Adjustable transformer with switched taps

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: adjustable voltage transformer comprises the following: a primary winding connected to a source of power supply, a secondary winding electrically isolated from the primary winding, besides, the secondary winding is designed to reduce the primary voltage down to the secondary voltage and a multistep switch of transformer taps connected with the secondary winding, besides, the transforer tap switch divides the secondary voltage into the specified number of voltage steps.

EFFECT: even and less distorted adjustment of current supplied to heaters of electric resistance, supply of power supply to heaters of underground beds and their adjustment.

20 cl, 4 dwg

 

The scope to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to power supply systems for heaters underground reservoirs. More specifically, the invention relates to regulated voltage transformers used to supply power to the heaters underground reservoir.

The prior art.

Single-phase voltage regulators with switching branches, since their creation in the 1930s are reliable products for General purposes. Voltage regulators with switching branches were used at the far end of the industrial distribution systems for voltage regulation at the consumer in areas remote from sources of supply. Voltage regulators provides a reliable adjustment for voltage stabilization (e.g., plus or minus 10%). The voltage regulators are autotransformers with typical ranges of the control voltages from 7200 B to 19900 B. Switches branches transformer with a 10% range of adjustment is provided by adjustment of +10% or -10% of the voltage on the input line. For example, the voltage regulator with a nominal input voltage 13200 will provide adjustment 13200 B plus 1320 B (or until 14520 B) and will provide adjustment 13200 B minus 1320 B (or until 11880 B).

Modern regulate the s voltage General purpose are microprocessor-based controllers, regulating the output voltage, providing switching branches up or down, in order, respectively, to set the desired voltage. Typical controllers provide the control current and may have the ability for remote data transmission. The firmware of the controller can be changed to adjust the current (for example, adjustments are desirable to maintain a constant power consumption, since the resistance of the heater varies with temperature). Control of the load resistance, as well as the analysis of other electrical parameters based on calculation is possible because the controller can determine how the current and voltage. Typical switches branches of the transformer to withstand short-term current load component 200% of nominal. Thus, the regulator controller can be programmed to respond to a current overload through the operation of switching branches transformer.

Can be used in electronic devices, electric heater control, for example, silicon controlled thyristors (SCR) to ensure supply of electricity to the heaters underground reservoirs and their regulation. The use of silicon controlled thyristors (SCR) is expensive, and can the t to observed excess power consumption in the power network. Also silicon controlled thyristors (SCR) can create harmonic distortion when adjusting the power of the heaters underground reservoirs. Harmonic distortion can introduce noise into the power line and load heaters. In addition, the silicon controlled thyristors (SCR) may excessively load the heaters, switching the power supply between the two provisions "fully on" and "fully off", instead of adjusting the power supply in the range of optimum current or near it. The result can be a significant overestimation and/or underestimation of temperature at rated current for the heaters with temperature limit (for example, heaters that use ferromagnetic materials for the self-limiting temperature). Thus, there is a need for more uniform and less distorted adjusting the current supplied to the electrical resistance heaters, particularly to heaters with temperature limit, which is used to heat the oil-bearing underground formations.

Adjustable voltage transformer with switching branches, based on the design of the controller with switching branches, can be used for supplying power to the heaters underground reservoirs and their adjustment carried out bluepost and without harmonic distortion, associated with electronic adjustment of the heater. Adjustable voltage transformer can be connected with the systems of power distribution by means of simple, inexpensive fusible switches. Adjustable voltage transformer can act as a cost-effective independent full-featured controller heater and an isolating transformer.

Disclosure of inventions

Described herein embodiments of the invention, in General, relate to power systems for heaters underground reservoirs. Certain embodiments of the invention relate to the regulated voltage transformers used to supply power to the heaters underground reservoir.

In certain embodiments of the invention an adjustable voltage transformer has a primary winding formed in such a way that it was connected to the power source, which supplies the primary winding of the primary voltage; a secondary winding electrically isolated from the primary winding and the secondary winding is formed to reduce the primary voltage to secondary voltage, which is a specified percentage of the primary voltage; multistage switch branch of the transformer connected to the secondary winding,and switch branches transformer divides the secondary voltage on a selected number of stages of voltage, the voltage step increases from the voltage constituting a selected minimum percentage of the secondary voltage, to a voltage constituting a selected maximum percentage of the secondary voltage; and an electric load is formed in such a way that it was connected with the multi-stage switch branch of the transformer to supply power to the load at the desired voltage, while the multi-stage switch branch of the transformer is formed so that it can connect to the selected level of voltage to supply the selected voltage to an electrical load.

In some embodiments of the invention, the controlled voltage transformer for supplying power to three-phase electrical load includes a first adjustable voltage transformer connected to the first shoulder three-phase electrical load; a second adjustable voltage transformer connected to a second shoulder of a three-phase electrical load; a third adjustable voltage transformer connected to a third shoulder three-phase electrical load. Each of the regulated voltage transformers, namely the first, second and third contains a primary winding formed of the same the way so it was connected to the power source, which supplies the primary winding of the primary voltage; a secondary winding electrically isolated from the primary winding and the secondary winding is formed to reduce the primary voltage to secondary voltage, which is a specified percentage of the primary voltage; multistage switch branch of the transformer connected to the secondary winding, and switch branches transformer divides the secondary voltage to the selected number of stages of the voltage at this stage of the voltage increase from the selected minimum percentage of the secondary voltage to a selected maximum percentage of the secondary voltage. The corresponding shoulder three-phase electrical load is formed in such a way as to be connected with the multi-stage switch branch of the transformer to provide power to the load at the desired voltage. Multistage switch branch of the transformer is formed in such a way as to connect to the selected level of voltage to supply the selected voltage to the corresponding shoulder.

In some embodiments of the invention, the method for adjusting the voltage supplied to one and the or more heaters, includes power supply to the first heater when the selected voltage with the use of an adjustable voltage transformer, and an adjustable voltage transformer includes a primary winding formed in such a way that it was connected to a power source that provides a supply voltage to the primary winding; a secondary winding electrically isolated from the primary winding and the secondary winding is formed to reduce the primary voltage to secondary voltage, which is a specified percentage of the primary voltage; multistage switch branch of the transformer connected to the secondary winding, and switch branches transformer divides the secondary voltage on a selected number of stages of voltage, the voltage is stepped increases from the voltage constituting a selected minimum percentage of the secondary voltage, to a voltage constituting a selected maximum percentage of the secondary voltage, and a multi-stage switch branch of the transformer connects the selected level of voltage to supply the selected voltage to the first heater; determining the change in electrical resistance of the first heater chosen for the significant period of time; and the selected adjustment of the voltage supplied to the first heater by connecting a multi-stage switch branches transformer selected level voltage, and the selected voltage is changed in response to a change in the electrical resistance of the first heater.

In some embodiments of the invention, the method for adjusting the voltage supplied to one or more heaters, includes power supply to the first heater when the selected voltage with the use of an adjustable voltage transformer, and an adjustable voltage transformer includes a primary winding formed in such a way that it was connected to a power source that provides a supply voltage to the primary winding; a secondary winding electrically isolated from the primary winding and the secondary winding is formed to reduce the primary voltage to secondary voltage, which is a specified percentage of the primary voltage; multistage switch branch of the transformer connected to the secondary winding, and switch branch transformer divides the secondary voltage on a selected number of stages of voltage, the voltage step at Illichivets from voltage, constituting the selected minimum percentage of the secondary voltage, to a voltage constituting a selected maximum percentage of the secondary voltage, and a multi-stage switch branch of the transformer connects the selected level of voltage to supply the selected voltage to the first heater; determining the change in electrical resistance of the first heater; providing power at the first selected voltage up until the electrical resistance of the first heater reaches a selected value; determination of electrical resistance of the first heater for a selected period of time and detect changes in the electrical resistance of the first heater when the second selected voltage for a selected period of time; and adjusting the second selected voltage to the first heater by connecting a multi-stage switch branches transformer selected level voltage, and the selected voltage is changed in response to a change in the electrical resistance of the first heater.

In some embodiments of the invention, the method for adjusting the voltage supplied to one or more heaters, includes providing the electric power what s the first heater when the selected voltage with the use of an adjustable voltage transformer, with adjustable voltage transformer includes a primary winding formed in such a way that it was connected to a power source that provides a supply voltage to the primary winding; a secondary winding electrically isolated from the primary winding and the secondary winding is formed to reduce the primary voltage to secondary voltage, which is a specified percentage of the primary voltage; multistage switch branch of the transformer connected to the secondary winding, and switch branches transformer divides the secondary voltage on a selected number of stages of voltage, the voltage is stepped increase of the voltage constituting a selected minimum percentage of the secondary voltage, to a voltage constituting a selected maximum percentage of the secondary voltage, and a multi-stage switch branch of the transformer connects the selected level of voltage to supply the selected voltage to the first heater; determination of electrical resistance of the first heater when the selected voltage; and cyclic change to the selected voltages supplied to the first heater by switching the multistage switch is elem branches of the transformer between the selected speed voltage, at least, between the two stages of voltage so that the selected voltage is cyclically varied at least between the two strains during the selected duration time of submission of each of these at least two voltages.

In additional embodiments of the invention the characteristics of certain embodiments of the invention can be combined with features of other embodiments of the invention. For example, the characteristics of a variant embodiment of the invention can be combined with features of any of the embodiments of the invention.

In additional embodiments of the invention processing a subterranean formation field is performed when applying any method, any system, any power or any of the heaters described here.

In additional embodiments of the invention to certain variants of the invention described herein may be added additional features.

Brief description of drawings

The advantages of the present invention will be obvious to experts in the art from the following detailed description of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

figure 1 - scheme of the system section of the in-situ thermal processing for printing handling the CI seam, containing hydrocarbon, according to one embodiments of the invention;

2 is a diagram of a known voltage regulator with switchable branches of conventional design;

figure 3 - diagram of the regulated voltage transformer with switchable branches;

figure 4 is an example of an adjustable transformer and regulator according to the invention.

Along with the fact that the invention may be subjected to various modifications and alternatives may be used configurations, certain variations in its implementation examples presented, accompanied by drawings, which will later be described in detail. The drawings shown are not to scale. It should be understood that the drawings and detailed description are not intended to limit the invention to the specific disclosed configuration, but on the contrary, the intention of the inventors is to cover all modifications, equivalents and alternatives falling within the essence and scope of the present invention, as defined in the following claims.

Detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention

The term "alternating current" refers to the time-varying current that changes its direction, essentially sinusoidal. With the passage of alternating current in the ferromagnetic conductor which is the surface effect.

"Curie point" is the temperature above which a ferromagnetic material loses all its ferromagnetic properties. In addition to losing all their ferromagnetic properties above the Curie point, the ferromagnetic material begins to lose its ferromagnetic properties, when a ferromagnetic material passes increasing the electric current.

"A layer" includes one or more layers containing hydrocarbons, and one or more layers that do not contain hydrocarbons, covering and/or the underlying sediments. The term "hydrocarbon-bearing layers" refers to layers in the reservoir, which contain hydrocarbons. Oil and gas layers can contain a non-hydrocarbonaceous material and a hydrocarbon material. "Covering" and/or "underlying" deposits include impermeable materials of various types. For example, overlying and/or underlying sediments may include rock, shale, claystone or wet/tight carbonate rock. Overlying and/or underlying sediments may include a layer containing hydrocarbon, or layers containing hydrocarbons, which are relatively impermeable and are not subjected to heat during the process of in-situ heat treatment, which leads to significant changes in the characteristics of the layers containing the hydrocarbon, in the covering and/or podstilaemoi the sediments. For example, the underlying sediments may contain shale or claystone, however, the underlying sediments during the process in-situ thermal processing does not allow heating to temperatures of pyrolysis. In some cases covering and/or underlying sediments may be somewhat permeable.

The term "formation fluids" refers to fluid environments, which are present in the reservoir, and may include fluids, obtained by pyrolysis, synthesis gas, moveable hydrocarbons and water (steam). Formation fluids may include hydrocarbon fluids, and non-hydrocarbonaceous fluids. The term "moving fluids" refers to the fluid media in the reservoir containing hydrocarbons, which acquire fluidity in the heat treatment of the formation. The term "produced fluids" refer to fluctuating environments, remote from the reservoir.

"Heat source" is any system that provides heating at least part of the layer, essentially, by conductive and/or radiative heat transfer. For example, the heat source may include electric heaters in the form of an insulated conductor, an extruded element and/or of the conductor located in the pipeline. The heat source may also include systems that generate heat when significativa outside of the reservoir or the reservoir. Systems can be surface burners, downhole gas burners, flameless combustion chambers dispersed combustion and normal combustion chambers dispersed burning. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the heat generated by one or more sources may be arranged in other energy sources. Other energy sources can directly heat the reservoir, or the energy can be transmitted to the coolant, which directly or indirectly heats the reservoir. It should be understood that one or more heat sources, that warm layer can use different sources of energy. Thus, for example, for a given reservoir, some heat sources may provide heat from electrical resistance heaters, some heat sources may provide heat obtained from combustion, and some heat sources may provide heat from one or more other energy sources (e.g., chemical reactions, solar energy, wind energy, biomass or other renewable energy sources). The chemical reaction may include exothermic reaction (for example, the oxidation reaction). The heat source may also be a heater that provides heat to the area near and/or surrounding nagrevayut, for example, the downhole heater.

"Heater" is any system or a heat source for generating heat in the wellbore or near wellbore. The heaters may include, but are not limited to, heaters, burners, combustion chambers, which interact with the material in the reservoir or produced from the formation, and/or use a combination of them.

"Hydrocarbons" usually consist of molecules, formed primarily by the atoms of carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons may also contain other elements, such as, but not limited to, halogen, metal elements, nitrogen, oxygen and/or sulfur. Hydrocarbons may include, but are not limited to, kerogen, bitumen, oil, asphaltene, oil, natural mineral waxes and petroleum bitumen. The hydrocarbons may be located in or close to the mineral skeleton rock in the ground. Skeletal breed may include, but are not limited to, sediment, sand layers, silicalite, carbonate, diatomite, and other porous media. "Hydrocarbon fluids are fluid environments, which include hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon fluids may include, capture, or can themselves be captured non-hydrocarbonaceous fluid environments, for example, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, dioxide angle of the ode, hydrogen sulfide, water, and ammonia.

The term "process in-situ heat treatment" refers to the process of heating a formation containing a hydrocarbon, a source of heat to increase the temperature, at least at the site of the reservoir above the temperature that ensures the mobility of the fluid, visbreaking, and/or pyrolysis of the material containing the hydrocarbon, resulting in the formation of moving fluid, the fluid that is formed when visbreaking, and/or fluid formed during the pyrolysis.

The term "heater with a limit temperature" generally refers to the heater, which is regulated by the heat capacity (e.g., reduced)by limiting the temperature rise above the set temperature, without the use of external controls, such as thermostats, power regulators, rectifiers or other devices. Heaters with temperature limit may be electrical resistance heaters fed by alternating current or modulated (e.g., "intermittent") DC.

The term "wellbore" refers to a hole in the seam made by drilling or installing tubing into the reservoir. The wellbore may have an essentially round cross section or a cross section of another form. Used herein, the terms "well" and "CTE is rtie", related to the hole in the reservoir, can be used interchangeably with the term "wellbore".

The reservoir can be treated in different ways to produce many different products. When conducting the in-situ heat treatment can be used in various stages or processes for formation treatment. In some embodiments of the invention in one or more areas of the reservoir is the solution mining for removal of soluble minerals from this site. Mineral dissolution can be performed before, during and/or after the execution of the process in-situ heat treatment. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the average temperature of one or more parcels at solution mining can be maintained below about 120°C.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, one or more sections of the formation is heated to remove water from the site and/or removal of methane and other volatile hydrocarbons from these sites. In some embodiments of the invention, the average temperature could rise from ambient temperature to temperatures below about 220°C during the removal of water and volatile hydrocarbons.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the one or more phase is in the reservoir is heated to a temperature when the reservoir hydrocarbons become mobile and/or visbreaking of hydrocarbons. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the average temperature in one or more areas of the reservoir is raised to a temperature at which the hydrocarbons become mobile in areas of the reservoir (for example, to temperatures in the range from 100°C to 250°C, 120°C to 240°C or 150°C to 230°C).

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, one or more sections of the formation is heated to a temperature at which the reservoir happen reactions of pyrolysis. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the average temperature in one or more sections of the formation may be increased to a temperature pyrolysis of hydrocarbons (for example, to temperatures in the range from 230°C to 900°C, 240°C to 400°C or 250°C to 350°C).

Heating the layer containing the hydrocarbon, using a variety of heat sources can create temperature gradients around the heat sources, which increase the temperature of the hydrocarbons in the reservoir to the desired temperature at the desired heating rate. The rate of temperature rise up to a temperature range of motion and/or temperature range of the pyrolysis to obtain the desired products can influence the quality and quantity of current which their environments in the reservoir, derived from the hydrocarbons contained in the reservoir. The slow rise of the temperature of the reservoir up to the temperature range of motion and/or temperature range of the pyrolysis can provide production from the reservoir quality of hydrocarbons with a high API gravity. The slow rise of temperature in the layer up to a temperature range of motion and/or temperature range of the pyrolysis may allow to remove a large quantity of hydrocarbons present in the formation in the form of petroleum products.

In some embodiments, the implementation of in-situ heat treatment according to the invention the area of the reservoir is heated to the desired temperature instead of slowly raising the temperature up to the above temperature range. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the desired temperature is 300°C, 325°C or 350°C. as the desired temperature can be selected different temperatures.

The addition of heat from heat sources makes it relatively quickly and effectively establish in the reservoir desired temperature. The energy input into the formation from heat sources can be adjusted to maintain in the reservoir, essentially, the desired operating temperature.

Mobile products and/or products obtained from pyrolysis can be created in the reservoir by promis the new wells. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the average temperature in one or more areas of the reservoir to increase temperatures the mobility of the fluid, and from wells producing hydrocarbons. The average temperature in one or more sections of the formation may be increased to a temperature pyrolysis in secondary production due to the lower mobility of the fluid below the selected. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the average temperature in one or more sections of the formation may be increased to a temperature pyrolysis at that until a temperature of pyrolysis was not conducted significant production. Reservoir fluids, including products obtained by pyrolysis, can be extracted through wells.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the average temperature in one or more areas of the reservoir can be increased to a temperature sufficient for the production of synthesis gas, achieved when the mobility of the hydrocarbons and/or occurred pyrolysis. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the temperature of the hydrocarbons can be increased to a temperature sufficient for the production of synthesis gas, despite the fact that before reaching this temperature was not conducted significant production. For example, the R, synthesis gas may be produced in the temperature range from about 400°C to about 1200°C, from about 500°C to 1100°C or from about 550°C to about 1000°C. Fluid (e.g. steam and/or water), which generates synthesis gas, can be introduced in areas of the formation to generate synthesis gas. Synthesis gas can be extracted from wells.

The solution mining, removal of volatile hydrocarbons and water, destruction of moveable hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons obtained by the pyrolysis and production of synthesis gas and/or other processes may be performed during in-situ thermal treatment. In accordance with some variations of the invention, certain processes can be performed after the process in-situ heat treatment. Such processes may include, but are not limited to, the return of heat from the treated plots, the storage fluid (e.g. water and/or hydrocarbons) in pre-treated plots, and/or isolation of carbon dioxide in the pre-treated areas of the layer.

Figure 1 presents the scheme of the plot system in-situ thermal processing of a processing layer containing the hydrocarbon, according to one embodiments of the invention. System in-situ thermal processing may include barrier wells 20. Barrier wells used to form a protection around the processing area. The barrier prevents the penetration of the flow of fluid into the treatment area and/or out of it. Barrier wells include, but are not limited to, drainage wells, vacuum wells, boreholes intercept, injection wells, cementing wells, wells for freezing or combinations thereof. According to some versions of the invention the barrier wells 200, drainage wells. With the use of drainage wells can remove liquid water and/or prevent the flow of liquid water in the area of the reservoir that needs to be heated, or heated reservoir. In accordance with the embodiment of the invention, represented in figure 1, the barrier wells 200 are located on one side only from sources 202 heating, however, the barrier wells may surround all sources 202 heating, or can be used for heating the treated area of the reservoir.

Sources 202 heat place, at least in one area of the reservoir. Sources 202 heat can turn on the heaters in the form of insulated conductors, heaters Explorer-in-pipe", surface burners, flameless combustion chamber dispersed combustion and normal combustion chamber dispersed burning. And the sources 202 heat can also include other types of heaters. Sources 202 heat provides heating at least one portion of the formation to heat the hydrocarbons in the reservoir. Sources 202 of heat energy may be supplied by the supply line 204. The power line 204 in constructive terms may vary depending on the type of heat source or a heat source used to heat the formation. On the supply lines 204 to the heat sources can be transmitted energy for heaters, can be transported fuel to the combustion chambers or can be transported by the coolant, which circulates in the reservoir. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the electricity for the process of in-situ heat treatment may be supplied from nuclear power plants or nuclear power plants. The use of nuclear power could reduce or eliminate the emissions of carbon dioxide during the process of in-situ thermal processing.

Commercial wells 206 are used to remove from the reservoir of fluid. In accordance with some variations of the invention field of the well 206 include a heat source. The heat source in the fishing hole can heat one or more sections of the reservoir in the fishing hole, or near it. In some embodiments, the process of vnutri astool heat treatment according to the invention the amount of heat supplied from commercial wells in the reservoir, based on meter commercial wells, less the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir from the heat source, heating the reservoir, based on meter heat source.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the application of a heat source in the fishing hole 206 allows you to delete the formation fluids from the formation by means of steam. The heat in the fishing hole or through commercial wells may: (1) to prevent condensation and/or draining of the extracted fluid, when such produced fluids are moved in the fishing hole near covering deposits, (2) increase heat input into the formation, (3) to improve the performance of commercial wells compared to the commercial well without a heat source, (4) to prevent condensation of compounds with high carbon number (C6and above) in the fishing hole, and/or (5) increase the permeability of the formation in the fishing hole or near the fishing hole.

Underground pressure in the reservoir can match the pressure of the fluid formed in the reservoir. As the temperature in the heated section of the formation increases, the pressure in the heated area may increase as a result of thermal expansion of the fluid, increasing the formation fluid is x environments and water evaporation. When regulating the speed of removal of fluid from the reservoir can be regulated pressure in the reservoir. The pressure in the reservoir can be defined in several different places, such as near wells or commercial wells, near heat sources or heat sources, or in the control wells.

In some formations containing hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon production from the formation is inhibited until such time as at least some hydrocarbons in the layer will not become loose and/or paralizovannaya. When the produced fluid acquires the required properties, it can be extracted from the reservoir. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the required properties include density API gravity of at least about 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° or 40°. Delayed extraction up until at least some hydrocarbons will not become loose and/or paralizovannaya can increase the conversion of heavy hydrocarbons into light hydrocarbons. Delay initial production can minimize the production of heavy hydrocarbons from the reservoir. During the production of significant quantities of heavy hydrocarbons may require expensive equipment and/or may decrease the service life of production equipment.

After reaching a temperature of mobility or pyrolysis using hydrocarbon which is capable of producing production from the reservoir, the pressure in the reservoir can be edited to change and/or adjust the composition of produced reservoir fluid handling in the reservoir fluid, the percentage of condensed fluid in comparison with the non-condensable fluid medium, and/or regulate the API gravity of the produced formation fluid. For example, the reduction of pressure can lead to producing more component condensation of the fluid. Condensed component of the fluid may contain a higher percentage of olefins.

When carrying out certain processes in-situ heat treatment according to the invention in the reservoir can be maintained sufficiently high pressure to facilitate the extraction of formation fluid with API gravity, making up more than 20°. Maintaining high pressure in the reservoir can prevent subsidence of the formation during the in-situ heat treatment. Maintaining the increased pressure can reduce or eliminate the need for compression of reservoir fluid raised to the surface, for transporting fluid through prefabricated piping installation for processing.

Maintaining high pressure in the heated section of the formation may provide the opportunity to produce a large number of hydrocarbons of high quality with otnositel is a low molecular weight. It is possible to maintain such pressure, so that the produced reservoir fluid had the minimum number of compounds with carbon number higher than the selected value. Selected carbon number may not be more than 25, not more than 20, not more than 12 and not more than 8. Some compounds with high carbon number can be captured by the vapor in the reservoir and can be removed from the reservoir with steam. Maintaining high pressure in the reservoir can suppress seizure ferry connections with high carbon number and/or polycyclic hydrocarbon compounds. Compounds with high carbon number and/or polycyclic hydrocarbon compounds may remain in the liquid phase in the reservoir for a considerable period of time. A significant period of time may allow sufficient time for the pyrolysis of compounds to form carbon compounds with a lower carbon number.

Formation fluid produced from wells 206 may be transported by feeder pipeline 208 installation 210 for processing. Formation fluids may also be created by the source 202 of heat. For example, fluids can be created by the source 202 of heat to regulate the pressure in the reservoir near sources of heat. Fluid created by the source 202 of heat can be transported through the Ohm tube or pipe into a collecting pipe 208, or produced fluid can be transported through a pipe or tube directly on the installation 210 for processing. Installation 210 for processing may include separation installation, the reaction unit, the unit refining, fuel cells, turbines, storage tanks and/or other systems and units for processing the extracted formation fluid. The processing plant can produce transportation fuels, at least part of the hydrocarbons produced from the formation. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the fuel may be jet fuel.

Modern voltage regulators General purpose are microprocessor-based controllers, which regulate the output voltage, providing switching branches up or down, in order, respectively, to set the desired voltage. Typical controllers provide the control current and may have the ability for remote data transmission. The firmware of the controller can be changed to adjust the current (for example, adjustments are desirable to maintain a constant power consumption, since the resistance of the heater varies with temperature). Control of the load resistance, as well as the analysis of other electric steam is m, based on calculation is possible because the controller can determine how the current and voltage. In addition to the current measured electrical properties include, but are not limited to, power, voltage, load factor, impedance or surge, which can be used as adjustable parameters. Typical switches branches of the transformer to withstand short-term current load component 200% of nominal. Thus, the regulator controller can be programmed to respond to a current overload through the operation of switching branches transformer.

Can be used in electronic devices, electric heater control, for example, silicon controlled thyristors (SCR) to ensure supply of electricity to the heaters underground reservoirs and their regulation. The use of silicon controlled thyristors (SCR) is expensive and can result in excessive power consumption in the power network. Also silicon controlled thyristors (SCR) can create harmonic distortion when adjusting the power of the heaters underground reservoirs. Harmonic distortion can introduce noise into the power line and load heaters. In addition, the silicon controlled thyristors (SCR) may excessively load the heaters, per the key power between the two provisions "fully on" and "fully off", instead of regulating the power supply in the range of optimum current or near it. Thus, there may occur a significant overestimation and/or underestimation of temperature at rated current for the heaters with temperature limit (for example, heaters that use ferromagnetic materials for the self-limiting temperature).

Adjustable voltage transformer with switching branches, based on the design of the controller with switching branches, can be used for supplying power to the heaters underground reservoirs and their adjustment carried out more simply and without harmonic distortion associated with electronic adjustment of the heater. The voltage transformer can be connected to the distribution systems of power through a simple and inexpensive fusible switches. The voltage transformer can act as a cost-effective independent full-featured controller heater and an isolating transformer.

Figure 2 presents the scheme of the controller 212 of the voltage switchable branches of known construction. The controller 212 provides adjustment in the range of plus or minus 10% of the input or line voltage. The controller 212 includes a primary winding 214 and section 216 of the switch response the definitions, which includes the secondary winding of the regulator. The primary winding 214 is consistent winding electrically connected with the secondary winding section 216 of the switch branch. Section 216 of the switch branch includes eight branches 218a Centralnaya street-N, which divide the voltage on the secondary winding on the level of voltage. The switch 220 branches with a movable contact is a safety transformer with a movable contact having a balanced winding. The switch 220 branches may have a sliding contact, which moves between branches 218a Centralnaya street-N in section 216 of the switch branch. The switch 220 branches can be designed for high current, for example, up to 668 And or more.

The switch 220 branches or in contact with one branch 218, or forms a bridge between the two branches to obtain the average voltage between the two voltage drops. Thus, there are 16 equivalent levels of voltage for switch 220 branches to ensure the connection section 216 of the switch branch. Stage voltage divide 10%adjustment range evenly (5/8% per stage). The switch 222 changes the voltage from plus to minus. Thus, the voltage can be adjusted in the range of p is YUS 10% or minus 10% of the input voltage.

Using the transformer 224 voltage is determined by the potential at the output 226. The potential at the output 226 may be used to analyze performed by a microprocessor-based controller. The controller adjusts the position of the contact on the branch to ensure the setpoint voltage. Power regulating transformer 228 provides power to the controller and the motor switch branches. Transformer 230 current is used to determine the current control.

Figure 3 presents a diagram of an adjustable transformer 232 voltage with switching branches. Diagram of the transformer 232 based on the diagram voltage regulator with switching branches presented in figure 2. The primary winding 214 is isolated from the secondary winding section 216 of the switch branch to create a separate primary winding and a single secondary winding. The primary winding 214 may be connected to a voltage source when using the conclusions 234, 236. The voltage source can supply primary voltage to the primary winding 214. The primary voltage may be a high voltage, for example, a voltage of at least 5 kV, at least 10 kV, at least, 25 kV, or at least 35 kV up to about 50 kV. The secondary winding section 216 of the switch branch m which may be connected to an electrical load (for example, one or more heaters subsurface strata) using the conclusions 238, 240. The electrical load may include, but are not limited to, heater with an insulated conductor (for example, a heater having a conductor with inorganic insulation), the heater conductor-in-the-pipeline", the heater with temperature limit, the heater in two shoulders, or the heater in one shoulder configuration three-phase heater. The electrical load may be different from heater (for example, equipment of the bottom of the drill string for forming a wellbore).

The secondary winding section 216 of the switch branch lowers the primary voltage in the primary winding 214 to the secondary voltage (for example, to a voltage that is lower than the primary voltage, or to the secondary voltage). In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the secondary winding section 216 of the switch branch lowers the voltage of the primary winding 214 to the secondary voltage, which ranges from 5% to 20% of the primary voltage primary winding. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the secondary winding section 216 of the switch branch lowers the voltage of the primary winding 214 to the secondary voltage, which ranges from 1% to 30% or from 3% to 5% of the primary voltage primary winding. In accordance with one variant of the invention, the secondary winding section 216 of the switch branch lowers the voltage of the primary winding 214 to the secondary voltage, which is 10% of the primary voltage primary winding. For example, the primary voltage 7200 In the primary winding can be reduced in section 216 of the switch branch to the secondary voltage 720 In the secondary winding.

In accordance with some variations of the invention sets the percentage reduction in the voltage section 216 of the switch branch. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the percentage of voltage reduction in section 216 of the switch branch can be adjusted, as necessary, to ensure the required work load, which is connected to the transformer 232.

Branch 218a Centralnaya street-N (or any other number of branches) divide the secondary voltage of the secondary winding section 216 of the switch branch to a step voltage. Secondary voltage divided by the step voltage to the selected minimum percentage of the secondary voltage up to the full value of the secondary voltage. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the secondary voltage divided by the equivalent level voltage on the selected minimum percentage of the secondary voltage up to the full value of the secondary voltage. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the selected minimum percentage is 0% of the secondary voltage. For example, the secondary voltage can be divided branches on an equal level voltage ranging from 0 V to 720 B. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the selected minimum percentage is 25% or 50% of the secondary voltage.

The transformer 232 includes a switch 220 branches, which are either in contact with one branch 218, or creates a bridge between the two branches, to provide an average voltage between the two voltage drops. The position of the switch contact 220 branches branches determines the voltage supplied to an electrical load connected to the leads 238, 240. For example, placement of 8 branches in section 216 of the switch branch provides 16 levels of voltage for the connection of the switch 220 branches in section 216 of the switch branch. Thus, the electrical load can be submitted up to 16 different voltages varying from selected minimum percentage of the secondary voltage to the value of the secondary voltage.

In certain embodiments of the transformer 232 according to the invention the level of the voltage divide the range between the selected minimalist guest who inim percentage of the secondary voltage and secondary voltage equally (level voltage equivalent). For example, eight branches can divide the secondary voltage 720 B 16-speed voltage from 0 V to 720 B so that each branch has increased the voltage supplied to the electrical load at 45 B. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the step voltage divide the range between the selected minimum percentage of the secondary voltage and secondary voltage on the unequal shares (level voltage is not equivalent). For example, the level of tension in the upper half section of the switch branch may have a greater value compared to the levels of stress in the lower half section of the switch branch.

The switch 222 may be used for electrical separation of the output 240 of the secondary winding and the junction 218. When electrical isolation output 240 of the secondary winding of power (voltage)supplied to the electrical load, which is connected to the output pins 238, 240. Thus, the switch 222 provides an internal separation in the transformer 232 to electrically isolate and disable the power supply (voltage)supplied to the electrical load, which is connected to the transformer.

In the transformer 232 from the primary winding 214 is electrically insulated voltage transformer 224, the power to regulate irony transformer transformer 228 and 230 current. Electrical insulation protects the transformer voltage 224, the power regulating transformer transformer 228 and 230 of the current from current overload and/or voltage produced by the primary winding 214.

In accordance with a variant embodiment of the invention the transformer 232 is used to supply power to a variable electrical load (for example, the heater subsurface strata, for example, but not limited, to the heater with temperature limit when using a ferromagnetic material, which has the property of self-restraint when the Curie temperature or in the temperature range of phase transition). The transformer 232 allows you to apply power to an electrical load, providing the adjustment of the voltage in small increments (voltage levels) movement of the switch contact 220 branches between branches 218. Thus, the voltage supplied to the electrical load can be adjusted gradually to provide essentially a constant flow of current to the electrical load in response to changes in electrical load (for example, changes in resistance of the electrical load). The voltage supplied to the electrical load can be adjusted incrementally from a minimum voltage (selected minimum percentage) to olego potential (secondary voltage). Increment voltage can be equal increments or unequal increments. Thus, to the electrical load should not be applied full voltage or disconnect the power supply, for example, as occurs when using the knob on the silicon controlled thyristors (SCR). When using small increments of voltage can be reduced cyclical impact on the electrical load and can increase the service life of the device, which is an electrical load. The transformer 232 changes the voltage when mechanical operations instead of the electrical circuitry used in the silicon controlled thyristors. Electric switch can add harmonic distortion and/or noise to the signal voltage, which is supplied to the electrical load. Mechanical switching transformer 232 provides a clean Bessonova manual adjustment of the voltage supplied to the electrical load.

The transformer 232 can be controlled by the controller 242. The controller 242 may be a microprocessor-based controller. The controller 242 may be supplied with electric power from the power adjusting transformer 228. The controller 242 may define the properties of the transformer 232, including section 216 of the switch branch, and/or may opredeletsya electrical load, connected to the transformer. Examples of properties that can be defined by the controller 242 are, but not limited to, voltage, current, power, load factor, ripple, the controller determines the number of switching operations branch, records the maximum and minimum values, determines the wear of the contacts of the switch signal and the electrical resistance of the load.

In accordance with a variant embodiment of the invention, the controller 242 is connected to an electrical load, to determine the properties of the electrical load. For example, the controller 242 can be connected to an electrical load using a fibre-optic cable. The use of fiber-optic cable allows you to define the properties of an electrical load, such as, but not limited to, electrical resistance, impedance, capacity and/or temperature. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 is connected to the voltage transformer 224 and/or the transformer 230 current in order to determine the output voltage and/or current output of the transformer 232. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the voltage and current are used to determine the resistance of the electrical load for one or more selected is rometotal time. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the voltage and current are used to determine or diagnose other properties electrical load (e.g., temperature).

In accordance with a variant embodiment of the invention, the controller 242 adjusts the output voltage of the transformer 232 in response to changes in electrical load, which is connected to the transformer, or in response to other changes occurring in the power distribution system, such as, but not limited to, changes in the input voltage supplied to the primary winding, or other changes in the power supply. For example, the controller 242 can regulate the input voltage of the transformer 232 in response to a change in the electrical resistance of the electrical load. The controller 242 can regulate the output voltage of the transformer 232, adjusting movement of the adjustable contact of the switch branch 220 between branches 218. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 adjusts the output voltage of the transformer 232 so that the electrical load (e.g. heater subsurface strata) worked with a relatively constant current. In accordance with some variations of the invention to which troller 242 can regulate the output voltage of the transformer 232, moving the switch contact 220 branches to a new branch may determine the impedance and/or power in the new branch and, if necessary, can move the contact switch branch to another branch.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 determines the electrical resistance of the load (for example, measuring the voltage and current using the voltage transformer and current transformer, or by measuring the resistance of the electrical load when using fiber-optic cable), and compares the determined electrical resistance with theoretical resistance. Identifying the difference between the estimated resistance and theoretical resistance, the controller 242 can regulate the output voltage of the transformer 232. In some embodiments the invention, theoretical resistance is the optimal resistance for operation of the electrical load. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, theoretical resistance gradually changes as a result of other changes in the electrical load (for example, changes in temperature, electrical load).

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 is p is grammarway to cycle switch contact 220 branches between the two branches 218 or more, to achieve the intermediate output voltage (for example, the output voltage between the output voltages of the two branches). The controller 242 can adjust the time switch contact 220 branches in each of the branches, between which it cyclically moves to get the average voltage that corresponds to the desired intermediate output voltage or close to it. For example, the controller 242 can hold the contact switch 220, approximately 50% of the time on each of the two branches, to maintain the average voltage of approximately between voltages of branches.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 is programmed to limit in time the number of voltage changes (move switch contact 220 branches between branches 218 or cycles switching branches). For example, the controller 242 every 30 minutes can allow only 1 switch branches or 2 switching branches per hour. Limit switches branches in time reduces the impact on the electrical load (e.g. heater) changes the voltage supplied to the load. The decrease of the impact on the electrical load can increase the service life of electric the load. Limit switches branches may also increase the lifetime of the device, the switching branch. In accordance with some variations of the invention when using the controller the number of times of branching time is adjustable. For example, the user may be given the opportunity to adjust the periodicity of the switching taps on the transformer 232.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 is programmed to supply power to an electrical load at startup. For example, heaters subsurface strata may require specific initiation Protocol (for example, a large current at the initial period of heating and less current when reaching the set temperature of the heater). Gradually increasing the power supplied to the heater when desired procedure, it is possible to reduce mechanical stress on the heater, resulting from the different expansion rates of the materials. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 gradually increases the power supplied to the electrical load at a regulated increase levels of stress over time. In some embodiments of the invention, the controller 242 gradually increases ewnost, supplied to the electrical load at a regulated increase of power per hour. The controller 242 can be programmed to automatically enter into effect electric load according to the user's start-up procedure or in accordance with pre-programmed start-up procedure.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 is programmed to turn off power supplied to the electrical load when the shutdown sequence. For example, heaters subsurface strata may require a specific Protocol shutdown to prevent rapid cooling of the heater. The controller 242 can be programmed to automatically disconnect the electric load according to the custom shutdown procedure or according to pre-programmed the shutdown procedure.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 is programmed to supply power to an electrical load in a specific sequence to remove moisture. For example, heaters subsurface strata or engines may need to run at low voltages to remove moisture from the system to supply a higher voltage is agenia. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 prevents the voltage increase up until the value of electric resistance of the load will not meet the requirements. Limitation of voltage increase will not allow the transformer 232 to apply a voltage, which causes a short circuit due to moisture in the system. The controller 242 can be programmed to automatically enter into effect electric load according to user-defined procedure to remove moisture or according to a pre-programmed procedure to remove moisture.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 is programmed to reduce the power delivered to an electrical load, taking into account changes of the input voltage on the primary winding 214. For example, the power supplied to the electrical load can be reduced at partial power outages or in other cases when there is insufficient power supply. Reducing the power delivered to an electrical load, can compensate for the loss of power.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 is programmed to protect the electrical load and overload. The controller 242 may be Zap grammarian thus, to automatically immediately reduce the output voltage if the current supplied to the electrical load exceeds the selected value. When the control current output voltage can be lowered quickly as possible. The current detection occurs at a faster time scale than the lower voltage, so the voltage should be reduced as quickly as possible up until the current drops below a selected value. In accordance with some variations of the invention may be blocked by the switching branches (steps voltage)to prevent excess current. For current limitation can be used fuses on the secondary winding of the transformer. The connection branches corresponding to a lower voltage, in response to excess current may continue operation even in case of partial failures or disconnection of electrical loads, such as heaters.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 registers or monitoring data relating to the operation of the electrical load and/or transformer 232. For example, the controller 242 can register changes in the resistance or other electrical properties of the load or transformer 232. In accordance with some VA is untame the invention, the controller 242 registers a fault, occur during operation of the transformer 232 (for example, missed a step voltage change).

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the controller 242 includes communication modules. Communication modules can be programmed to determine the status, receive data, and/or diagnose any device or system that is connected to the controller, for example, electrical load or transformer 232. Communication modules may provide connectivity if using serial communications RS485, LAN (Ethernet), fiber-optic communication lines, radio and/or other communication technologies known in the art. Communication modules can be used to transmit information remotely to another area, so that the controller 242 and the transformer 232 worked independently or automatically, but were also able to send messages to another area (for example, a Central point of control). Item Central control can control several controllers and transformers (for example, controllers and transformers located in the processing of hydrocarbons). In accordance with some variations of the invention when using the communication modules allows p is loveteam or equipment at the point of Central management remote to work with one or more controllers.

4 shows a variant of the transformer 232 and the controller 242 according to the invention. In accordance with a variant embodiment of the invention the transformer 232 is enclosed in a housing 244. The housing 244 may be a cylindrical container. The housing 244 may be any other suitable housing known in the art (for example, type rectangular enclosure transformer substation). The controller 242 may be mounted on the outside of the housing 244. Conclusions 234, 236, 238, and 240 can be external high voltage pins on the outside of the housing 244 to connect the transformer 232 to the power supply and the electrical load.

In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the housing 244 is installed on the rack or removed from the earth in a different way. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, one or more housings 244 is installed on a raised platform supported by a rack, or on a raised pedestal. When installing the chassis 244 on the rack or pedestal increases air circulation in the building and the transformer 232, as well as around them. The increased air circulation reduces operating temperatures and improves the efficiency of the transformer. In accordance with certain variants of the invention, the components of the transformer 232, soedinenii the upper part of the body 244 thus, to remove the upper housing components can be removed from the housing as a single unit.

In accordance with a variant embodiment of the invention uses three transformer 232 to support three or multiples of three electrical loads in three-phase configuration. May be the control of these three transformers in order to determine the timing of the provisions of the branches in each transformer (the same position of the branches). In accordance with some variations of the invention for adjusting the three transformers used one controller 242. The controller can control transformers to ensure synchronous operation of transformers.

It is obvious that the invention is not limited to individual described systems that can certainly be changed. Also it should be understood that the terminology used here only to describe individual variants of the invention and is not intended to limit the invention. Uncertain singular and definite singular form used in this description, it should be referred to the plural, unless the content clearly indicates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "bolt" encompasses a combination of two or more bolts, and the reference to "a fluid" includes a mixture of fluid.

From the description specialists in the art will be apparent additional modifications and alternatives to various aspects of the invention. Accordingly, this description should be considered only as illustrative, allowing people to get the specialists in this field of technology the idea of a common way of carrying out the invention. It is obvious that variants of the invention are presented and described here should be taken as preferred embodiments of the invention. Presented and described here, the elements and materials can be replaced, parts and processes may be reversed, and certain features of the invention can be used independently, and from the description specialists in the art will be apparent advantages of this invention. In the elements described herein may be performed changes, without going beyond being and scope of the invention defined in the following claims.

1. Adjustable voltage transformer, comprising:
primary winding connected with a power source, which supplies the primary winding of the primary voltage;
a secondary winding electrically isolated from the primary winding and the secondary winding is designed to reduce the primary voltage to a secondary the aqueous voltage, which is a specified percentage of the primary voltage;
multistage switch branch of the transformer connected to the secondary winding, and switch branches transformer divides the secondary voltage for a specified number of stages of voltage, the voltage step increases from the voltage constituting a specified minimum percentage of the secondary voltage, to a voltage constituting a specified maximum percentage of the secondary voltage;
moreover, the electrical load connected to the multi-stage switch branch of the transformer, which provides power to the load at a given voltage, with a multi-stage switch branch transformer is designed so that it could connect to the selected level of the voltage supply specified voltage to an electrical load.

2. Adjustable voltage transformer according to claim 1, in which the multi-stage switch branch transformer configured to connect to the selected level of voltage to change the selected voltage to an electrical load.

3. Adjustable voltage transformer according to claim 1, in which the multi-stage switch branch of a transformer in which zmoznostjo connect to the selected level of voltage to change the selected voltage, supplied to the electrical load when the electric load to the electrical load ate relatively constant current.

4. Adjustable voltage transformer according to claim 1, additionally containing a control system connected to the transformer and is used to adjust the multistage switch branch of the transformer so that a multi-stage switch branch of the transformer connected to the selected level voltage, when the electric load.

5. Adjustable voltage transformer according to claim 1, additionally containing measuring the voltage transformer connected to the secondary winding, designed to determine the set voltage supplied to the electrical load.

6. Adjustable voltage transformer according to claim 1, additionally containing a switch connected to the secondary winding, intended for electrical insulation electrical load from the transformer.

7. Adjustable voltage transformer according to claim 1, additionally containing power regulating transformer connected to the secondary winding and is designed to supply power to one or more controllers designed to control transformer.

8. Adjustable transformer n the voltage according to claim 1, additionally contains a current transformer connected to the secondary winding and designed to determine the electric current flowing in the secondary winding.

9. Adjustable voltage transformer according to claim 1, in which the step voltage are the same voltage levels.

10. Adjustable voltage transformer according to claim 1, in which the step voltage are different levels of stress.

11. Adjustable voltage transformer according to claim 1, in which the electrical load consists of one or more heaters underground reservoir.

12. The method of adjustment of the voltage supplied to one or more electric heaters, including:
power supply to the first heater at a specified voltage with the use of an adjustable voltage transformer, comprising:
primary winding connected with a power source, which supplies the primary winding of the primary voltage;
a secondary winding electrically isolated from the primary winding and the secondary winding is designed to reduce the primary voltage to secondary voltage, which is a specified percentage of the primary voltage;
multistage switch branch of the transformer connected to the secondary winding and the switch is of Tetley transformer divides the secondary voltage on a selected number of stages of voltage, the voltage step increases from the voltage constituting a selected minimum percentage of the secondary voltage, to a voltage constituting a selected maximum percentage of the secondary voltage, and a multi-stage switch branch of the transformer connects the selected level of voltage to supply the selected voltage to the first heater;
determination of the electrical resistance of the first heater for a selected period of time; and
the selected adjustment of the voltage supplied to the first heater by connecting a multi-stage switch branches transformer selected level voltage, and the selected voltage is changed when the change in the electrical resistance of the first heater.

13. The method according to item 12, in which the voltage changes when the change in the electrical resistance of the first heater so that the electric current supplied to the first heater was relatively constant.

14. The method according to item 12, in which the change in the electrical resistance of the first heater is determined by using the current transformer connected to the secondary winding, and a voltage transformer connected to the secondary winding, while the electrical resistance is of calculated dividing voltage, determined by the transformer voltage, current, determined by the current transformer.

15. The method according to item 12, wherein the step voltage are the same voltage levels.

16. The method according to item 12, wherein the step voltage are different levels of stress.

17. The method according to item 12, in which the first heater includes a heater subsurface strata.

18. The method according to item 12, further comprising determining the electrical resistance of the first heater, the comparison of the determined electrical resistance with theoretical electrical resistance of the first heater; and comprising changing the selected voltage is supplied to the first heater when there is a significant difference between the determined electrical resistance and theoretical electrical resistance.

19. The method according to item 12, further comprising limiting the number of changes of the selected voltage within a specified period of time.

20. The method according to item 12, further comprising a cyclic change to the selected voltage is supplied to the first heater to the electric current supplied to the first heater was maintained relatively constant.



 

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3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engineering of automation systems.

SUBSTANCE: method for compounding oil includes continuous measurements of sulfur content in mixed oil flow and source flow of sulfurous oil and adjusting feeding thereto of highly sulfurous oil for providing required sulfur content in mixed oil flow. Adjustment is performed by evening out oscillations of sulfur content in mixed flow, for which purpose reservoir or reservoir park is used, connected to flow of highly sulfurous oil, in case when sulfur content in mixed flow drops below acceptable levels, a portion of highly sulfurous oil is fed thereto, enough to provide for required sulfur content in mixed flow, in case when sulfur content in mixed flow exceeds required value, feeding of highly sulfurous oil from reservoir or reservoir park to mixing point is halted, when reservoir or reservoir park is overflowed, flow of highly sulfurous oil is sent to mixing point with flow value equal to flow value of highly sulfurous oil entering aforementioned reservoir or reservoir park.

EFFECT: maintained stability and evenness of mixing.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: process comprises following stages: solvent extraction to give dewaxed petroleum product and hydrofining wherein dewaxed petroleum product to hydrogenation with hydrogen in presence of catalyst to produce higher-quality petroleum product. Process also includes evaluation of concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in dewaxed petroleum product and control of at least one of the parameters such as extraction temperature, solvent uptake, and supply of starting petroleum product in accordance with specified concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: simplified process.

9 cl, 10 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: engineering of means for automation of oil transportation process along different pipelines with different quality of oil and joining oil flows with control over quality parameters of oil mixture.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for controlling oil compounding process, flow values for transported oil flows are measured and also flow of mixed oil flow, content in transported flows and in mixed oil flow of sulfur and/or water is determined, relations of aforementioned contents in each of transported flows are determined and in mixed flow and relations of losses of each of transported flows and mixed flow and these relations are compared to given values, if all relations of flows correspond to given values and in case of deviation of relation of aforementioned contents for at least one transported flow oil flow is adjusted for appropriate flow, process for determining sulfur and/or water content in each of transported flows is performed by measuring density of oil in appropriate flow with consideration of correlation dependency between density and content of aperture component. System for controlling oil compounding process having , mounted in each oil pipe for transporting oil, flow meter, oil density meter and means for adjusting oil flow, mounted in oil pipe for mixed flow, oil flow meter, sulfur and/or water content meter, and also calculating device for coefficients of relation of oil flows in each transported flow and in mixed flow and/or device for calculating coefficients of relation of water contents in oil for each transported flow and in mixed flow, inputs of first of aforementioned calculating devices are connected to flow meters, and outputs of each one of aforementioned calculating devices are connected to appropriate inputs of comparison block, outputs of which are connected to means for adjusting oil flow, is provided with device for calculating sulfur content and/or device for calculating water content in oil, made with possible calculating of content of appropriate component with consideration of correlation dependency between oil density and content of aforementioned component, inputs of each of calculating devices are connected to oil density meters of transported flows, and outputs are connected to appropriate inputs of appropriate device for calculating relation coefficients.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: means of automation of production processes, applicable for metering of floatation reagents at concentrating mills at concentration of non-ferrous metal ores.

SUBSTANCE: the device has N channels of metering, each provided with an electromagnetic weigher and an amplifier, discrete signal input/output unit connected to a microprocessor device having a program providing formation of control signals shifted in time, connected to the respective inputs of each weigher channel. The device has two series-connected power sources, a current transmitter is connected at the output of one of them, it is connected to each metering channel, and the common potential of the power sources is connected to each metering channel. Each metering channel has a square signal shaper, two keys, maximum signal detector on semiconductor diodes, as well as a forcing signal transmitter and a reagent flow sensor. Since the forcing signal actuates in succession the weighers of the electromagnets in the metering channels, the presence of the forcing current in the current transmitter makes it possible to monitor the serviceability of the line of communication with the weigher by means of the input\output unit, and the forcing voltage transmitter in each channel makes it possible to selectively connect the outputs of the reagent flow sensors to the input\output unit and thus to monitor the weigher serviceability, and the program of the microprocessor device produces a base of data of functional failures of the metering channels, and takes stock of reagents of each channel with the use of the information of the data bases of failures of the metering channels.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of metering.

3 dwg

FIELD: imparting odor to gases.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises tank filled with liquid to be batched, batching pump, pressure difference gage provided with the plus and minus chambers, vertical measuring pipe provided with the inlet and outlet branch pipes at the ends, source of excess gas pressure, by-pass valve, and calibrated pipe with open end that is set pressure-tightly in the vertical measuring pipe from above. The open end is positioned near the bottom end of the vertical measuring pipe, and top end is connected with the gas pipeline and by-pass valve. The batching pump is connected with the tank that is connected with the gas pipeline. The outlet of the batching pump is connected with the plus chamber of the pressure difference gage and bottom end of the vertical measuring pipe. The minus chamber of the pressure difference gage cooperates with the by-pass valve, free space of the top section of the vertical measuring pipe, and source of excess pressure .

EFFECT: enhanced precision.

1 dwg

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