Semiconductor infrared source (versions)

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor infrared source includes a semiconductor substrate (1) with two optically connected and geometrically spaced-apart disc resonators (2) or annular resonators (10) in form of a heterostructure. On the surface of the semiconductor substrate (1) lying opposite the surface with the disc resonators (2) or annular resonators (10) there a first ohmic contact (3). A second ohmic contact (8) is deposited on the face of the corresponding disc resonator (2) or annular resonator (10). The distance from the outer edge of the second contact to the inner edge of the resonator is not more than 100 mcm. The disc resonators (2) or annular resonators (10) lie from each other at a distance L or overlap in the region of waveguides at a depth D, said distance and depth satisfying certain relationships.

EFFECT: simple design and reducing optical loss during single-mode oscillation in the middle infrared spectrum.

2 cl, 14 dwg

 

The invention relates to optoelectronic engineering, more specifically to a compact source of laser radiation in the infrared wavelength range, namely semiconductor single-frequency sources of infrared (IR) radiation based on laser disk resonator operating on whispering gallery modes (Whispering Gallery Modes - WGM). These sources of infrared radiation can be applied in various fields of science and technology, in industry, such as in spectroscopy, medicine, optical communication systems and transmission of information, in ultrafast optical computing and switching systems.

Currently there is an acute need for single-frequency radiation sources operating in the spectral range 1.6÷5 µm for diode-laser spectrometer of high resolution. In this spectral range are characteristic of the absorption line of a considerable number of toxic and harmful gases and liquids, explosives, etc. However, the advantages of optical detection of such substances are not fully used due to the lack of simple sources of coherent radiation in this wavelength range.

The active region of a semiconductor laser operating in the middle infrared region of the spectrum, usually a narrow-gap semiconductor. In such semiconductors strong (compared the structure with more wide-gap) processes of nonradiative recombination, that lowers the gain in the active region. Therefore, the increasing demand for q-switched laser cavity comprising an active region and providing feedback to stimulated emission of light. The resonator largely determines not only the size and shape of the laser, but the beam parameters: power, direction, and spectral characteristics of the laser.

Semiconductor lasers are widely used Fabry-Perot cavities, in which the two cleaved plane of the semiconductor crystal act as parallel mirrors. However, the gain is not sufficient to move the traditional strip lasers in the generation mode at room temperature. Also the disadvantages of lasers with cavity Fabry-Perot (stripline lasers) can be attributed to the complexity of the technology, significant optical loss in the narrow-gap material of the active region and the low quality factor of the resonator. In the strip lasers to obtain single-mode lasing is necessary to embed a diffraction grating, which considerably complicates the manufacturing process of the laser.

Known multimode semiconductor laser with a resonator Fabry-Perot strip design for the spectral range 2.0-2.4 μm, which is in a narrow range of operating currents can work is in a single-mode regime. [Astakhov, A.P., Baranov A.N., Vis A., Ionkov A.N., Kolchanova NM, Stoyanov N, Chernyaev A.A., Area D.A., P. Yakovlev) 37(4), 502 (2003)]. Single-mode generation of such a laser is unstable and therefore it is possible only to speak of the possibility of his generation in single-mode.

The main advantage of this laser is the possibility of single-mode lasing radiation. The main disadvantage of this laser resonator Fabry-Perot should include the complexity of the technological implementation of the proposed design.

In lasers with ring resonator feedback circuit is a ray of light. One type of such resonators is a disk resonator. Disk and ring resonators using the effect of total internal reflection. The laser disk and the ring resonator operates at WG modes (whispering gallery modes). In a laser with such a resonator light circulates in a circle inside the resonator along the perimeter of the disk, Bouncing off walls angle greater than the critical angle for total internal reflection. The region of localization of light in such a resonator is several wavelengths from the edge of the resonator. Light loss due to absorption and scattering by rough surfaces, minimal, due to the high q-factor disk resonat the RA. The main mechanism of optical losses, causing the threshold current, is the scattering of light on the heterogeneity of the edges of the resonator. In the IR band due to the relatively large wavelength of the boundary "semiconductor-air" not so much as for the visible range.

Advantages of lasers with the disk and the ring resonator - manufacturability, low threshold current, high q resonator, allowing the use of the materials for the active region with low optical amplification. However, in the laser disk and the ring resonator is observed multimode operation of the laser generation.

Known multimode semiconductor disk laser (WGM laser), operating at a wavelength of 2.4 μm at room temperature (see Iagreement, Ndirika, Art, Ammonio, Apostolova, Upekali, G.Boissier, R.Teissier, Annarino, technical physics Letters 34(21), 27, 2008). The laser includes a quantum-well heterostructure based on semiconductor compounds, the laser resonator in the form of a disc, the ohmic contacts. Quantum-size heterostructure on the GaSb substrate includes sequentially grown restrictive layer n-Alfor 0.9Gaa 0.1As0,08Sb0,92, waveguide layer Alof 0.25Ga0,75As0,02Sb0,98quantum is mu Ga of 0.65In0,35As0,11Sb0,89width of 10 nm, the separation layer Alof 0.25Ga0,75As0,02Sb0,98with a thickness of 30 nm, the quantum pit Gaof 0.65In0,35As0,11Sb0,89width of 10 nm, the waveguide layer Alof 0.25Ga0,75As0,02Sb0,98restrictive layer R-Alfor 0.9Gaa 0.1As0,08Sb0,92and a contact layer of p-GaSb. Both the quantum well is made of the same thickness, and the presence of the second pit guarantees the operation of the laser when the possible occurrence of defects at the boundaries of the quantum well. The diameter of the resonator in the form of a disc of 200 μm, a height of 15 μm. The alternation in the structure of strained and non-strained layers created a special profile of the lateral surface of the disk resonator, reminiscent of the Eastern pagoda. Part of the active region and the upper contact layer are around the perimeter of the disk beyond the emitter layers. In this resonator, the conditions for the formation of sustainable WGM-mod serving part of the active medium. The ohmic contact side of the substrate n-GaSb (bottom) is continuous, the ohmic contact side contact layer p-GaSb (upper) is made in the form of a ring with a width of 30 μm with an external diameter of 180 μm and separated from the edge of the resonator 10 μm. The threshold t is to the laser is 40 mA, the wavelength of the dominant mode of the laser, due to the wide quantum wells (10 nm) to 2.35 ám.

In the conventional semiconductor disk laser radiation has a multimode periodic structure, and the distance between the mod was 27 Ǻ.

The advantages of this laser can be attributed to the simplicity of the technology, increased operating currents while maintaining a relatively low threshold currents. The main disadvantage of the known device is a multimode generation mode.

Known semiconductor source of infrared radiation (see application KR 20060132745, IPC G02B 6/12; G02F 1/01; H01S 5/02, published 21.12.2006), representing a complex system consisting of a semiconductor emitter for optical pumping (laser), light transmitting through the optical fiber ring resonator, which in turn contains heating elements which are used to change the wavelength. This radiation is transmitted to another resonator, which also contains heating elements.

The disadvantage of this source is the complexity of the system due to the fact that there are waveguides, heating elements and passive resonators. This creates additional optical losses in the transmission of light through the waveguide from the source to the resonator. Control the wavelength of the implementation of the is due to the heating.

Known tunable wavelength laser (see patent EP 1699120, IPC H01S 5/06; H01S 5/10, 06.09.2006), representing a complex system, working from the optical input light on the three waveguides, resonators in the form of concentric rings. To control the wavelength used heating elements.

The disadvantage of this laser is its complicated structure due to the presence of numerous additional elements, which leads to additional optical losses in the transmission of light through the waveguide from the source to the resonator.

Known tunable wavelength laser (see application J 2006245346, IPC H01S 3/083, 14.09.2006 there, including many ring resonators. For communication between the resonators using waveguides (2, 3 or more); the reconstruction wavelength of the radiation produced by heating with the participation of the heating elements.

Well-known laser inherent additional optical losses in the transmission of light through the waveguide from the source to the resonator.

Known bistable optical component (see patent NL 1027194, IPC G02F 3/02; H01S 5/10 published 10.04.2006), including at least two resonator of material And3B5as microcalcium lasers, one or more of which is associated with an optical input and one or more of which is associated with optical is output. Fashion resonators are moving clockwise and counterclockwise. Each resonator can generate light of at least two unrelated resonant directions. The optical resonators are connected so that the light from one can go to another one of their resonance lines.

In the known device there is no single mode operation, and we have additional optical losses in the transmission of light through the waveguide.

A well-known source of infrared radiation (see claim US 2009154505, IPC H01S 3/10, published 18.06.2009), coinciding with the proposed technical solution for the greatest number of significant features and adopted for the prototype. Source-the prototype includes a semiconductor substrate with two geometrically spaced ring resonators based compounds And3B5with different radii, optically connected passive waveguides, solid ohmic contact deposited on the surface of a semiconductor substrate, the mating surface of the ring resonators, and two annular ohmic contact, each of which bears on the end face of the respective ring resonator. The connection of the first and second ring resonators produces (creates) a new double-associated ring resonator, in which a stable laser oscilla the Oia only occurs at the resonant wavelength, which two ring resonator interact at the resonant frequency.

The disadvantage of this source of infrared radiation is the complexity of the design, because, in addition to the resonators, it has two waveguide (input and output), which leads to additional optical losses in the transmission of light through the waveguide and complicates the manufacturing technology source.

The problem solved by the invention was to simplify the design of the source of infrared radiation and the reduction of optical losses in single-mode lasing in the middle IR region of the spectrum (1.6÷5) microns.

The problem is solved by a group of inventions, United by a common inventive concept.

In the first scenario the problem is solved in that the semiconductor source of infrared radiation comprises a semiconductor substrate with two bound a disk or ring resonators in the form heterostructures, the first ohmic contact deposited on the surface of the semiconductor substrate opposite the surface with the disk resonators, and two second ohmic contact, each of which bears on the end face of the corresponding disk or a ring resonator. The distance from the outer edge of the second contact to the outer edge of the resonator does not exceed 100 microns. Disk or ring the new resonators are separated from each other by a distance L, satisfies the relation:

0≤L≤5λin, um,

where λin- wavelength semiconductor source of infrared radiation (air), mcm.

On the second version the problem is solved in that the semiconductor source of infrared radiation comprises a semiconductor substrate with two mutually intersecting at a depth D of the disk or ring resonators in the form heterostructures, the first ohmic contact deposited on the surface of a semiconductor substrate, an opposite surface of the disk or ring resonators, and two electrically isolated from each other, the second ohmic contact, each of which bears on the end face of the corresponding disk resonator or a ring resonator, and the distance from the outer edge of the second contact to the outer edge of the resonator does not exceed 100 μm, while the depth D of the intersection of the disk or ring resonators satisfy the following relations : :

0≤D≤10λto, um,

where λto- wavelength semiconductor source of infrared radiation (in the crystal), mcm.

λtoin/n, where n is the refractive index of the semiconductor crystal.

The present invention is a laser system, with the standing of the semiconductor source of infrared radiation, contains 2 connected to a pair of disk or ring resonator. Such a semiconductor source of infrared radiation, as it was discovered, allows to achieve single-mode lasing.

The wavelength of a disk or a ring laser can be determined by the design of the active region of the heterostructure. It was found that for option semiconductor source of infrared radiation with two bound a disk or ring resonators, when the distance between the disk or ring resonators L exceeds 5 wavelength λ of the laser radiation (L>5λ), mode of laser operation when voltage is applied consistently as one of the disk or ring resonators and two resonator simultaneously observed only multimode generation of coherent radiation. For the case when the distance between the disk or ring resonators is less than 5 wavelengths and satises: 0≤L < 5λinwhen a voltage is applied to one of the two disk Il ring resonators observed only multimode generation, and in case of simultaneous activation of both the disk or ring resonators there is a selection of one of fashion and the laser system is in single-frequency mode of generation.

For option semiconductor source of infrared radiation TLD is I intersecting the disk or ring resonators, when the cavities intersect each other at a depth D, forming a common area, where D satisfies the condition: 0≤D<10λtoand when voltage is applied simultaneously to both of the disk or ring resonator is also observed single-mode generation.

Thus, in the present semiconductor source of infrared radiation with two circular or ring resonators under the conditions, when in the first embodiment, the distance L between the disk or ring resonators does not exceed 5 wavelengths, 0≤L < 5λinand in the second embodiment, the distance D, which determines the depth of mutual overlap of the two resonators, satisfies the conditions 0≤D<10λtoand when voltage is applied simultaneously to both of the disk or ring resonator is a selection of one fashion, and the laser system is in single-frequency mode of generation.

In addition, the absence of the passive waveguide for transmitting light from the light source to the cavity simplifies the design of the source of infrared radiation and reduces, in comparison with the prototype and analogues, optical losses in the generation in the middle IR region of the spectrum (1.6÷5) microns.

The present invention is illustrated in the drawing, where:

figure 1 shows the side view of the first variant of semiconductor source of infrared radiation with two of the associated disk resonators;

figure 2 shows a top view of a semiconductor source of infrared radiation, is shown in figure 1;

figure 3 schematically shows the band diagram of the disk resonator of a semiconductor source of infrared radiation, depicted in figure 1 (Ecthe conduction band, Ev- valent zone);

figure 4 shows the side view of the second variant of semiconductor source of infrared radiation with two intersecting disk resonators;

figure 5 shows a top view of a semiconductor source of infrared radiation, is shown in figure 4;

figure 6 shows the side view of the first variant of semiconductor source of infrared radiation associated with two ring resonators;

figure 7 shows a top view of a semiconductor source of infrared radiation, is shown in Fig.6;

on Fig shows the side view of the second variant of semiconductor source of infrared radiation with two intersecting disk resonators;

figure 9 shows a top view on a semiconductor source of infrared radiation, is shown in Fig;

figure 10 shows the spectrum of radiation at the distance L=0 µ (1 - I=260 mA; 2 - I=280 mA; 3 - I=320 mA; 4 - I=360 mA; 5 - I=400 mA);

figure 11 shows the emission spectrum when the Sam is Janie L=20 μm (L> 5λ); (6 - I=200 mA; 7 - I=300 mA; 8 - I=400 mA);

on Fig shows the spectrum of radiation at a distance of L=10 μm (L<5λin); (9 - I=200 mA; 10 - I=300 mA; 11 - I=400 mA; 12 - I=450 mA).

on Fig shows the spectrum of radiation at distance D=0 μm (0≤D<10λto); (13 - I=240 mA; 14 - I=300 mA; 15 - I=330 mA; 16 - I=380 mA).

on Fig shows the spectrum of radiation at a distance of D=9 ám (D>10λto); (17 - I=220 mA; 18 - I=320 mA).

In the first embodiment the semiconductor source of infrared radiation (see figure 1, figure 2, Fig.6, Fig.7) includes a semiconductor substrate 1, for example, of n-GaAs, InP, A2B6on one side of which is formed of two optically connected and geometrically spaced disk resonator 2 or ring resonator 10, for example, in the form heterostructures. On the other side of the substrate 1 caused the first ohmic contact 3. Each disk resonator 2 or the ring resonator 10 includes first restrictive layer 4, the active region 5, the second restrictive layer 6, a contact layer 7 and the second ohmic contact 8, and the distance from the outer edge of the second contact 8 to the outer edge of the resonator 2 is not larger than 100 μm. Disk resonators 2 or ring resonators 10 can, for example, contain (see figure 3) first restrictive layer 4 of n-Alfor 0.9Gaa 0.1As0,08Sb0,92the active region 5 of the l of 0.25Ga0,75As0,08Sb0,92with two quantum wells 9 of GaInAsSb, the second restrictive layer 6 of p-Alfor 0.9Gaa 0.1As0,08Sb0,92and a contact layer 7 of p-GaSb. Disk resonators 2 or ring resonators 10 are separated from each other at a distance L satisfies the relation: 0<L<5λin, mcm.

The second option semiconductor source of infrared radiation (see figure 4, figure 5, Fig, Fig.9) includes a semiconductor substrate 1, for example, of n-GaSb, one side of which is formed by two intersecting disk resonator, for example, in the form of heterostructure-based compounds And3B5. Disk resonators 2 or ring resonators 10 are optically connected and mutually cross each other in the field of waveguides to a depth of D (i.e. the distance of the intersection of the circumferences of the disk resonators 2). On the other side of the substrate 1 caused the first ohmic contact 3. Each disk resonator 2 or the ring resonator 10 includes first restrictive layer 4, the active region 5, the second restrictive layer 6, a contact layer 7 and the second ohmic contact 8. Disk resonators 2 or ring resonators 10 can, for example, contain (see figure 3) first restrictive layer 4 of n-Alfor 0.9Gaa 0.1As0,08Sb0,92 the active region 5 of the Alof 0.25Ga0,75As0,02Sb0,98with two quantum wells 9 of GaInAsSb, the second restrictive layer 6 of p-Alfor 0.9Gaa 0.1As0,08Sb0,92,a contact layer 7 of p-GaSb and the second ohmic contact 8, and the distance from the outer edge of the second contact 8 to the outer edge of the disk resonator 2 or ring resonator 10 is not larger than 100 μm. Disk resonators 2 or ring resonators 10 overlap each other at a distance D satisfies the relation: 0<D<10λto, μm, where λtoin/n the refractive index n=3,5 for semiconductor crystals, and two second ohmic contact 8 are electrically isolated from each other.

This semiconductor source of infrared radiation works in the following way. The first and second ohmic contacts 3, 8 disk resonators 2 or ring resonators 10 serves voltage U from the DC power source (not shown) up to 4, resulting in cavities begin to operate on their own frequency. In this case the electromagnetic wave circulating around the circle in the disk waveguide of each of the resonators, flows from one resonator to another due to the fact that the two optically connected and geometrically spaced dis is a new resonator 2 or ring resonator 10 or two optically coupled and overlapping in the field of waveguides disk resonator 2 or ring resonator 10 is located at a distance from each other (L, D)sufficient for optical communication. When the supply voltage only on one of the disk resonators 2 or ring resonators 10 is observed multimode (multi-frequency) generation of laser radiation. When the supply voltage is applied simultaneously on two disk resonator 2 or ring resonator 10, there is only a single mode (single-frequency) generation of laser radiation due to the fact that the closest frequency fashion each laser adjust its frequency and resonate at the same frequency, and the rest go out of fashion.

Example 1. Semiconductor source of infrared radiation comprised of a semiconductor substrate of n-GaSb, one side of which is formed of two optically coupled and mutually geometrically related to each other in the field of waveguides disk resonator in the form of heterostructures and second ohmic contacts. On the other side of the substrate was deposited first ohmic contact. Disk resonators contained (see figure 3) first restrictive layer of n-Alfor 0.9Gaa 0.1As0,08Sb0,92the active region of the n-Alof 0.25Ga0,75As0,02Sb0,98with two quantum wells of n-Ga0.65In0.35As0.11Sb0.89the second restrictive layer of p-Al for 0.9Gaa 0.1As0,08Sb0,92, a contact layer of p-GaSb and the second ohmic contact. Disk resonators distance from each other at a distance L=0 μm, satisfies the relation: 0≤L < 5λin, µm (0≤D<10λtomicrons). The first and second ohmic contacts resonators were applied voltage U from sources of DC current measurements up to 4, resulting resonators started to work on its own frequency. In this case the electromagnetic wave, circularsa in a circle in the disk waveguide of each of the resonators, to flow from one cavity to another due to the fact that the two optically connected and geometrically spaced resonator or two optically coupled and overlapping in the region of the waveguide resonator located at a distance from each other (L, D)sufficient for optical communication. Then both laser began to emit radiation at the same frequency as the closest frequency fashion each laser was tuned to his frequency and included in the resonance, and the rest went out of fashion. Thus, began working single source of infrared radiation. Radiation spectra corresponding to the different pumping currents presented in Figure 10 (see spectrum # 1 - I=260 mA, 2 - I=280 mA, 3 - I=320 mA, 4 - I=360 mA, 5 - I=400 mA). Figure 10 shows that in the wavelength range of 2.24-of 2.25 μm both the laser is generated on the same wavelength, moreover, single-frequency nature of coherent radiation was preserved when increasing the pump current and, thus, both of the laser was operated as single frequency IR emitter.

Example 2. Semiconductor source of infrared radiation (see figure 1, figure 2) consisted of a semiconductor substrate of n-GaSb, one side of which is formed two optically connected and geometrically spaced disk resonator in the form heterostructures (analogously to example 1) (see figure 3) and second ohmic contacts. On the other side of the substrate was deposited first ohmic contact. Disk resonators distance from each other at a distance L=20 μm, does not satisfy the relation: 0≤L < 5λin, microns. Figure 11 shows that in the wavelength range of 2.24-2.26 and mkm both laser was not in resonance at the same frequency, and current increases only rebuilt frequency multimode (see range # 6 - I=200 mA, 7 - I=300 mA, 8 - I=400 mA).

Example 3. Semiconductor source of infrared radiation (see figure 1, figure 2) consisted of a semiconductor substrate of n-GaSb, one side of which is formed two optically connected and geometrically spaced disk resonator in the form heterostructures (analogously to example 1) (see figure 3) and second ohmic contacts. On the other side of the substrate was deposited first ohmic contact. Disk Rezo is atory distance from each other at a distance of L=10 μm, satisfies the relation: 0≤L < 5λin, microns. On Fig shows that in the wavelength range of 2.26-2,27 μm both laser included in the resonance and generate coherent radiation at the same frequency. Thus, both the laser was operated as single frequency IR emitter (see range No. 9 - I=200 mA, 10 - I=300 mA, 11 - I=400 mA, 12 - I=450 mA).

Example 4. Semiconductor source of infrared radiation (see figure 4, figure 5) consisted of a semiconductor substrate of n-GaSb, one side of which is formed of two mutually related to each other in the field of waveguide ring resonator in the form heterostructures (see Fig.6)and second ohmic contacts. On the other side of the substrate was deposited first ohmic contact. Disk resonators mutually crossing each other at a depth of D=0 μm, which satisfies the relation: 0≤D<10λtomicrons; where λto- wavelength semiconductor source of infrared radiation (in the crystal), μm. λtoin/n, where n is the refractive index of the semiconductor crystal. On Fig shows that in the wavelength range of 2.26-2,27 μm both laser included in the resonance and generate coherent radiation at the same frequency. Thus, both the laser was operated as single frequency IR emitter (see range N 13 - I=240 mA; 14 - I=300 mA; 15 - I=330 mA; 16 - I=380 mA).

Example 5. A semiconductor is a source of infrared radiation (see figure 4, figure 5) consisted of a semiconductor substrate of n-GaSb, one side of which is formed of two mutually crossing each other in the field of waveguides disk resonator in the form heterostructures (analogously to example 4) (see figure 3)) and second ohmic contacts. On the other side of the substrate was deposited first ohmic contact. Disk resonators mutually crossing each other at a depth of D=9 ám (D>10λto)that does not satisfy the relation: 0≤D<10λto, μm, where λto- wavelength semiconductor source of infrared radiation (in the crystal), μm. λtoin/n, where n is the refractive index of the semiconductor crystal. On Fig shows that in the wavelength range 2,22-to 2.29 μm both laser was not in resonance at the same frequency.

1. Semiconductor source of infrared radiation, comprising a semiconductor substrate with two optically connected and geometrically spaced disk resonators or ring resonators in the form heterostructures, the first ohmic contact deposited on the surface of the semiconductor substrate opposite the surface with the disk or ring resonators resonators, and two second ohmic contact, each of which bears on the end face of the corresponding disk resonator or ring d is onator, the distance from the outer edge of the second contact to the outer edge of the resonator does not exceed 100 μm, while the disk or ring resonators resonators are separated from each other by a distance L satisfies the relation: 0<L<5λ, μm, where λ is the wavelength (in air) of a semiconductor source of infrared radiation, um.

2. Semiconductor source of infrared radiation, comprising a semiconductor substrate with two optically coupled and mutually overlapping in the field of waveguides on the depth D of the disk resonators or ring resonators in the form heterostructures, the first ohmic contact deposited on the surface of the semiconductor substrate opposite the surface with the disk or ring resonators resonators, and two electrically isolated from each other, the second ohmic contact, each of which bears on the end face of the corresponding disk resonator or a ring resonator, and the distance from the outer edge of the second contact to the outer edge of the resonator does not exceed 100 μm, while the depth D of the overlapping disk resonators or ring resonators satisfies value: 0<D<10λtoμm, where λto- wavelength radiation (in the crystal) of a semiconductor source of infrared radiation, µ, λto=λ/n, where n is the display of the tel-refractive semiconductor crystal.



 

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Semiconductor laser // 2408119

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor laser has a heterostructure in form of a thin plane-parallel plate, two mirrors which form an optical resonator having an optical axis and lying on both sides of the heterostructure, and pumping apparatus. Using the pumping apparatus, a volume is excited in the heterostructure, having a dimension along the axis of the resonator which is considerably smaller than across the axis of the resonator. The optical resonator has at least one extra absorbing layer in which nonequilibrium-carrier recombination takes place. The extra absorbing layer lies perpendicular the optical axis in the resonator mode unit, whose wavelength lies on the maximum of the spectrum of optical amplification of the heterostructure. Said absorbing layer absorbs spontaneous radiation propagating at an angle to the optical axis outside the fundamental mode of the resonator.

EFFECT: increase in power of the laser owing increase in cross dimensions of the excitation region.

32 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in semiconductor instrument containing sink, source consisting of transistor cells and peripheral p-n junction, which are located under gate electrode, as well as of metal electrode of source, which is located above gate electrode, polysilicon gate electrode insulated from source areas with dielectric, which contains in middle part the matrix of transistor cells and peripheral end part overlapping above the dielectric the source peripheral p-n junction; end part of polysilicon gate electrode, which overlaps above the dielectric the source peripheral p-n junction, is topologically separated from end cell of matrix of transistor cells and not covered with source metal coating.

EFFECT: reducing the resistance of power double-diffused MOS transistors in open state, without increase in the size of crystal and deterioration of other parameters.

2 cl, 3 dwg

Multichannel reader // 2282269

FIELD: optical data processing systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed multichannel reader built on semiconductor substrate has N input units, multiple-output switching unit, common read-out bus, write bus, pre-processor signal processing unit incorporating comparator, arithmetic-logic device, and memory unit; one of two comparator inputs is designed to apply digital-code signal thereto and is connected to common read-out bus; other comparator input is designed to feed reference signal; comparator output is connected to input of arithmetic-logic device whose output is connected to input of memory unit whose output is coupled with write bus; each input unit is made in the form of amplifier that has input, output, and control input, as well as two MIS transistors; first MIS transistor gate is connected to output of respective cell of multiple-output switching unit and gate, to common read-out bus; second MIS transistor gate is connected to output of next cell of multiple-output switching unit and gate, to write bus; each input unit is provided in addition with K-capacity analog-to-digital converter and L-capacity digital-to-analog converter; first MIS transistor source is connected to output of analog-to-digital converter whose input is connected to amplifier output; second MIS transistor source is connected to input of digital-to-analog converter whose output is connected to amplifier control input; common read-out bus is assembled of K buses, K being equal to capacity of analog-to-digital converter and to number of first MIS transistors connected through their gates to respective outputs of multiple-output switching unit, through drains, to respective buses of common read-out buses, and through sources, to respective inputs of analog-to-digital converters; write bus is assembled of L buses, L being equal to digital-to-analog converter capacity and to number of second MIS transistors connected through drains to respective buses forming write bus, through gates, to output of next cell of multiple-output switching unity, and through sources, to respective inputs of digital-to-analog converter.

EFFECT: extended dynamic range, enhanced speed, enlarged functional capabilities.

1 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to a structure oriented on the radio, in particular, to the structure of the CMOS circuits for digital radio transceiver

The invention relates to microelectronics, and more specifically to the development of a complementary bipolar transistor structures in the manufacture of integrated circuits

Multichannel reader // 2282269

FIELD: optical data processing systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed multichannel reader built on semiconductor substrate has N input units, multiple-output switching unit, common read-out bus, write bus, pre-processor signal processing unit incorporating comparator, arithmetic-logic device, and memory unit; one of two comparator inputs is designed to apply digital-code signal thereto and is connected to common read-out bus; other comparator input is designed to feed reference signal; comparator output is connected to input of arithmetic-logic device whose output is connected to input of memory unit whose output is coupled with write bus; each input unit is made in the form of amplifier that has input, output, and control input, as well as two MIS transistors; first MIS transistor gate is connected to output of respective cell of multiple-output switching unit and gate, to common read-out bus; second MIS transistor gate is connected to output of next cell of multiple-output switching unit and gate, to write bus; each input unit is provided in addition with K-capacity analog-to-digital converter and L-capacity digital-to-analog converter; first MIS transistor source is connected to output of analog-to-digital converter whose input is connected to amplifier output; second MIS transistor source is connected to input of digital-to-analog converter whose output is connected to amplifier control input; common read-out bus is assembled of K buses, K being equal to capacity of analog-to-digital converter and to number of first MIS transistors connected through their gates to respective outputs of multiple-output switching unit, through drains, to respective buses of common read-out buses, and through sources, to respective inputs of analog-to-digital converters; write bus is assembled of L buses, L being equal to digital-to-analog converter capacity and to number of second MIS transistors connected through drains to respective buses forming write bus, through gates, to output of next cell of multiple-output switching unity, and through sources, to respective inputs of digital-to-analog converter.

EFFECT: extended dynamic range, enhanced speed, enlarged functional capabilities.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in semiconductor instrument containing sink, source consisting of transistor cells and peripheral p-n junction, which are located under gate electrode, as well as of metal electrode of source, which is located above gate electrode, polysilicon gate electrode insulated from source areas with dielectric, which contains in middle part the matrix of transistor cells and peripheral end part overlapping above the dielectric the source peripheral p-n junction; end part of polysilicon gate electrode, which overlaps above the dielectric the source peripheral p-n junction, is topologically separated from end cell of matrix of transistor cells and not covered with source metal coating.

EFFECT: reducing the resistance of power double-diffused MOS transistors in open state, without increase in the size of crystal and deterioration of other parameters.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor infrared source includes a semiconductor substrate (1) with two optically connected and geometrically spaced-apart disc resonators (2) or annular resonators (10) in form of a heterostructure. On the surface of the semiconductor substrate (1) lying opposite the surface with the disc resonators (2) or annular resonators (10) there a first ohmic contact (3). A second ohmic contact (8) is deposited on the face of the corresponding disc resonator (2) or annular resonator (10). The distance from the outer edge of the second contact to the inner edge of the resonator is not more than 100 mcm. The disc resonators (2) or annular resonators (10) lie from each other at a distance L or overlap in the region of waveguides at a depth D, said distance and depth satisfying certain relationships.

EFFECT: simple design and reducing optical loss during single-mode oscillation in the middle infrared spectrum.

2 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microelectronics. An element library based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, comprising a p-type substrate and an n-type pocket, n- and p-type MOS transistor active regions, p+ and n+ contacts for the zero potential and supply bus, further includes an extended n+ protection located along the outer boundary of the pocket and which fills the entire free area of the pocket, as well as an annular p+ protection around each of the n-type transistor groups with drain/gate regions of transistors with different potential, which fills the entire free area of the substrate.

EFFECT: creating a radiation-resistant element library based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors with a smaller area of elements on the chip and faster operation.

5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: thin-film transistor TFT includes a gate, a first insulating layer located above the gate, a second insulating layer located above the first insulating layer, a semiconductor layer, a source and a drain, located between the first insulating layer and the second insulating layer, an ohmic contact layer located between the semiconductor layer, the source and the drain, the ohmic contact layer including an opening passing through the ohmic contact layer by means of a gap between the source and the drain in order to open the semiconductor layer, and the second insulating layer is connected to the semiconductor layer through this opening, and a conductive layer located above the second insulating layer. The conductive layer and the gate are electrically connected to each other, so that when the TFT is in the on-state, the switching current generated in the conductive channels of the semiconductor layer is increased. When the TFT is in the off-state, the tripping current generated in the conductive channels is reduced.

EFFECT: the ratio of the making current to the tripping current is increased.

15 cl, 6 dwg

Semiconductor laser // 2408119

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor laser has a heterostructure in form of a thin plane-parallel plate, two mirrors which form an optical resonator having an optical axis and lying on both sides of the heterostructure, and pumping apparatus. Using the pumping apparatus, a volume is excited in the heterostructure, having a dimension along the axis of the resonator which is considerably smaller than across the axis of the resonator. The optical resonator has at least one extra absorbing layer in which nonequilibrium-carrier recombination takes place. The extra absorbing layer lies perpendicular the optical axis in the resonator mode unit, whose wavelength lies on the maximum of the spectrum of optical amplification of the heterostructure. Said absorbing layer absorbs spontaneous radiation propagating at an angle to the optical axis outside the fundamental mode of the resonator.

EFFECT: increase in power of the laser owing increase in cross dimensions of the excitation region.

32 cl, 1 dwg

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