Method for traffic safety ensuring
SUBSTANCE: method includes synchronisation of reference transmitters clocks, measuring time of radio signal run from antennas of three and more reference transmitters located at distance from transport facilities (TF) and pedestrian to antenna of radio navigation device located on TF or pedestrian, calculation of TF and pedestrian coordinates using computing device, transmission of TF and pedestrian coordinates data and their identification numbers to information computer centre via radio channel, and transmission of alert signals to road users. Radio masts with reference transmitters are installed along roadway in fixed points with known three-dimensional coordinates of antennas. Reference transmitters clock synchronisation with the clock of information computer centre is performed via existing between them optical carrier. Digital road map is created by means of splitting roadway into pixels with known three-dimensional coordinates, with indication of coordinates and meanings of road signs and traffic lights. On TF, two radio navigation devices mutually spaced along TF longitudinal axis are installed, and from their continuously measured three-dimensional coordinates and digital road map the TF position relative to axial line of roadway is determined at any moment.
EFFECT: invention provides higher traffic safety.
8 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the field of security systems traffic and can be used to create the designs of the vehicles and the road infrastructure that meets the high safety requirements.
There is a method of ensuring road safety , based on the information of the driver using the installation along the roadway passive traffic signs (warning, prohibiting prescribing), performing on the road surface horizontal marking lines, arrows, labels, determine certain modes and the order of movement, vertically markup in the form of a combination of black and white stripes on road facilities and items of equipment roads to specify their dimensions, the installation along the roadway cameras to commit violations of traffic rules and definitions numbers of cars. The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency when driving in conditions of poor visibility due to bad weather or at night.
Known system road safety Advanced Automatic Crash Notification (AACN) company GM, which is based on an installation inside a vehicle sensor system connected to the computer measurement module. The signals from sensors measuring module definition is that the number of passengers, the vehicle speed and the point of impact vehicle collisions. The change in vehicle speed per unit time (acceleration) is determined by the severity of the accident on the standard scale, developed by the National administration of traffic on highways (USA). This information measuring unit transmits a radio operator, who decides to call for the crash care services. The disadvantage of this method is the low awareness of the driver about the situation on the road, which increases the probability of a traffic accident.
There is a method of ensuring road safety, offered by Toyota, based on the deployment along the road information networks that allow for the exchange of information between objects "car-car", "car-road", "car-pedestrian". Information network allows the vehicle to obtain information about the indications of traffic lights, road signs, possible obstacles on the roads. This information is reported to the driver with audible and visual signals [3, 4]. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of information on exact coordinates of the road traffic (vehicles and pedestrians), which reduces the accuracy of their interaction on the road and increases the t of the probability of a crash.
Known navigation and information system based on the use of infrastructure and frequency resources existing transmitting television centers . The system is based on the use of signals from existing global navigation satellite systems (GLONASS or GPS) and the control and adjustment of the base station for the introduction of differential corrections. The system includes user terminals receiving information with a set of devices designed to receive differential corrections transmitted from the television centre. The disadvantage of the system is a small range that is limited by the coverage area of the radio signal from the television centre (up to 200 km). Another disadvantage of the system is the low accuracy of the subscriber. It is known that the use of satellite systems, after the introduction of differential corrections, the accuracy of determining the coordinates of stationary objects is 2 m, and moving objects 5 feet To further reduce the accuracy of the results is also the possibility of unfavorable geometry of the location of visible satellites (approximately on the same line).
There is a method of navigation and regional system for its implementation , in which regional radionavigation floor is created with the help of a network of N synchronized stations, working at a low carrier frequency of 80 kHz. In this way, as in other regional systems of radio navigation, uses sparse network of reference transmitters. So for Kazakhstan estimated number of transmitters is equal to 7. In regional systems of radio navigation, reference transmitters, as a rule, are outside the direct line of sight with moving objects. Therefore, to ensure reception of a signal from a remote transmitter, this method will use a very low carrier signal frequency is 80 kHz. In this case we use the property of radio waves to bend around obstacles with a characteristic dimension d, if the condition λ≥d, where λ is the wavelength. For a frequency of f=80 kHz λ=c/f=3.75 km, where C=2.9979·108m/s is the speed of light in vacuum, i.e. λ is comparable to the size of natural obstacles (e.g., hills). Since radio waves in this case are not in a straight line, it leads to a decrease in the accuracy of the delay measurement signal. For example, if the vertical size of the obstacle is equal to λ/4, the error in the determination of the time delay Δt=λ/4c. This means that the coordinate of the object to be measured with great accuracy of order Δx=cΔt=940 m So famous regional radio navigation system "Laurent S" (USA), and "the Seagull" (Russia) have high absolute accuracy CCW is dinat 120-700 m [14, 17]. The disadvantage of this method is that the synchronization of the radiation stations by using radio signals propagating in air, which leads to the influence of interference. It is also known that the speed of propagation of radio waves depends on such physical parameters of the air as humidity, temperature and pressure. Spatial and temporal chaotic changes of these parameters lead to lower accuracy in the synchronization of the radiation stations, which, in turn, leads to less accurate measurements of the coordinates of objects.
There is a method of creating a digital map of the road by constructing graphs . Graph of roads is a digital vector map of roads and represents a set of topologically connected arcs and nodes, which transmit the routes for vehicles . The disadvantage of this method of building a digital road map is that it is not possible to determine the position of the vehicle relative to the centerline and edges of the roadway.
The closest in technical essence to the claimed solution is the way to ensure road safety offered by the company Nis-san , based on the use of GPS navigation systems [6, 7, 8]. When implementing this method, the pedestrian is supplied special happy navigational device (GPS receiver), for example, built into a mobile phone. The second GPS receiver is installed in the vehicle. Vehicle and pedestrian determine its location, speed and direction of movement and regularly communicate this information in a special computer center. Information center processes this data. If there is a probability of collision, the information center transmits the movement warning signals. The disadvantage of this method is the low accuracy of determination of coordinates of objects. The typical error of civil Autonomous GPS receivers in a horizontal plane is 15 meters. With good visibility of the satellites it may be reduced to 5 meters . One of the components of error stems from the fact that the radius of the orbit navigation satellites is approximately 20,000 km and the main part of the path passes radio waves in the ionosphere. Uncontrolled delay of radio waves in the ionosphere lead to errors of the order of 20-30 meters during the day and 3-6 meters at night. Despite the fact that messages sent on Board navigation satellite, contain the model of the ionosphere, the actual compensation delay at best is 50% . Another component of error associated with the delay in the passage of radio waves in the troposphere. The value of this kind of error can reach 30 meters . Things is there is also ephemeris error, due to the fact that the satellite moves in its orbit. The error is caused by a mismatch between the estimated position of the satellite with the actual. The magnitude of this error is about 3 meters . The application of the method of differential correction using ground-based base station with known coordinates allows to decrease the error due to the delay signals, and ephemeris errors, but they are still very large. After correction of the error in the determination of the coordinates of moving objects is 5 meters, and fixed 2 m . However, the method of differential correction improves the results of measurements of the coordinates only for objects that are near the base station, that is, where are stored the same conditions the passage of radio waves in the ionosphere and the troposphere. Other disadvantages of the GPS system should include the influence of the geometry of the location of the satellites that are visible on the calculation accuracy of the coordinates. Example of bad geometry, which reduces the accuracy of the coordinates is the location of the satellites is approximately on the same line. In cities where there are high buildings, or in the mountains of signals from individual satellites can be shielded, which makes it impossible to determine coordinates, if the number of visible satellites is less than 3. In the cities and mountains Autry is atelinae influence on the accuracy of determination of coordinates and have reflected radio waves. In the GPS system the influence of the geometry, the effect of shielding of the reflected waves cannot be eliminated or reduced by choosing a location anchor transceivers, as they are installed on satellites, constantly changing their position. Due to the constant movement of the satellites and the variability of the speed of propagation of the radio signal between them and the ground control station having difficulties installing on the atomic clocks of the satellites of a single (unified) time, which reduces the measurement accuracy. The disadvantages of this method include that the GPS is not always available to civil users. So during the conflict in Iraq civilian GPS was disabled . Satellite navigation system GLONASS Russian production has the potential technical characteristics similar to the GPS system [9, 10]. Due to the low accuracy of determination of coordinates of road users during the implementation of this method continues to be a high probability of collision between vehicles, and between vehicles and pedestrians.
The objective of the invention is the provision of road safety. The problem is solved offered us a way of ensuring road safety, including clock synchronization reference rediapered is tchikov, the time dimension of the run signal from the antennas is three or more reference radio transmitter, located at a distance from the vehicles and pedestrians to the antenna radionavigation devices on the vehicle and the pedestrian, the calculation of the coordinates of the vehicle and a pedestrian using a computing device, transmitting by radio the coordinate information of vehicles and pedestrians, their identification numbers in the information center, transfer to road traffic warning signals. The method is characterized by the fact that along the roadway at fixed locations with known three-dimensional coordinates of the antennas set radio towers, base radios, clock synchronization reference radio with clock information and computer centre shall be implemented by periodically sending clock signals existing between fiber optic, pre-create a digital map of the road, by dividing the roadway into pixels with known three-dimensional coordinates specifying the coordinates and values of road signs, traffic lights, vehicle install two radionavigation devices spaced along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, they constantly measured the three-dimensional coordinates and the digital road map define the position of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle relative to the centerline of the roadway.
It is reasonable for the entire length of the road evenly space multiple computer centres, communicating with each other and with the control radio stations by radio, cable, and fiber optic communication lines.
On each supporting radio tower radio transmitters, it is advisable to install a radio repeater and information from a vehicle or pedestrian to transmit by radio to the nearest of these radios, and then relayed via fiber optic communication lines to the nearest computer information center.
In the information computer center, you must install an atomic clock and synchronized with the reference clock of the transmitter and unified time to turn the radio on radio navigation device located on the vehicle and the pedestrian, and to use when computing their coordinates.
In the information computer center, you will need to count vehicles traveling on the intersecting roads, and to generate signals for optimal control traffic signals at intersections and reading lights to convey vehicles and pedestrians.
To implement the functions of the autopilot on the vehicle, you must install the electric steering, electric PED is whether gas, the drive of the brake pedal, the drive clutch pedal operated by using a computing device of a vehicle using a three-dimensional digital map of the road with road signs and measured on the vehicle its three-dimensional coordinates and the position of the longitudinal axis relative to the centerline of the roadway, as well as coming from information and computer centre of the coordinate information of other road users. In addition, for more information about the obstacles on the road on the vehicle it is advisable to install a radio wave and ultrasonic radar, laser range finders and cameras for all-round observation.
To ensure the safety of driving the vehicle in violation of normal engine operation or loss of a driver of the adequacy of the transport is provided from the information and computer center. The vehicle driven by the autopilot, automatically parked on the program, founded in autopilot.
Control of a vehicle, it's advisable to continuously monitor the temperature of the engine, oil pressure, fuel quantity, and adequacy of the driver tselesoobraznosti by located in the vehicle tracking devices for the physical condition of the driver of such as the sensor pulse rate sensor, a body temperature sensor, a breathing rate, a video camera to determine the status open closed eyes. In addition, in-vehicle sensors to determine the concentration in the atmosphere of harmful substances such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases, and vapors of fuel, alcohol, narcotic substances. In case at least one of the monitored parameters are within the permissible limits, the decision about stopping the vehicle.
1 shows a diagram of the coordinate measuring road users.
Figure 2 shows the circuit for measuring the time delay of a radio signal coming from the reference transmitter, on the same plots of pseudo-random code in the transmitter and in the navigation device.
Figure 1 and 2: 1, 2, 3, 4 - blocks of base transmitters with antennas installed on radiowise 5, 6, 7, 8; 9, 10 - vehicle; 11, 12 - pedestrians; 13, 14 - the roadway; 15 - information computer centre with radio tower 16; 17 - pseudo-random code in the navigation device for vehicle or pedestrian; 18 - pseudo-random code is transmitted reference transmitter; t is the time axis, tiis the time delay of the signal.
The method is based on measuring the time (t) run of a radio signal from antenna t is ex or more reference radio transmitters to antennas radionavigation devices located on vehicles and pedestrians. Since the speed of propagation of radio waves (ν) in the air is almost constant and close to the speed of light in vacuum (2.99792458×108m/s) , it allows to determine the distance L1, L2, L3, L4from antenna reference transmitters with known coordinates to antennas radionavigation devices located on the vehicle or the pedestrian:
where t1, t2, t3, t4the time delay of radio signals sent from the reference radio transmitters 1, 2, 3, 4. Because the coordinates of the antenna reference transmitters are known, after solving geometric problems are the coordinates of the vehicle or pedestrian in the selected coordinate system.
The method is as follows. Reference transmitters with antennas feature along the road at these points to any part of the road was carried out direct radioligist antennas is not less than three reference transmitters (e.g., four), not located on a straight line (figure 1). Using high-precision atomic clock (for example, cesium, or hydrogen), set the run information in the computer center 15 with the radio tower 16, initially synchronized atomic or quartz set in blocks of base transmitters 1, 2, 3, 4, is hosted on radiowise 5, 6, 7, 8. To do this, the communication channel (e.g., fiber optic, or coaxial electric cable) in the block of the reference transmitter 1 sends clock signals. As a result, the clock unit of the transmitter is set to a time equal to the time of the atomic clock located in the information computer center 15 (uniform). Similarly, unified set the time on the clock located in the blocks of the reference transmitters 2, 3, 4 with an absolute error of no more than 1 nanosecond. Reference transmitters operating at the carrier frequency (2-15) GHz, periodically transmits a navigation signal with a repetition period of at least 1 MS. The navigation signal includes the identification number of the reference transmitter, three-dimensional coordinates of the antenna, the coordinates of the antennas radionavigation devices nearby road users and their identification number, its own time reference radio transmitter, and a pseudo-random code 18, which is used to measure the time delay of the signal path between the antenna of the radio transmitter and radio navigation antenna in which trojstva, mounted on the vehicle 9, 10 or pedestrian 11, 12. Taking navigation signals from 3 or more radio transmitters, radio navigational device using the computing device, the magnitude of the time delay of the first signal determines the pseudorange to the bearing of the radio transmitters by the formulas(1), (2), (3), (4). Pseudodominant represents the radius of the sphere, the center of which is the reference antenna of the radio transmitter. Then by the method of successive approximations computing device corrects the time on her clock up until all the spheres will not intersect at one point. After this operation the pseudorange into the distance, that is the true distance from the antenna to the radionavigation devices to antennas of each reference radio 1, 2, 3, 4. Using the known distance and the known coordinates of the reference transmitters, the computing device solves the geometric task and determines the final coordinates of the antenna radionavigation devices. To obtain a two-dimensional coordinate computing device must process the signals from the three reference radio transmitters, and to obtain three-dimensional coordinates of four. Similarly, we determine the coordinates of the antenna and the second navigation devices, whic is its on the vehicle. The differences of the coordinates of the two antennas radionavigation devices using the digital map of the road determine the position of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle relative to the centerline of the roadway. The calculated coordinates of the vehicle and its position relative to the roadway on the radio and fiber-optic communication lines are transmitted in the computer information center 15. There also are passed and the results of the measurements of all sensors located in the vehicle. Using the calculated coordinates of the vehicle and the known position of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle relative to the centerline of the roadway, computing device of the vehicle displays the silhouette of the car on the monitor on the digital map data of the road. On the same monitor displays the moving silhouettes and other road users (including inaccessible for visual inspection when driving in fog or at night) on the basis of information transmitted from the computer information center. Digital road map previously created by dividing the roadway 13, 14 on the pixel area of not more than 0.1 m×0.1 m=0.01 m2. Based on geodetic measurements, each pixel is assigned its own unique coordinates (latitude, to the goth, height over sea level). On the digital road map also displays road signs, horizontal and vertical layout and characteristic landmarks (buildings and other objects). At the approach of the vehicle to the road sign, computing device using a digital road map, voice and visually on the monitor informs the driver about the meaning of the traffic sign or marking. Digital map of the road previously recorded in a memory of a computing device of the vehicle in the software. Similar digital map of the road and placed in computer memory information and computer center. Using the totality of information received from road users (individual coordinates, sensor data), information and computer center produces for each of the participants of the road traffic regulatory signals, for example, "reduce speed", "sit", "stay" and others. To improve performance telemetry data from road traffic and control signals shall be at the carrier frequency different from the carrier frequency navigation signal.
Here is an example of the method according to the invention. Along the road we have installed 4 reference PE is adamcik 1, 2, 3,4, operating at frequencies of (2-15) GHz, interconnected and information computer center 15 fiber-optic communication line. Thus the coordinates of the transmitting antennas in the selected rectangular coordinate system was:
1. x1=398,3 m; y1=315,1 m; z1=210,2 m;
2. x2=421,5 m; y2=-347,7 m; z2=205,1 m;
3. x3=918,6 m; y3=318,4 m; z3=207,6 m;
4. x4=911,7 m; y4=-305,2 m; z4=of 208.3 m,
where the OX axis is directed along the centerline of the roadway (for ease of calculation selected straight stretch of road), the OY axis lies in the horizontal plane, the OZ axis is directed vertically upwards and z=0 corresponds to the sea level. When testing radio navigation device located on the vehicle and had known in advance the coordinates of the antenna x0=of 551.3 m, y0=1,90 m, z0=192,3 m After carrying out synchronization clock reference transmitters on the clock information and computer center, and then hours radionavigation devices by the method of successive approximations, the measured time delays of the signals from the four reference transmitters, respectively, were as follows:
t1=1164,0 na; t2=1244,7 na; t3=1618,3 na; t4=1580,7 NS.
Thus, according to the expression(1), (2), (3), (4), the calculated range was:
L1=348,95 m; L2=373,16 m; L34=473,88 m
By known distances, after solving a geometrical problem, resulting in the following coordinates of the antenna radionavigation devices:
x0=551,2 m; y0=1,97 m; z0=USD 192.1 m
Thus, the absolute error in the determination of the coordinates in the horizontal plane in the direction of the axis OX was 0.1 m, in the direction of the axis OY of 0.07 m, and in the direction of the axis OZ - 0.2 m
Thus, in comparison with the known method, the use of the proposed method several times to improve the accuracy of determination of coordinates of vehicles and pedestrians, which, in turn, leads to increased road safety.
Sources of information
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1. The way to ensure road safety, including clock synchronization reference transmitters, the time dimension of the run signal from the antennas is three or more reference radio transmitter located away from vehicle and pedestrian, to the antenna radionavigation devices on the vehicle or the pedestrian, the calculation of the coordinates of the vehicle and a pedestrian using a computing device, transmission is via radio the coordinate information of vehicles and pedestrians, their identification numbers in the information computer center, transfer to road traffic warning signals, characterized in that along the roadway at fixed locations with known three-dimensional coordinates of the antennas set radio towers, base radios, clock synchronization reference radio with clock information computer center carry out existing between the fiber-optic lines of communication, create a digital map of the road by breaking the road for the pixels with known three-dimensional coordinates specifying the coordinates and values of road signs, traffic lights, vehicle install two radionavigation devices spaced along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and they constantly measured three-dimensional coordinates on a digital map of the road determine the position of the vehicle relative to the centerline of the roadway at any point in time.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the entire length of the road evenly have several computer centres, communicating with each other and with the control radio stations by radio, cable, and fiber optic communication lines.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that each radio tower base radiobar the sensors installed radio relay and information from a vehicle or pedestrian is transmitted by radio to the nearest of these radios, and then relayed via fiber optic communication lines to the nearest information computer center.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the information computer center set atomic clock, which synchronizes the clock of the reference transmitters, and the uniform transfer on the radio on the radio navigation device located on the vehicle and the pedestrian, and use when calculating their coordinates.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the information computer center count the vehicles traveling on the intersecting roads, and produce signals for optimal control traffic signals at intersections, information about the reading lights over the air transfer vehicles and pedestrians.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in order to implement the functions of the autopilot on the vehicle installing the drive steering, power gas pedal, power brake pedal and the drive clutch pedal operated by using a computing device of a vehicle using a three-dimensional digital map of the road with road signs and traffic lights and ISM is indigenous to the vehicle its three-dimensional coordinates, position the longitudinal axis of the vehicle relative to the centerline of the roadway, as well as coming from information and computer centre of the coordinate information of other road users, in addition, for more information about the obstacles on the road on the vehicle installing a radio wave and ultrasonic radar, laser range finders and cameras for all-round observation.
7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that in order to ensure road safety during abnormal conditions of engine operation or loss of a driver of the adequacy of the transport is provided from the information and computer center, or the vehicle is automatically parked on the program the autopilot system.
8. The method according to claim 7, wherein continuously monitoring the temperature of a running vehicle engine, oil pressure, fuel quantity and the determination of the physical condition of the driver by placing inside the cabin of the vehicle device control heart rate, body temperature, eye, respiratory, as well as the content of harmful substances in the atmosphere inside the cabin of the vehicle, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases, vapors, fuel, alcohol, drugs in the management and measurement results will decide on the continuation of the movement or stopping of the vehicle.
SUBSTANCE: optical radiation from vehicles moving on the same and opposite lanes is simultaneously received at a car; said optical radiation is converted to electric signals; the distance to vehicles on the same and opposite lanes is calculated; the approach speed of said vehicles is calculated; geometric dimensions of the vehicle moving in the same direction are determined. Based on said information, light signalling is issued to keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front and on possibility of overtaking in conditions when there is a vehicle in the oncoming lane. Also the maximum acceleration of the car given its current load and technical condition is determined; the longitudinal slope of the road is determined; the possibility of safe overtaking the vehicle in front is determined based on the distance travelled over the overtaking time. During overtaking, conformity of the current values of acceleration, speed of the overtaking car and distance to an oncoming vehicle with calculated is monitored and a light and audio signal is emitted to prevent overtaking if there is risk of collision, and also on a dangerous distance to the vehicle in front, based on the slope of the road.
EFFECT: group of inventions increase reliability of evaluating safety of overtaking and selecting a safe distance to the vehicle in front by taking into account such additional factors as slope of the road surface, the current and maximum possible acceleration of the car given the current load.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a first image input device (IID) and a system controller (SC). The apparatus further includes five electro-optical sensors (EOS), second, third and fourth IID, two blur compensating devices (BCD), a liquid-crystal display and an audio signalling device. The first and second EOS are installed with possibility of obtaining images of the scene in front of the vehicle, while the third and fourth EOS are installed with possibility of obtaining images of the scene behind the vehicle, and the fifth EOS - with possibility of obtaining images of the eyes of the driver. The IID are connected to outputs of the corresponding EOS and are configured to perform intermediate storage of the obtained image data. The first and second BCD are connected to outputs of the first and second IID, respectively, and are configured to increase clearness of the obtained image and detect moving objects. The SC is connected to outputs of the first and second BCD, the third and fourth IID, the fifth EOS and the speed sensor of the vehicle. The SC enables to select contours on the images, detect fixed objects thereon, determining their three-dimensional coordinates on pairs of stereo-images and the motion path from the change in three-dimensional coordinates of objects and detecting obstacles. The audio signalling unit and the liquid-crystal display are connected to corresponding outputs of the SC.
EFFECT: apparatus provides automatic notification of the driver on possible collision of the vehicle with an obstacle, possibility of analysing the condition of the driver in order to prevent sleeping behind the wheel.
SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to traffic safety, particularly, to detecting moving object (transport facility or pedestrian) crossing transport facility trajectory or approaching it. Video cameras secured on transport facility shoot front or rear zone to display traffic situation therein on driver display. Front lateral or rear lateral zones are shot on operation of turn light indicator, or in turn of controlled wheels, or by voice command, or by activation of video camera switch-on push button. Marks describing transport facility boundaries on entering the road or after possible maneuver are displayed in additional window on display screen or over traffic situation image. This allows the driver to define distance to (between) object(s) that hinder possible maneuver. Set of inventions allows perfecting visual control in front lateral or rear lateral zones of transport facility motion.
EFFECT: higher safety.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to road traffic safety. In compliance with this invention, set of acceleration magnitudes for target vehicle is defined proceeding from input values derived from determined distances between vehicle and target vehicle (moving ahead and behind of it). Accelerations are further processed to obtain data describing said target vehicle. Said data is transmitted for adjustment of vehicle driving.
EFFECT: higher safety thanks to better adaption to target vehicles.
21 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: physics; control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to transport engineering and specifically to anti-collision systems for automobiles moving in a traffic stream. The method of ensuring active safety of transportation vehicles moving in a file involves availability of a system which has two antennae, two modulators, two power amplifiers, a mixer, a frequency converter, a detector, first and second speed detectors, range detector, a device for calculating dangerous distance, ground speed and approach speed, a continuous oscillation generator, an adder, circulator, Doppler filter and a comparator. The system has an antenna position control circuit, a first actuating circuit whose output is connected to a sound source, a second actuating circuit whose output is connected to a throttle valve, a third actuating circuit whose output is connected to the control unit of the antiskid system of the service handbrake system of the vehicle, a fourth actuating circuit whose output is connected to a light indicator.
EFFECT: more efficient control of speed of objects in a traffic stream.
FIELD: automotive industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry and can be used as an automatic braking system. Proposed braking system comprises monochromatic oscillation generator, power amplifier, directional radiator, radiation receiver, narrow-band amplifier, two shapers of rectangular pulses, two integrators, comparator, current amplifier and electromagnetic drives. Power amplifier is connected with generator, radiator and pulse shaper connected to integrator, the output of the latter being connected to comparator input. Narrow-band amplifier is connected with receiver and 2nd shaper of rectangular pulses, connected to 2nd integrator. Output of the latter is connected to the 2nd input of comparator. Comparator output is connected to current amplifier, the output of which is connected to electromagnetic drive linked up with the brake drive.
EFFECT: increased speed of brake system operation.
FIELD: transportation, safety arrangements.
SUBSTANCE: in suggested method impulse signals from wheels rotational velocity sensors are recorded and inputted to data processing unit. Values of physical variables defining vehicle condition and limit values of physical variables are determined in real time according to values of wheel rotational velocities. At the output of data processing unit, signal is generated which contains information about approximation of physical variables defining vehicle condition to limit values or about exceeding the limit values. Depending on physical variables values and limit values of physical variables defining vehicle condition, the signal with control action preventing vehicle contact with obstacle is generated. Suggested system contains wheels rotational velocity sensors. Data processing unit includes microprocessor being able to identify the operative conditions of wheels rotational velocity sensors, to determine in real time the values of physical variables defining vehicle condition and limit values of physical variables according to values of wheels rotational velocities, and to generate signal containing information about approaching of mentioned values of physical variables to limit values or exceeding limit values.
EFFECT: group of inventions allows preventing typical collisions.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: automotive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises unit for measuring absolute velocity of a vehicle, differentiator, unit for computing safety distance between the vehicles, comparator, actuating members of the breaking system and system for engine control, locator, unit for determining steady deceleration of vehicle, unit for determining brake delay, memory, unit for determining correction to the safety distance, unit for measuring absolute velocity, and pressure gages in the drive for brakes and beginning of braking. The comparator sends a command to the unit for determining the rotation angle of controlled wheels that sends a signal to the electromagnetic valve of the control of actuating member of the steering.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: methods of preventions of auto collisions by means of usage of optical radiation.
SUBSTANCE: optical radiations from automobiles, being at favorable and oncoming lines of traffic, are received simultaneously and transformed into electric signals. Then distances to transportation vehicles, being at favorable and oncoming traffic lines, are measured as well as approach speed and geometrical sizes of transportation vehicle in direction of movement. On base of received information, safety distance of motion is provided in relation to transportation vehicle being on favorable line of motion and decision on ability of overtaking is made. Device has two electro-optic converters, calculator with unit for measuring speed of approach speed with transportation vehicles and logic unit, as well as transportation vehicles' geometrical sizes input switch, which transportation vehicle moves in favorable direction, and four light indicators.
EFFECT: safety of overtaking maneuvers.
11 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: image capturing position mark is displayed at the image capturing position on the map image. A first given zone is determined based on the image capturing position. Also, predefined zones are determined based on the movement route and the current position. Inside and outside the first given zone, reference characters are added to the map image. In zones other than the first given zone, several types of reference characters to be included in the map image are shortened when displayed on the map.
EFFECT: displaying reference characters outside the boundaries of a given zone only for those objects that are important to the user.
6 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: physics, measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to navigation with ground-mounted equipment. The proposed method consists in using optical appliances and defining the aircraft lengthwise axis angular position relative to direction to the North with the help of reference points with known coordinates. Note here that code modulation of laser radiation is used to this end, the laser being fitted on rotary platform. The said radiation is registered by optical pickups fitted aboard the aircraft, depending upon the angle of laser beam turning clockwise from direction to the North. The signals received are encoded and amplified. Now, the course data are calculated using the data on optical pickups location base.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determining aircraft course and coordinates thanks to measurements automation.
FIELD: robotics, namely detection of Cartesian coordinates and angular position of car of mobile robot moving on horizontal surface in preset room.
SUBSTANCE: method for visually controlling car orientation of mobile robot on horizontal surface with predetermined Cartesian coordinate system by means of video camera comprises steps of fixing two different irradiation sources on car of mobile robot in the same height; setting system of reference points on horizontal surface; fixing position of video camera relative to horizontal surface; determining for each reference point on image matrix averaged dot image of irradiation source; according to current positions images of irradiation sources determining at first nearest to them images of reference points non-placed on the same straight line; then performing interpolation of positions of irradiation sources in Cartesian coordinate system and determining angular position of car of mobile robot.
EFFECT: possibility for automated improved-accuracy determination of Cartesian coordinates and angular position of car of mobile robot moving on horizontal surface in preset room.
FIELD: the invention refers to robotics and designated for definition of spatial position on the all three Cartesian coordinates and an angular orientation at its displacement along the surfaces close to horizontal for example along the floor coverings of manufacturing facilities.
SUBSTANCE: This information is necessary for identification of the position and the angular orientation of a robot. The mode is in installation of three static beacons on an area with the in parallel to the plane of prescribed absolute Cartesian system of coordinates in which two axles are directed in parallel to the plane of displacement of the trolley and one axle is perpendicular to it. Their centers with the known absolute coordinates are located in the plane of displacement of the trolley, on the trolley a local Cartesian system of coordinates with a center which is on the given height in relation to the flat surface is chosen and three sensors are installed on the trolley. The angles of declination relatively to the local plane of displacement of the trolley and the angles of the turn relatively to this plane of position of the beacons are defined, after that approximate absolute coordinates of the center of the trolley are calculated and the turning angle around the vertical axle at assumption that the sensors are located in the center of the trolley and then at initial approximation the refined absolute coordinates of the center of the trolley and the angles of the turn of the trolley around three axles are defined by the way of iterative numeric solution of the system of equations.
EFFECT: provides possibility of automated refinement of the spatial position on the all three Cartesian coordinates and the angle orientation on the all three possible directions of rotation around the axles of the trolley of a mobile robot.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to estimation of friction on the surface of contact between vehicle wheel and soil or adhesion between wheels and road surface. Envisaged are module (or step) of first input, module (or step) of second input and module (or step) of output. Module of first input sets first input that represents ratio between first force acting on wheel on soil contact surface in first direction and first degree of wheel skid. Module of second input sets second input that represents ratio between second force acting on wheel on soil contact surface in second direction and second degree of wheel skid. Module of output derives output from first and second inputs that makes parameter describing adhesion of transport facility wheel.
EFFECT: high accuracy of estimation.
56 cl, 78 dwg
SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to support of parking process. Proposed control device 10 for parking device display 14 comprises interface 19 for connection with first measuring device 11 to measure parking space 41 on moving by and round said space 41. Interface 17, 18 serves for connection with second measuring device 3, 5 to register front and/or rear boundary of parking space on entering said parking space. Interface 50 serves for connection with display 14 intended for displaying the sizes of parking space 41. Image of front boundary 42 and/or rear boundary 44 of parking space 41' produced by first measuring device 11 differs from that of front boundary. 42' and/or rear boundary 44' of parking space 41 produced by second measuring device 3, 5.
EFFECT: accurate and reliable data on parking space boundaries.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises constructing automobile amplitude-phase-frequency characteristic combining Rocard model and differential equations of automobile elastic system plane motion. Automobile critical speed is defined. Automobile actual passenger capacity is defined. Mathematical model of automobile-road dynamic system is constructed. Transfer matrix is constructed. Automobile actual speed is compared with calculated critical speed. In case automobile speed exceeds critical magnitude, fuel feed to engine is terminated.
EFFECT: higher safety.
SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to automatic gear-shifting and to motorised transport facility. Proposed system comprises defining actuation of foot brake pedal, defining the possibility of keeping vehicle in safe position for throwing neutral in, defining stationary position of vehicle with neutral in, and defining road slope. Neutral is automatically thrown in when brake pedal is actuated. Engine rpm is increased in idling in changing into neutral. Accelerator is locked unless gear is thrown in. Proposed system comprises means for defining actuation of foot brake pedal, means for defining the possibility of keeping vehicle in safe position for throwing neutral in, means for defining stationary position of vehicle with neutral in, road slope transducer, means for automatically throwing in of neutral, and accelerator lock. Motorised vehicle includes aforesaid system.
EFFECT: safe control over automatic transmission.
13 cl, 2 dwg