Vacuum diverter switch for tap changer

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for changing taps in power transformers. A modified diverter switch comprises mechanical and electric interface, compatible with a switch body, main and intermediate contacts, a holder of current-limiting resistance comprising an interface coupled with the body of the available tap changer for provision of modification of the diverter switch, besides, multiple modules of current-limiting resistances may be connected together. The diverter switch may comprise a vacuum switch and may be installed in a body of the available tap changer.

EFFECT: invention provides for simple tuning of a diverter switch to user requirements for various use and possibility to modify an on-load tap changer.

6 cl, 10 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to switches of taps used in transformers, especially diverters switches.

The level of technology

When the distribution of electricity are widely used transformers, high and medium voltage. Using the magnetic properties of electric currents, they transfer energy between two or more of the unconnected electric alternating current circuits. Thus, energy from the power plant may be transmitted using a small current at very high voltage and then lowered to a low voltage with high current before delivery to the user.

Electricity suppliers must maintain filing users of the voltage within certain limits. Switch taps is a device used in the transformer to adjust the output voltage within these limits. This is usually accomplished by changing the coefficients of transformation of the system by changing the number of turns in one winding of the corresponding transformer (transformers). This factor determines the ratio of voltages between windings and essential to stabilize the voltage under variable load. Switch taps changes the ratio of turns between about ohkami in the transformer. Usually the switch taps under load (OLTC, on-load tap changer) has an adjustment range of ±20% of the total voltage in the line, when used in conventional networks, the adjustment is performed for from about 9 to 35 steps from 10 to 20 times a day. For systems with significant energy consumption, such as melting furnaces, can be hundreds of similar operations per day.

At low load on the system may have, for example, to the operation for switching the taps reduced number of turns in the winding. This, ultimately, leads to higher output voltage compared to what, if any switches, outlets not implemented.

Besides these applications, the switches taps can also be used in conjunction with other inductive power devices such as reactors. Switches taps are either under load, i.e. when the transformer or without load, and there is a wide range of possible models. Switch taps usually contains a number of switches for switching of taps and a number of resistors or other impedances to prevent short circuits. In addition, the switch taps are usually filled with non-conductive liquid, such as oil, which in addition to the isolation can make chilled the E.

Also there is a great need in the switches of taps used in industrial transformers in relation to rectification and furnaces. In some applications, the switch taps can make several hundred thousand switching operations per year. Panoramically transformers (control of power flow in AC circuits and transformers transmission of high voltage direct current (for transmission to the far distance and connection unsynchronized networks) are two other areas in which emphasis is placed on the voltage regulation.

Power systems around the world are constantly striving to improve the economic and technical performance of their property. Needless to say, they both go hand in hand and because of the size of the required investments and expectations of a long life of the power networks in the industry there is a healthy skepticism about new and untested technologies. The emergence of advanced vacuum technology is a response to the need for a more efficient use of funds.

Disclosure of inventions

The invention provides divertirsi switch that contains the interface of the mating housing available switch taps to ensure the modification diverting switch main contacts; intermediate contacts; holder tomographically resistance connected to the intermediate contact; module tomographically resistance, having an interface for coupling with the holder tomographically resistance, and many modules tomographically resistances can be connected together. An additional variant embodiment of the invention provides divertirsi switch to switch branches, containing the main contacts; the intermediate contacts of the vacuum switch to extinguish the arc discharge when switching between the main contacts and the intermediate contacts.

Brief description of drawings

Accompanying drawings, which form part of the description, illustrate embodiments of the invention and together with the description additionally serve to explain the principles of the invention.

Figure 1 presents a picture of a transformer in accordance with a variant example of implementation of the present invention;

Figure 2 presents a picture of a transformer in accordance with a variant example of implementation of the present invention;

Figure 3 presents a picture of the vacuum switch according to a variant example of implementation of the present invention;

Figure 4 presents the image is giving diverting switch in accordance with a variant example of implementation of the present invention;

On figa presents the image of the body in accordance with a variant example of implementation of the present invention;

On FIGU presents an image of the interface in accordance with a variant example of implementation of the present invention;

On figa-6C presents the image of the lifting bracket in accordance with a variant example of implementation of the present invention;

Figure 7 shows the image of traction in accordance with the variant example of implementation of the present invention.

It should be understood that the figures shown embodiments of the invention. To a person skilled in the art based on the disclosures will be obvious possibility of changes to these options.

The implementation of the invention

Further detailed embodiments of the invention. In the described embodiments implement the purposes of clear description uses adopted in the art terminology. However, the invention is not limited selected so used terminology. At that time, as described specific examples of embodiments, it should be understood that this is done only for illustrative purposes. The person skilled in the art will understand that can be used by other components and configurations without straying from the essence of the tee and scope of the invention.

Embodiments of the invention provide divertirsi switch that uses switching technology based on vacuum, such as vacuum switches. Embodiments of also provide a "modular" divertirsi switch, i.e. divertirsi switch, in which part diverting switch can be replaced to match the main diverting switch to user requirements. Other parts can be provided by modular tomographically resistance. Modular tomographically resistance can be connected or are connected in different assemblies to match the main diverting switch to user requirements.

Embodiments of also provide divertirsi switch, which has a mechanical and electrical interface that is compatible with existing structures. Property compatibility mechanical and electrical interface provides the possibility of modifying the conventional switch taps under load to switch taps under load based on the vacuum. Divertirsi switch can be replaced in existing buildings switches outlets. Possible modification of the conventional vacuum with a regular vacuum with elevated ha what acteristically and vacuum with improved characteristics.

Advantages of the disclosed diverting switch may include a higher electric characteristics at the same physical size, a longer service life of the contacts under the same load characteristics as well as the increased maintenance intervals due to reduced pollution and destruction of oil. In addition, maintained a leading part both electrical and mechanical, are mostly divertirnos the switch. By replacing divertirsi switch based on the vacuum, you can increase the interval between maintenance, as well as, potentially eliminating the need for replacement of contacts (depending on the application and the total number of operations during a lifetime).

Figure 1 presents a schematic illustration of a transformer system switch taps, which can be used with variants of implementation of the present invention. Shows the capacity of 10 transformer that contains the switch 12 taps. Shows the switch 12 branches hanging from the lid 14 of the transformer, however, other switches 12 taps can be located outside of the vessel 10 of the transformer. As the container 10 of the transformer and the switch 12 taps filled with an insulating liquid, preferably oil stored in the oil b is ke 16. To avoid contamination of the oil, for example in arc discharges, which are described hereinafter, the switch 12 taps is sealed, separating its insulating liquid insulating fluid of the transformer. The force for the operation of the switch 12 taps supplied from mechanism 18 of the drive motor, which is mounted on the outer side of the tank 10 of the transformer. The force is transferred through shaft 20 and bevel gears 22.

Figure 2 shows a schematic view of the switch taps under load, which can be used with variants of implementation of the present invention. Shows the switch 12 bends formed of two main parts: diverting switch 24 and the selector 26-of-way, related compounds 30. Divertirsi switch 24 may include a conventional upper housing 28.

When working diverting switch divertirnos the switch occur 24 pin breaks during successive switching of taps. At break contacts high voltage causes an arc discharge. During normal operation, switch the existence of the arc discharge is stopped for one wave (maximum 10 MS at 50 Hz). In conventional switches allotments arc discharges occur in the insulating liquid and cause thermal degradation of the insulating fluid is STI, which leads to the formation of a volume filled with gas. One consequence of this is that the gas, in turn, leads to unpredictable changes in pressure in the insulating liquid. Another consequence of thermal degradation is that the insulating liquid is polluted.

As noted above, exemplary embodiments of the present invention are divertirsi switch, which contains the vacuum switch, such as a vacuum breaker. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention arc discharges that occur during the switching of taps, now extinguished in the vacuum switch instead of the insulating liquid, as in the case of ordinary diverting switches. Thus, arc discharges occur in a vacuum switch. This can reduce or eliminate the degradation of the insulating oil and the associated maintenance costs. In addition, the vacuum breakers have several technical advantages because of the rapid recovery of their dielectric properties. This promotes better optimization switches of taps for each application and, thus, increases the cost efficiency and reduces the overall size of the transformer. The advantages of vacuum switches may include improved is sposobnosti extinguish the arc discharges in areas such use, as panoramically transformers, tomographically reactors switching, industrial transformers and auxiliary transformers.

Embodiments of the present invention provide divertirsi switch, which uses vacuum switches. Arc discharges, described above, are limited inside the vacuum switches. It improves the functioning and durability of the switch branches. Usually maintenance and replacement of switches, outlets depend on the time and number of switching operations. The time factor depends mainly on pollution and degradation of the insulating abilities of the oil and switch taps. Pollution and insulating oils depend on the content of the particles and humidity, which can be reduced by closing the electric arc discharge in the vacuum switch. Factor in the number of operations was primarily due to the wear of the contacts, in which there arc discharges. The degree of wear is reduced, when arc discharge occurs in a vacuum switch, in which metal particles that evaporate during the arc discharge, it is condensed back to the contact.

Figure 3 shows an example of a vacuum switch, which can be used to approximate divertirnos the switch. Vacuum switch the tel may include a first end and a second end. The first end may be located at the output 31 and the second end of the leg 39. As the output 31 and the leg 39 extend from the housing of the vacuum switch. The case can be made in the form of a cap 34 of the circuit breaker, which is connected with ceramic insulator 36. The second cap 40 of the circuit breaker can be performed around the legs 39 for sealing the vacuum switch. For sealing the vacuum switch at the first end of the vacuum switch around o 31 may be provided for rotating the protective element 32. Conclusion 31 can be connected to the metal bellows 33. The metal bellows 33 may be connected to the screen 35. In the case of the vacuum switch can be located contacts 38. Arc discharge, which occurs during the switching occurs between the contacts of a vacuum switch. One of the two contacts 38 is connected to the leg 39. In the housing around the contact 38 may be located screen 37.

Figure 4 shows an example diverting switch containing vacuum switches, shown in figure 3. In the shown divertirnos switch electrical and mechanical paths separated.

Divertirsi switch, shown in figure 4, can be installed in an existing enclosure switch taps. For example, switch branches, shown in figure 1, contains to bus, which surrounds divertirsi switch. An example of the case shown in figa. Existing divertirsi switch in the enclosure can be removed and replaced diverters switch on the base of the vacuum. Replacement divertirsi switch on the basis of vacuum can be simply inserted into the casing and connected on site. Essentially replacing divertirsi switch must have the ability to interface interaction with existing compounds in the body.

On FIGU shows an example interface for diverting switch located in the body of the switch branches. Of course, other interfaces, depending on the specific variant implementation. Figv shows the type of interface for diverting switch from the enclosure of the switch branches. There are several mechanical and electrical interfaces for diverting switch. In an exemplary embodiment, the mechanical interface can contain three holes 47 for the respective guide pins (not shown) on divertirnos the switch. The guides on divertirnos switch included in these three holes 47 to facilitate fastening diverting switch in the housing. The interface may also be provided a driving disk 49. A driving disk 49 transmits the rotational movement is in the drive with the engine on divertirsi switch. Along the wall of the casing is also provided an oil tube 51. This oil tube 51 can be used as a guide when installing diverting switch. Along the walls of the housing may also be provided by the edge of the fiberglass. This edge can be used as a guide when installing diverting switch. In some cases, the edge of the glass may be missing, for example, in earlier versions of UCG. Vacuum divertirsi switch can be locked in place as usual UCG, for example, by a compression spring in the lifting brackets.

An example of the lifting bracket shown in Fig.6. In embodiments of the invention for fastening diverting switch in the appropriate position does not require special tools. Downward force from the vertically installed the springs on top of the lifting bracket should be sufficient. The hanger brackets can also create four additional "wing" to prevent incorrect installation diverting switch in the housing. Consequently, the cover cannot be sealed, if the guide rods divertirnos the switch is located outside the recess of the master drive.

In an exemplary embodiment, electrical interface for diverting switch may contain N. the life of the inserted contacts for neutral point. These contacts are electrically connected with corresponding contacts on divertirnos the switch. In addition, can also be provided six plug contacts 55 for phases. For each phase can be provided with two contacts 55.

The interface makes possible the replacement of conventional technology switch-based vacuum without major interventions in the transformer. Replacement is carried out in less time than with regular maintenance because it does not require cleaning of the old diverting switch. Without interface in many cases it is necessary to drain the transformer to replace. Thus, embodiments of the invention provide for the modification divertirsi switch on the base of the vacuum.

Additional embodiments of provide divertirsi switch that can be used in a wide range of features and applications with as few alterations as possible diverting switch. For example, divertirsi switch can be constructed with parts that are easily interchangeable. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the range of characteristics and applications of switch taps may vary. This can be done by replacing various parts diverting switch. In the disclosed embodiment, implementation is tvline can be replaced by one or more tomographically resistance, lifting rods or connections. Each replacement can be done on site or by the user using standard tools and instructions.

As briefly described above, tomographically resistance can be provided in the form of modules resistances. Modules can contain the same number and types of resistance or modules may vary from each other. Tomographically resistance can be replaced to change the load characteristics of the switch branches. For receiving modules tomographically resistance can be provided divertirsi switch with a standardized basis. Each of the modules tomographically resistance is configured to interface interaction with a standardized base that allows easy replacement of modules tomographically resistance. Can be installed on a standardized basis. Modules tomographically resistance can be set with different number of modules resistances, and various connections between modules depending on the jump voltage and rated current.

Embodiments of the invention are also divertirsi switch, which may include a standardized basis for the lifting rods. Lifting thrust can be substituted for the ISM is in the insulation characteristics of the switch branches. Lifting thrust of different lengths can be provided with an interface that is associated with a standardized basis. Thus, the same base can be used regardless of the isolation level. Depending on the isolation level can be changed only by the length of the lifting rod. For the set on brackets switch taps can be used the same length rods (intermediate flange on the housing diverting switch with a length of 106 mm), and switch taps can be mounted directly on the transformer cover. The difference in length can be installed using different holes for the lifting bracket on top of the lifting rod. This reduces the options of lifting rods by 50%. Example traction is shown in Fig.7.

In the embodiment of the invention can also be provided for connections. Depending on use, single-phase or type star with neutral point between the assemblies of the added resistance of the connection (usually one Assembly contains more than one module resistance per phase).

While the above-described various embodiments of the invention, it should be understood that they are presented as examples and not limitations. To a person skilled in the art it will be obvious that it can be made various changes in the form of the e and the parts without departure from the essence and scope of the invention. This is especially true in light of the technology and terms in the corresponding areas (fields) techniques that can be developed later. Thus, the invention should not be limited to any of the above-described exemplary embodiment, but is defined only in accordance with the claims and its equivalents.

1. Divertirsi switch that contains the interface of the mating housing available switch taps to ensure the modification diverting switch; key contacts; intermediate contacts; holder tomographically resistance connected to the intermediate contact; module tomographically resistance, having an interface for coupling with the holder tomographically resistance, and many modules tomographically resistance can be joined together.

2. Divertirsi switch according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a base for traction; a lifting rod having an interface configured to align with the base, the base configured to receive the lifting rods of different length.

3. Divertirsi switch according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a compound containing connection star with neutral point and/or single-phase connection.

4. Divertirsi switch according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a vacuum switch to extinguish the arc discharges when switching between the main contacts and the intermediate contacts.

5. Divertirsi switch according to claim 4, characterized in that the main contacts and the intermediate contacts are located in the vacuum switch.

6. Divertirsi switch according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that each of the many modules tomographically resistance connected with other modules in different ways.



 

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