinder pressure), which indicates the improvement of the combustion process (in particular, his speed and completeness and overall increased efficiency of the cycle). This increase the efficiency of the combustion process due to the action of the additive in the phase of flame spread on the volume of the combustion chamber (so-called phase II of combustion). In this phase stands out typically 70-80% of the heat introduced into the cycle with fuel. The temperature of the working fluid at the end of this phase increases up to 2200-K, and the pressure reaches its maximum.

Maximum rate of pressure rise also increases significantly (24-85%), indicating some increase in the rigidity of the combustion process, without which it is impossible to improve the characteristics of the process.

These findings correlate well with data on average indicator pressure pi: with the introduction of additives growth rate of 2-6%. Since the average indicated pressure determines the amount of indicator efficiency, the increase in pishows a marked change of combustion of the fuel resulting from the introduction of the additive, resulting in an indicator of the efficiency of the engine increases.

Thus, we can conclude that the introduction of additives in the fuel has a significant impact on improving the flow of the active phase of the combustion process and in General leads to an increase of the indicator of the performance of the engine.

Example 2. The tests were carried out on the car VAZ-11113 "OKA" to be the new drums in the drive cycle. The results are given in table 3.

Table 3.
Emissions of toxic components, g/km testFuel consumption, according to the results of the test, l/100 km
Hydrocarbons MCHCarbon monoxide MCONitrogen oxides MNO
The measurement results of toxicity cross-countryWhen working on standard gasoline AI-92
0,0121,0150,0245,6
drumsWhen working on the AI-92 gasoline with the additive (in particular, ndimethylacetamide) 2 g per 1000 l of gasoline according to the invention
0,0090,70,0205,1
International standards EURO-20,22,30,15-

When testing for cross-country reels in the drive cycle, the reduction of toxic components using catalytic additives were: hydrocarbon SN - 25%, carbon monoxide - 31%, oxides of nitrogen NO - 17%. Thus, it is safe to conclude that with the introduction of additives significantly increased combustion efficiency.

Example 3. The tests were carried out on the Bush No. 1 lower-Lugineckoe oil in the diesel power diesel power station - 315 kW.

Monitored parameters were: average load (kW), fuel consumption (l), the number of generated energy (kWh). Controlled technical condition of diesel power plants.

To test the average fuel consumption at an average load of Pcp=230 kW was 60,754 l/h Specific fuel consumption for the generation of electric power for the period from 01.06.2008, 23.07.2008 was 0,297 l/kWh

In the period from 24.07.2008, 16.08.2008, to generate electricity used diesel fuel with the additive (in particular, oksamid) according to the invention in the amount of 4.5 g per 1000 litres of diesel fuel. Average is ashed fuel during this period at an average load of P cf=230 kW was 56,406 l/h Specific fuel consumption for power production for the period amounted to 0,247 l/ kWh

The use of fuel additives is possible to reduce the time consumption on the 7.16 percent and specific fuel consumption for production of 1 kWh of electricity on 16,85%. Control examinations did not reveal any deviations in the operation of diesel power plants, from the standard modes of operation.

Thus, by increasing the combustion efficiency of the fuel additive predetermined improve the operating characteristics of power plants and optimized functional results during their operation.

Example 4. Tests were conducted on steel hot water boiler KVM to 1.86 KB, equipped with a mechanical furnace with churuya strap type Tspm - 2,0 boiler No. 6 MP griska "Heat". Burned solid fuel boiler, equipped with an automatic system that allows you to control the temperature of the exhaust gases, the vacuum in front of the fan, the pressure of the blowing fan, the water pressure at the boiler outlet, the inlet temperature into the boiler and out of the water. During the tests were conducted instrumental temperature measurements of the combustion of coal by partial radiation pyrometer "Ray". Samples of ash from the cyclone and ash from the boiler was analyzed for content of unburned carbon in fly ash and quantitative definition is of burning coal in the ash.

Enter solution of the additive (in particular, urea 3.0 g + acetic acid 4.0 g per 1 ton of fuel) was carried out directly in the duct for blowing fan using a peristaltic dosing pump "Etatron DS Type B-V 1-3, the air temperature in the duct was 7°C. the Quantity of supplied water additive solution - 1000 ml per hour.

Within two hours was carried out test measurements of the operating parameters of the boiler. During this period the average temperature of the water entering the boiler was 43,075°C, and the output of the boiler 60,57°C (∆T2=17,495°C)water flow through the boiler was Q1=164,238 m3. The average temperature of the burning coal on the surface amounted to Tfeast=1210°C.

Then he switched the feed solution of the additive. For the next two hours, the average temperature of the water entering the boiler is made up 43.1°C, and the output of the boiler 62,87°C (∆T2=19,77°C)water flow through the boiler was Q2=166,014 m3. The average temperature of the burning coal on the surface amounted to Tfeast=330°C.

Production of heat energy for the period of measurement was E1=ΔT1×Q1×p=17,495°C×(164,238×103)kg×(4,19×103)J/(°C×kg)=12,039 GJ=2,87 Gcal or 1,437 Gcal/hour.

Production of heat energy for the period of feed additives amounted to E2=ΔT2×Q2×p=19,77°C×(166,014×103)kg×(4,19×103)J/(°C×is g)=13,752 GJ=3,282 Gcal or 1,641 Gcal/hour.

The consumption of coal has remained unchanged since the remote control was exhibited download period of the boiler 5 minutes.

Laboratory analysis of the samples showed that the content of unburned coal in the ash amounted to 68% under normal conditions and to 48.5% for the additive, and the content of mineral part in the ashes 87% under normal conditions and 91% for the addition.

The test results revealed that the boiler efficiency increased by 14.2%, increased production of heat energy, decreased the content of unburned coal in the ash 39.3%, improved burning load of coal, increased temperature of the combustion of coal on the surface at 120°C.

Example 5. The tests were carried out at JSC "Guriev metallurgical plant", Ghurids Kemerovo region, the area of steel production in open hearth furnace # 1, fuel oil TCM-16 on THE other 38401-58-74-2005.

All the current parameters of the process were controlled devices. Residual fuel oil consumption was measured by flow meter "YOKOGAMA" series "ROTAMAS" (Japan), determining the mass and volumetric fuel consumption, current and total. The flame temperature in the furnace was controlled by a pyrometer "Mikron-M90L"designed to measure the temperature of the combustion products containing CO2. The quantity and chemical composition of the melted steel was controlled by technicians Rev.

Prior to testing from a supply tank was about who's paying the fuel sample. According to the results of the analysis of the flash point in an open crucible amounted to tsun=141°C. After introduction into the supply tank 170 tonnes of fuel oil 340 g of the additive (in particular, oxanilide) in the form of a solution, took a sample for analysis, which showed a decrease in the flash point in an open crucible tsun=129°C due to the manifestations of the catalytic properties of the additive. As a result of introduction of the additive happened dispersion make resin-paraffin deposits from the bottom of the tank. The improved rheological properties of the oil showed a significant (~20%) the decrease of the viscosity.

Before the start of the test furnace worked with the attached staff injectors ⌀ 9,0 mm

When testing the open-hearth furnace was switched to work on the fuel with the additive and installed nozzle ⌀ of 7.5 mm To the end of the day the test set nozzle ⌀ 6.1 mm and spent settings injectors for optimum performance, which resulted in improving the operation of the furnace, which resulted in intensifying the burning torch in the center of the furnace. This allowed us to optimize the heat transfer in the furnace bath and reduce the heat load on the furnace roof and tips. Also decreased the temperature of the flue gases and smoke in the chimney flue.

The temperature of the torch in the middle window of the furnace amounted to 1800°C during charging and 2000°C. when the melting and debugging. It helped to intensify the process of work Martin who led the furnace without increasing the heat load on the structural elements. At the same time, the consumption of fuel oil was reduced from 2200 l/h up to 2150 l/h on the filling and 2350 l/h to 2200 l/h on the processes of melting and refining. The data showed that on average the time of melting experienced swimming trunks fell by 30 minutes, and the average heats the fuel oil consumption decreased by 9.4%. During the period of testing the quality and quantity of melted steel corresponded to the nominal operating modes open-hearth furnace # 1.

The application of catalytic additives allows to intensify the melting process and to reduce the specific fuel consumption per unit of production. At the same time reduces the heat load on the arch and the nozzle furnace. By optimizing the combustion process reduces the emission of CO, CH and ash into the atmosphere.

Example 6. Tests were conducted on steel plant sintering plant on shaft furnace for burning limestone with the introduction of additives (in particular, 0.2 g of dibutylsebacate to 1000 nm3(volume of gas at normal conditions) of methane supplied to the secondary combustion air. Used feed tank volume of 200 l and the solution of the additive. Preliminary measurements were conducted on the composition of the exhaust gases. After 12 hours the feed additive of the peristaltic pump, took the measurements of the exhaust gases and the temperature of the torches on the peripheral port burners. Due to the increase in flame temperature in the furnace compared to the original, which was 1050-1150°C over 300°C reduced the gas supply 40 nm3/h a day Later from the beginning of the test after the measurement parameters of combustion, reduced the supply of gas by 20 nm3/h gas Consumption working roasting oven amounted to 490 nm3/h instead of 550 nm3/h at the beginning of the test. Reactivity obtained lime is in compliance with the phenomenon of "burn" was not observed.

Example 7. Improving the efficiency of fuel use and improving the quality of agglomerate when using catalytic additives in the process of agglomeration was determined on a belt sintering machine. Additive (in particular, 1.5 g of ethylcarbamate + 0.7 g of dibutyl phthalate per 1 ton of coke was served in okomkovatelnyh the drum when the secondary mixing of the charge materials. In the production fluconazolo agglomerate with high ferrous oxide as controlled parameters measured the content of oxygen (O2in hearth gases and under the layer of the charge, the temperature of products of combustion, the flow of air and natural gas. Charge conditions, fuel consumption (4.1%) and the humidity of the charge for these experiments were permanent. The height of the combustion zone was determined from the change in the CO2in the layer. About the number of houses the ka of heat in Almerimar layer can be judged by the growth of the content of FeO in Speke. In the result of testing, the following results were achieved: reduction of the consumption of solid fuels (coke breeze) 12%, increasing speed sinter strands, the height adjustment of SPECA FeO content, i.e. more homogeneous agglomerate at a constant mechanical strength of SPECA. Additive (specifically, 0.2 g of propylene carbonate at 1000 nm3fuel gas was supplied in the air supplied to the burner for combustion gas in a fiery furnace sintering furnace. Due to the significant increase of the temperature of combustion in the first and second section of the furnace gas consumption was reduced by 25%on average. Also the results of measurements revealed a significant decrease of CO and NOXin the hearth gases.

Example 8. The efficiency of the oxidizer and optimization of oxygen-Converter process using catalytic additives for converting pig iron was determined at the metallurgical plant in the BOF shop. The test was conducted on a 250-ton basic oxygen furnace with top blowing. Additive (in particular, acetanilide) in aqueous solution was administered in the feed to the Converter oxygen by means of a dosing pump directly in front of the tuyere. By increasing the rate of oxidation is contained in the pig iron, carbon, silicon is, manganese and phosphorus temperature of steel in the Converter is increased by 100°C, compared with conventional panties. It is possible to increase the proportion of steel scrap at boot by 46.4 kg/t of steel. There was also an observed increase in CO2in the exhaust gas is 1.5-2 times the values of CO2for standard purge, which indicates the increase in the degree of afterburning of CO in the Converter.

Example 9. The use of catalytic additives according to the invention, the fuel oil and furnace fuels can significantly improve the fullness and intensity of the combustion of fuels. Accompanying the cleanliness of heat transfer surfaces increases the heat transfer coefficient, and reduced operating costs. Significantly improve the ecological parameters of exhaust gases.

Tested in oil-fired boilers show that the average reduction in fuel oil consumption when using supplements is 8-12%, depending on the mode of operation of the boiler, in addition, you can use fuel oil of low quality and with high water content, regardless of the type and quality of used boiler equipment. Specific boilers, which were tested and used equipment: boiler JSC "Altayvitaminy" Biysk, steam boilers DE 10/14 burners with GM-7; boiler OO the "Heat" saktas of the Altai Republic, steam boilers brand DKVR-4/13; boiler room LLC "Sphere" Barnaul, steam boilers "LOOS UNIVERSAL U-MB" (Germany), working pressure up to 16 bar, with burners high pressure boiler plant MUE teploservice" globalscot Kirov region, steam boilers DKVR-6.5 with burners "Weishaupt (Germany).

All the examples should not be construed as limiting the invention the field of practical applications. The examples in production conditions show the optimization of the target process through the use of catalytic additives that increase the speed and completeness of the oxidation of the fuel, which determines the performance of the device, with its introduction in the process.

Manifested in the implementation of the invention claimed technical result is confirmed, according to the description, theoretical evidence and information of a practical nature, allows to solve the problem of creating an effective way to improve the speed and completeness of oxidation of the fuel in the combustion systems.

1. The way to intensify the oxidation of fuel in the combustion equipment, and intensification of oxidation fuel includes increasing the rate of oxidation, the temperature of the oxidation and/or increase the rate of rise of temperature oxidation, including: the introduction of catalytic additives in the oxidizer and/or t is Pliva before or during the oxidation of the fuel, where the catalytic additive is a solid, its solution or suspension, or liquid substance or its emulsion in the form of individual catalysts or catalyst mixtures of substances, and at the same time:
this catalytic substance or at least one of the substances catalytic mixture contains at least one carbonyl functional group and is in the infrared spectrum, at least one intense absorption band in the region from 1550 to 1850 cm-1and the specified catalytic substance or at least one of the substances catalytic mixture is chosen from the following range: monocarboxylic acids and their anhydrides; dicarboxylic acids and their anhydrides, salts of carboxylic acids; salts of dicarboxylic acids, amides of carboxylic acids; amides of dicarboxylic acids; anilide carboxylic acid; anilide dicarboxylic acids, esters of carboxylic acids; monetary and diesters of dicarboxylic acids, imides of carboxylic acids; imides of dicarboxylic acids; diamid carbonic acid; esters of carbonic acid acyclic and cyclic; urethanes; aminocarbonyl acid molecules which contain an amino group (NH2group) and carboxyl group (COOH group); peptides and proteins, molecules which are built from the remnants of a-amino acids, connected by a peptide (s is DNAME) bonds C(O)NH;
specified catalytic additive is introduced in the amount of from 0.0000001 to 0.1 wt.%;
and as fuel use solid, liquid or gaseous fuels, or a mixture.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the catalytic additive is introduced in the amount of from 0.0000001 to 0,00009 wt.%.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the combusted fuel is a solid fuel.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the combusted fuel is a gaseous fuel.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the combusted fuel is a liquid fuel selected from standard gasoline AI-92, diesel fuel and fuel oil.



 

Same patents:
Mixed fuel // 2460762

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: mixed fuel includes lignin and hydrogen in the weight ratio of lignin to hydrogen of 9:1 to 1:9, mainly of 2:1 to 1:3.

EFFECT: more complete combustion of lignin; reduction of ash content of fuel.

1 cl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method for improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke is implemented by spraying at temperature of not less than 20°C onto blast-furnace coke lumps of 2-20% water solution of sodium, potassium or calcium pentaborate, which contains 0.1-0.2 wt % of non-ionic surface active substance in the form of mono- and/or dialkyl ethers of polyethylene glycol in the quantity providing the content of surface active substance in coke of 0.0035-0.0070 wt %; at that, content of dry pentaborate of one of the above metals in coke is 0.09-0.68 wt %.

EFFECT: improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke owing to decreasing reactivity index and increasing its strength value.

1 cl, 25 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for intensifying the combustion process of TPP solid low-reactivity fuel involves preparation of pulverised-coal mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition; pulverised-coal mixture is subject to ultrasonic treatment immediately prior to supply to burners, and then to ignition and burning in the boiler. As nanoadditions there used are astralines - multi-layer fulleroide nanoparticles or Taunit - carbon nanomaterial. Nanoadditions are introduced to pulverised-coal mixture in the form of homoeopathic doses as per weight of solid fuel of 0.01 - 0.02%. The method results in increase of response rate of ignition and combustion of fuel mixture; besides, at combined burning of low-reactivity coal and fuel oil in the steam boiler furnace the method leads to reduction of unburnt carbon, nitrogen and sulphur oxides emissions, and therefore, to reduction of corrosion of heating surface and to improvement of reliability of power equipment; increase in combustion efficiency of pulverised-fuel mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition owing to avoiding the agglomeration of components. The effect is achieved due to intensification method of combustion process of TPP solid low-reactivity fuel, which involves preparation of pulverised-coal mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition, ultrasonic treatment, ignition and its burning in the boiler.

EFFECT: increasing combustion efficiency of low-reactivity solid fuel.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a fuel mixture via successive mechanical mixing of oxidising agent with fuel-binder. The oxidising agent used is either ammonium perchlorate (APC) or ammonium nitrate (AN) or octogen (HMX) or a mixture of APC/AN, APC/HMX, AN/HMX, components being in ratio 1/1 for each mixture. The fuel-binder used is inert rubber (SKDM-80) or active rubber - polyurethane which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The mixture additionally contains tin chloride powder with particle size (100-150) mcm, which is premixed for not less than 30 minutes with ultrafine aluminium powder with particle size less than 0.1 mcm, with the following ratio of components in wt %: ultrafine aluminium powder 87.5, tin chloride powder - 12.5. A hardener is added to the obtained mixture and the fuel composition is stirred for not less than 30 minutes.

EFFECT: rate of combustion of the mixed solid fuel increases depending on compositions of the oxidising agent and fuel-binder used in the fuel.

2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical mixture of an oxidising agent, fuel binder and metallic fuel. The oxidising agent used is ammonium perchlorate with particle size not greater than 50 mcm and ammonium nitrate with particle size (165-315) mcm. The fuel binder used is butadiene rubber which is plasticised with transformer oil or polyurethane rubber which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The metal fuel used is aluminium micropowder or aluminium nanopowder or mixtures thereof. Further, silicon dioxide with average particle size not greater than 50 mcm is added to the fuel in amount of 1-2 wt % over 100% of the fuel mass. The mixture is further mixed and evacuated. The obtained fuel mass is moulded into fluoroplastic units, polymerised and plated on the lateral surface with a solution of linoleum in acetone.

EFFECT: high rate of combustion and low content of solid condensed combustion products.

5 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sulphur-containing fuel additives and can be used in thermal power for desulphuration of liquid and solid fuel, mainly solid ash-bearing fuel during combustion. The composition of sulphur-containing fuel additives for desulphuration of said fuel during combustion contains the following, wt %: alkali metal hydroxide 19-29; alkali metal carbonate 26-37; alkali metal chloride 29-50; alkali metal hydrocarbonate 1-2; cryolite 3-4; alkali metal chromate 0.0001-0.0003.

EFFECT: additive is mainly meant for solid ash-bearing fuel, lowers temperature for deformation, melting and molten state of sludge, which prevents formation of refractory slag and solves the problem of outlet of slag and cleaning heat-generating equipment from deposits, thus increasing efficiency and service life of the equipment, as well as improving degree of neutralisation of sulphur compounds.

2 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises coal crushing and damping. Crushed and damped coal is heated to sulfur melting point to deposit sulfur on steel electrodes arranged in coal and receiving direct current. Voltage effect on damped coal in air-water medium at sulfur melting point (119.4°C) time sufficient for sulfur that features polar electronegativity to get transferred onto anode steel electrode.

EFFECT: simplified process, high degree of extraction of sulfur and sulfur-containing compounds.

6 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method for performance improvement of incinerators includes the following stages: burning of the hydrocarbon fuel in incinerator, determination of the given incinerator burning conditions which can be improved by adding of the special additive which conditions are determined on the base of measuring and calculations including hydrodynamical ones; determination of special points location whereat the additives are added to the incinerator; providing on the base of the said stages of the mode of special additive adding to the incinerator in the determine points. The using of the said mode allows to achieve one or more effect selected from the group including: decrease of the flame non-transparency, burning intensification, scorification decrease, reducing of limiting oxygen index, decrease of unburned coal amount, corrosion decrease and improvement of the electrostatic precipitator performance. In the said method the special additive contains the alloy of following general formula (Aa)n(Bb)n(Cc)n(Dd)n(…)n whereat every capital letter and (…) means metal with A being burning modificator, B meaning modificator of deposits, C meaning corrosion inhibitor, D meaning comodificator of burning/intensificator of electrostatic precipitator perfomance whereat each subindex means the stoichiometric index of the composition with n being not less than zero, sum of all n is more than zero; alloys includes two different metals; if metal is cerium the stoichiometric index is less than approximately 0.7.

EFFECT: non-transparency decrease of the flame released into atmosphere by large-scale incinerators used in for power production and waste burning industry and community facilities.

30 cl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety metal-bearing additives improving burning for usage in communal and industry furnaces. Additive contains: complex of metal-bearing catalyst, containing manganese with ligands and dissolvent for transfer of complex catalyst/ligands where steam pressure of additive is less than preliminary 200×10-5 Torr at 100°F. Method of additive receiving, by which: it is chosen metal-bearing catalyst containing manganese for usage in furnaces of general-purpose and/or industrial furnaces, it is formed complex of current metal-bearing catalyst, containing manganese with ligands and it is added dissolvent in order to transfer this complex catalyst/ligands, where steam pressure of additive is less than preliminary 200×10-5 Torr at 100°F.

EFFECT: receiving of additives safety for inhalation.

13 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas production industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to coke-chemical and blast-furnace operations area. Furnace coke processing method that consists of processing pieces of furnace coke unloaded from coke furnace, slaked and sorted at temperature 20-50°C and placed in shipment hoppers by spraying with 2-20% water solution of borate selection from the range: sodium pyroborate, potassium pyroborate, calcium pyroborate. Water solution of pyroborate of concentration required for coke processing is prepared by simple mixing in process vessel of calculated weight of pyroborate and water. The volume of finished solution used for processing shall ensure that amount of dry pyroborate in coke corresponds 0.05-0.5% (weight) in terms of coke. Calculated volume of solution to surface of coke pieces is applied by spraying through nozzles with use of pump.

EFFECT: improved strength of coke after reaction and reduced reactivity.

2 tbl, 14 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: automated plant consists of tubular converter 1, service tank 2, heat exchangers 3 and 4, steam generator 5, cutoff valves 11-15, compressors 16 and 19, exhaust fan 22, jet mixer 25, three-way valve 26, and dosing pump 27. Motors 17, 20, 23 and 28 of compressors, exhaust fan and dosing pump are equipped with static frequency converters 18, 21, 24 and 29. Plant is equipped with temperature sensors 33 - 45, pressure sensors 46-55, flow sensors 56-61, level sensors 62, dielcometres 63 - 66 and conductometre 67. The plant control is implemented by means of distributed-integrated system consisting of personal computer and microprocessor controller, which are in-parallel connected to each other via information channels and channels of control actions. Outputs of microprocessor controller are directed to drives of cutoff and three-way valves and to static frequency converters.

EFFECT: invention allows improving the gas composition with implementation of rational and fail-safe control modes and improving power and environmental characteristics.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: combustible gas treatment system contains catalytically assisted combustion device for receiving oxygen-containing combustible gas that contains oxygen in addition to combustible gas as its main component that forces this oxygen-containing combustible gas contact the oxidation accelerator for its partial combustion with obtaining resultant partially burned gas as compressed combustible gas.

EFFECT: invention provides oxygen removal till low concentration from oxygen-containing combustible gas.

10 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a complex reagent, having disinfectant properties, for purifying liquid and gaseous media from hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans, said reagent being a mixture of 1,3,5,-triazine-1,3,5,(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol of general chemical formula C9H21N3O3 - 48-52% and 2-dimethylaminoethanol, dimethoxymethane, 2-butynol, methylpropyl ether, 1,3-dimethoxy-2-propanol, N,N-diethyl-1,2-ethane diamine impurities and water - up to 100%.

EFFECT: higher hydrogen sulphide and mercaptan neutralising power, and higher biocidal efficiency.

9 ex, 2 tbl

Fuel (versions) // 2452764

FIELD: oil-and-gas production.

SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel represents a mix of gaseous flame-resistant ammonium and acetylene, or mix of ammonium, acetylene and ethylene. Invention covers also fuel representing solution of indole in liquid flame-resistant ammonium.

EFFECT: facilitating ignition of flame-resistant gases and fluids at operating temperatures and pressure.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed extruder serves to produce hydrated gas tablets at high pressure. Hydrated gas is formed in reaction between initial gas with initial water at high pressure. Extruder comprises two extruding rollers coupled with revolving shaft and running and bearing, drives of said rollers, screw to feed powder in extruding rollers and high-pressure housing to accommodate bearings, moving screw assembly and extruding rollers. Note here that, at least, one of said drives of extruding rollers and screw assembly drive is arranged in aforesaid high-pressure housing.

EFFECT: low production costs.

1 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed extruder serves to produce hydrated gas tablets at high pressure. Hydrated gas is formed in reaction between initial gas with initial water at high pressure. Extruder comprises two extruding rollers coupled with revolving shaft and running and bearing, drives of said rollers, screw to feed powder in extruding rollers and high-pressure housing to accommodate bearings, moving screw assembly and extruding rollers. Note here that, at least, one of said drives of extruding rollers and screw assembly drive is arranged in aforesaid high-pressure housing.

EFFECT: low production costs.

1 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of a reagent based on sulphided iron to remove oxygen from streams of gaseous and liquid fluid media such as natural gas, streams of light hydrocarbons, crude oil, mixtures of acidic gases, streams of gaseous and liquid carbon dioxide, anaerobic gas, landfill gas, geothermal gases and liquids. The invention relates to a method of removing oxygen from gaseous and liquid fluid media which contain one or more sulphur-containing compounds. The method involves providing a reagent primarily containing a divalent iron compound; preliminary sulphidation of said reagent by bringing into contact with a sulphur-containing compound; bringing a sulphided absorbent into contact with fluid medium.

EFFECT: continuous removal of oxygen from a stream of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons.

25 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: operating method of the device for preparation by means of catalytic conversion of associated petroleum or raw natural gases to be used in power plants is described. Device consists of starting system, reagent supply and dosing system, converter, heat exchangers and control system. Catalyst allowing to convert to methane the compounds contained in associated petroleum and raw natural gases and having low detonation stability and improving the probability of resin- and ash formation is installed in converter.

EFFECT: invention provides the possibility of effective utilisation and advantageous use of associated petroleum or raw natural gases in power plants.

16 cl, 1 dwg, 7 tbl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention includes concentrating device for introduction to it at least of some part of gaseous product (PG), concentration of inflammable gas included in the supplied gaseous product (PG), and generation of high concentration gas (CG) and mixing device for introduction to it of non-purified gas (IG) and high concentration gas (CG) generated with the concentrating device, mixing of supplied high concentration gas (CG) and non-purified gas (IG) and generation of gaseous product (PG).

EFFECT: invention allows safe generation of gaseous product that can be effectively used as fuel.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: bird lime is previously dehydrated and dried, heated up to the temperature of its destruction without oxygen access with subsequent separation into carbonaceous residue and steam and gas mixture. The steam and gas mixture is condensed to form a liquid and a non-condensed part of the steam and gas mixture. The non-condensed part is processed into power, which is used for power supply to drives during realisation of the method and to supply electric loads of poultry factories. The liquid part is used as liquid fuel and is separated into two parts. Heat produced from combustion of the first part of liquid fuel is used for power supply to processes of heating up to the destruction temperature and bird lime drying. The second part of the liquid fuel is collected into an accumulating tank, is used as a commercial product or for process and household needs of an enterprise. The carbonaceous residue is used as adsorbent for cleaning of gases that are discharged after bird lime drying and in process of treatment of water that was produced at the stage of preliminary dehydration of bird lime. After saturation of carbonaceous residue it is used as a fertiliser and an additive to improve soil structure.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce costs for execution of bird lime recycling process, to use recycling products in a complex manner and to ensure environmental safety of the recycling process.

8 cl, 1 ex

Masout additive // 2466180

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to obtaining a masout additive which contains organic active components dissolved in diesel, where the organic active components are a magnesium salt of tall oil acids of hardwood and terpene alcohols with the following ratio of components, %: magnesium salt of tall oil acids of hardwood 18-22, terpene alcohols 65-68 and diesel - the balance.

EFFECT: improved additive properties.

3 tbl

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