Shock absorber for shock protection systems

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: shock absorber includes hydraulic cylinder, each of the cavities of which is connected to the main elastic elements by means of system of valves and throttles, and to hydropneumatic accumulators of high and low pressure through normally open non-return valves and throttles of constant section.

EFFECT: protection of equipment against impact loads.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering, in particular to systems of depreciation allocated for udorozhit depreciable objects.

Known hydropneumatic piston shock absorbers that are used in the suspensions of heavy vehicles, for example, on the author's certificate of the USSR No. 572110, 5B60P 1/02. One-way shock absorber contains a power hydraulic cylinder. The lower cavity between the cylinder and the rod is filled with oil. In the upper cavity above the piston is a layer of oil, the upper part of this cavity is occupied by a compressed gas, which plays the role of the elastic element. Between the cavities are check valves (valves compression ratio) and the valve end, made in the form of a rod with a longitudinal groove of variable cross-section.

The absorber operates as follows: when you compress the piston moves up, compressing the gas, and the liquid flows into the cavity below the piston through the valve end, and, pressing the spring, through the check valves. During the reverse course of the fluid flows through the valve end on the longitudinal groove of variable cross-section that creates a pressure drop, contributing to the damping of the oscillations. Check valves when closed.

Under shock loading in compression due to the inertia of check valves in the liquid fails to flow, resulting in a cavity under p is rsnum vacuum occurs, that could lead to a surge in piston reversal. Under shock loading on the reverse course (at the end) because the cross-section of the valve end depends only on the position of the piston at high speeds of movement of the piston on the valve may be at increased pressure drop, which leads to the casting pressure, the increase in the power developed by the shock absorber, and dynamic loads on depreciable object.

In the literature, "encyclopedia. Wheeled and tracked vehicles, so IV-15, under the General editorship Wrapnative. - M., engineering, 1997; Trukhanov V.M. Reference reliability special mobile units. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1997" describes the one-way pneumatic-hydraulic shock absorbers, in which the elastic element is used pneumohydraulic accumulator with a flexible membrane. In these constructions, the accumulator pressure is connected with the power cylinder through the check valve and the orifice of constant cross-section.

In the book "Iremel. Chassis, suspension constructions - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1989" describes the one-way pneumatic-hydraulic shock absorber, in which the elastic element is used pneumohydraulic accumulator with a flexible membrane connected to the hydraulic power cylinder through the check valve, the orifice of constant cross-section and re the passive valve.

In the book "Design of all-wheel drive vehicles, volume 2, edited by Ann M.: Izd-vo MGTU named after N. E. Bauman. 2000." the scheme pneumatic-hydraulic shock absorber with two elastic piston elements (batteries)connected to the power cylinder parallel to each other. The initial pressure in the second accumulator is greater than the first, so in the initial stages of movement of the piston in the power cylinder moves the piston in the first battery. Starting from a certain position of the piston of the power cylinder to move the pistons in both batteries. This significantly reduces the progressivity of the elastic characteristics of the shock absorber.

Theory udorozhit "Kruglov Y.A., Mists Y.A Drovepast machines, equipment and apparatus. - Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1986" allows us to formulate the following requirements for the absorbers used in the systems udorozhit: so, when impact loading developed by the shock absorber force at the initial part of the movement must monotonically increase, and then either remain constant or increase slightly. The length of the section of the rapid increase in power is determined by the characteristics, primarily on their own frequencies, depreciable object. The length of this section in excess of the required values mean is it to increase the full stroke of the shock absorbers. When the change of the sign of the speed force developed by the shock absorber, would quickly decrease, and change the sign. Intermittent (pulsed) an increase in the power developed by the shock absorber (for example, when casting pressure exceeding the maximum allowable value is invalid.

These requirements focused shock absorber according to the patent of Russian Federation №2277651, IPC F16F 9/04. The absorber consists of two pneumatic elastic elements on the basis of elastic hermetic membranes (EGO) and arranged in parallel, two pairs of hydraulic dampers. On the one hand to each EGO attached to the movable pallet, on the opposite side of each EGO is attached to the receiver, which is rigidly connected to the base. Between the pallet is clamped) amortized object. When this cavity receiver and EGO are interconnected through a DC reactor section and check valve. Receivers connected to the atmosphere through a by-pass valve with pneumatic control.

When external impact the base of the shock absorber begins to move, compressing the gas in the EGO, which through a throttle and a check valve flows into the receiver. When the pressure increases to the calculated value of the bypass valve opens, releasing the compressed gas from the receiver and EGO into the atmosphere. Due to the fact that the gas is released into the atmosphere, the impact energy is not nakaplivaetsya in the working cavities of the shock absorber, and scatters. As the piston rod of hydraulic dampers passed through the hole in the tray and is provided with a limit stop, direct the course of a hydraulic damper in creating the effort is not involved. When this rod is moved under the action of the spring in the same direction, but with a lag from the pallet. At the final stages of impact relative velocity of depreciable object decreases, and end stops the stroke of the rod of the hydraulic dampers catch the pallet.

When the motion of the base in the opposite side of the pallet rests against the end stops the stroke of the rod of the hydraulic dampers target rods of hydraulic dampers. Due to the resistance of the hydraulic dampers pallet behind depreciable object. When this force of this EGO is greatly reduced or ceases, and amortized the object moves only under the action of the opposite of the EGO. Due to the fact that the characteristics of impact may differ, in some environments, the emphasis of the pallet can catch up depreciable object after changing the sign of the relative velocity, this can lead to additional dynamic loads.

By turning off the hydraulic dampers to direct the course of the absorber can operate under extreme loading conditions, when the ground almost instantly acquires znachitelno the speed of 5-10 m/s, when the cylinders dampers there are wave processes (hammer). In such circumstances, no hydraulic dampers effectively can not work.

The disadvantages of this design, in addition to the above dynamic loads should be considered and pressure pulse when triggered reverse and bypass valves. It is not always possible to position the dampers around depreciable object. The disadvantages of the shock absorber should also include the need for refueling with compressed gas after each impact.

For this reason, the most common operating conditions (maximum speed of 5-7 m/s) it is advisable to use the shock absorbers in which the hydraulic damper is located between the power cylinder and pneumatic elastic element (pneumohydraulic accumulator).

In the book "Benbelkacem, Sdiow. Wheeled vehicles especially heavy-duty. - M.: Izd-vo MGTU named after N. E. Bauman. 2006" the scheme of two-way shock absorber adopted as the nearest equivalent. In this scheme, the elastic elements are in the form of piston pneumatic-hydraulic pressure accumulators, connected with the power cylinder through the choke with adjustable flow rate, which combines the orifice of constant cross-section and the overflow valve. P is small and the speed of loading the liquid from the cavity of a cylinder, where compression takes place, through the orifice of constant cross-section flows into the accumulator, compressing the gas, and from the second battery fluid through the orifice of constant cross-section enters the cavity of the power cylinder, the pressure of which is reduced. The pressure drop across the orifice of constant cross-section contributes to the damping of the oscillations. At higher velocities in the cavity pressure opens the relief valve limiting the force developed by the shock absorber. Under impact loading, due to the inertia relief valve, there is a significant surge pressure that leads to the growth of dynamic loads.

Another disadvantage of this shock absorber is that the elastic pneumatic element has a progressive characteristic. This is determined by the polytropic processes occurring during compression of the gas. This characteristic corresponds to the requirements of automotive shock absorbers, but, as shown above, is not optimal for shock absorbers designed for the purpose of udorozhit, as it significantly increases the required moves of the shock absorbers under the given constraints on the dynamic load.

Objective of the claimed invention, intended for the purposes of udorozhit is getting such characteristics of the shock absorber, which would exclude short-term C is the emissions from the power, developed by the shock absorber during impact loading, provided the desired (including small enough) the length of the section of growing power, a constant or slightly increasing force on the future site of impact, led to the rapid change of the sign of the force with the change of sign of the relative velocity.

This problem is solved due to the use of a double-acting shock absorber, in which each of the cavities of the cylinder through the valve system is connected with its main elastic element is a pneumatic-hydraulic accumulator pressure. Each cylinder chamber is additionally connected through a normally open check valve and the orifice of constant cross section with a pneumo-hydraulic accumulator high pressure and through a normally open check valve and the orifice of constant cross-section with a pneumo-hydraulic accumulator low pressure.

Each relief valve located between the cylinder chamber and the main elastic element, on the one hand has a gas passage control, and on the other hand it rests against a compressed spring. From the gas cavity of the main elastic element enters the pipe through the check valve and the orifice of constant cross-section is connected with a gas cavity control overflow CL the pan.

The technical result of the invention to provide characteristics of the shock absorber, optimal for the purposes of udorozhit, as well as ease of application and use (located on either side of the object, does not require recharging after impact).

Due to the fact that all the valves are normally open no overpressures associated with non-stationary processes of opening of the valves during impact.

Due to the presence of extra batteries high and low pressure, there is a plot of a constant or slightly increasing force, and increasing the volume of gas cylinders, can further reduce the intensity of increasing strength.

Due to the possibility of refilling to change the volume of the air cavity of the main elastic element can be adjusted within wide limits the length of the section of growing power.

Due to the presence of controlled pressure relief valve located between the cylinder chamber and the main elastic element provides effective damping of the oscillations in the final area of impact.

Placing on either side of the object and no need to be recharged after a shock absorber is easy to use and implement.

The drawing shows the General scheme is as shock absorber.

The absorber consists of a cylinder with two working cavities 1 and 2, which are separated by the piston 3. With the piston 3 is connected to the stem, which ends in the eye 5. The hydraulic cylinder is connected to the eyelet 6. To one of the lugs depreciable fixed object, the other eye is attached to the base.

Each of the symmetric cavities of the hydraulic cylinder 1 and 2 are connected with the main elastic elements - pneumatic accumulators 7 and 8. The drawing shows a pneumatic accumulator, diaphragm separator gas and hydraulic cavities 9, however, it is possible to use pneumatic-hydraulic piston accumulators, in which the role of the separator plays a piston. Cavity 1, 2 is also connected through normally open check valves 10 and 11 and chokes constant cross-section (which are made in the plates of the valves with pneumatic-hydraulic accumulators low pressure 12 and 13, also having a diaphragm separator. Cavity 1 and 2 is also connected through normally open check valves 14 and 15 and chokes constant cross-section (which are made in the plates of the valves with pneumatic-hydraulic accumulators high pressure 16 and 17, also having a diaphragm separator (possibly using a pneumatic-hydraulic piston accumulators). Gas cavity accumulators low pressure the Oia 12 and 13 are permanently connected to a gas cylinder low-pressure - the receiver 18 as a gas cavity batteries high pressure 16 and 17 to a gas cylinder, high pressure receiver 19.

Overflow normally open valves 20 and 21 of the cap type, located between the working cylinder cavities 1, 2 and main elastic elements 7 and 8, biased to its seat by the pressure of the gas from the gas cavity. Valve seats are located in the walls 22, 23. To improve performance valves have minimum weight. For sealing the valve can be used rubber o-rings or bellows.

On the opposite side of the valve against the spring 24 and 25. Seat back normally closed valves 26 and 27 are also located in the walls 22, 23. To improve performance check valves also have minimum weight.

From the gas cavities of the main elastic elements 7, 8 facing the air tube 28, 29, which through the check valves 30, 31 and are parallel to them chokes permanent sections 32, 33 are connected with a gas cavities overflow control valves 20, 21.

When the horizontal location of the absorber initial pressure in the cavities of the cylinder are the same. The initial pressure provided by the compressed gas in the gas cavity of the batteries 7 and 8. With a vertical arrangement of the absorber initial pressure in polot the x cylinder are different, that balances the weight of depreciable object. The initial pressure in the receiver 19, which is connected with a battery of high pressure 16 and 17, several times higher than the initial pressure and the pressure in the receiver 18 connected to the accumulators low pressure 12 and 13, several times lower than the initial pressure. The pressure difference is selected based on the area of the piston and the maximum force developed by the shock absorber. Due to the fact that the pressure in the receiver high-pressure 19 is greater than the initial pressure in the cylinder, diaphragm accumulators high pressure 16, 17 adjacent to the upper wall of the battery (so that the aperture is not forced into the cavity of the valve cavity is connected with the battery through a large number of small apertures, and the aperture in this place has an increased thickness). Due to the fact that the accumulator pressure low pressure 18 is smaller than the initial pressure in the cavities of the cylinder 1, 2, aperture adjacent to the bottom wall of the battery. Check valves 10, 11, 14 and 15 under the action of springs low stiffness opened.

As between the gas cavities of the dampers 7, 8 and the gas cavities of the valves 20, 21 are chokes permanent sections 32 and 33, the pressure of gas acting on the valve is equal to the pressure acting on the valve for fluid flow. Therefore, under the action of springs 24 and 25 klapa is s 20 and 21 are in the open state.

The shock absorber works as follows.

When the movement of the piston, for example, to the left the fluid from the cavity 1 passes through the open relief valve 20 and into the battery 7, compressing the gas in the gas cavity. The pressure increase in the gas cavity of the battery 7 causes the flow of gas in the tube 28, opens the check valve 30, the applied pressure is distributed in the gas cavity pressure relief valve 20. However, this pressure does not exceed the fluid pressure in the area of the valve, so the valve under the influence of spring remains open.

Battery fluid 8 passes through the open valve 25 into the cavity of the power cylinder 2. At the same time opens the check valve 27. The total force acting on the piston at this stage, increases in accordance with the adiabatic compression of the gas in the cavity 7 and the expansion of the gas in the cavity 8.

After the pressure in the accumulator 7 to get up to pressure, equal to the initial pressure in the high-pressure bladder 19, the liquid through the open check valve 14 begins to fill and the high-pressure accumulator 16. At the same time the pressure in the battery 8 drops to the pressure in the cylinder low pressure 18, and starts the outflow of fluid from the accumulator low pressure 13 through the open check valve 11. As the volume of cylinders (receivers) as high-pressure 19 and Nizkor the pressure 18 large enough, the force developed by the shock absorber increases slightly and is close to the maximum allowable force. Note that the valves through which fluid at this stage of the impact, open that minimizes the differential pressure between the working chambers of the hydraulic cylinders and accumulators, which virtually eliminates the overpressures due to vibration of the base or of an object.

After stopping of the piston 3 under the action of differential pressure on the piston, the system begins to return to its original state. It should be noted that at this stage of the shock absorber is already required the creation of dissipative forces, contributing to the rapid damping. The rate of flow of fluid everywhere change sign and return valves 14 and 11 are closed. Thus the leakage of liquid from the battery 16 and wicking into the battery 13 is through the choke of constant cross-section, made in the plates of the valves 14 and 11. The end of the liquid from the battery 7 in the cylinder 1 occurs primarily through the check valve 26, so that the pressure in the gas cavity of the battery decreases, and the check valve 30 is closed (the area of the throttle constant pressure 31 is chosen small enough), which leads to the closing of the valve 20. After the pressure in the gas cavity of the battery 7 is restored, healing power, due to the fact that the valves 14 and 11 are closed, drops to zero or even changes sign.

After the plunger will start (average) position of the diaphragm accumulators 16 and 13 will receive an initial shape (position) and after some time, when the pressure in the battery 8 will be raised to a pressure equal to the initial pressure in the cylinder high-pressure 19 starts filling the high-pressure accumulator 17 through the open check valve 15. About the same time the pressure in the accumulator 7 drops to the pressure in the cylinder low pressure 18 and starts the outflow of fluid from the accumulator low pressure 12 through the open check valve 10.

Due to losses during expiration through the choke in the plate check valves 10, 14, 15, and 11 of the oscillating speed is reduced. The second oscillation, thanks to the work of check valves 30 and 31, the pressure in the gas cavities overflow valves 20 and 21 is increased and they are closed. Further, even at small amplitudes of oscillation of the piston 3 when the battery 12, 16, 17 and 13 are closed, these valves open only when the pressure in the corresponding cylinder bore exceeds the pressure in the air cavity of the corresponding valve. This contributes to the rapid damping and at the final stage.

After some time the piston under the action of gas pressure in the accumulators 7 and 8 austan what its consequences in the initial position, and the pressure in the gas cavities overflow valves 20 and 21 through the gas flow through the inductors 32 and 33 is compared with the initial one. Under the action of springs 24 and 25, the valves open and the damper is ready for the next impact.

Thus, the developed shock absorber eliminates short-term transitions of power developed by the shock absorber during impact loading provides the desired length of the section of growing power, a slight increase in power for the next section and the change of sign of strength, with the change of sign of the relative velocity, allows the placement of absorbers on one side of depreciable object.

The technical result of the invention is the ability to protect the equipment from significant shock loads.

1. Absorber systems udorozhit containing cylinder, each of the cavities which through a system of valves and chokes are connected with the main elastic elements - hydro-pneumatic accumulators, characterized in that it further comprises associated with each cylinder chamber hydropneumatic accumulators high and low pressure hydraulic cavity which is connected to the hydraulic cylinder through the normally open check valves and chokes constant cross section.

2. The shock absorber according to claim 1, the best of the decomposing those that overflow valves, located between the cavities of the cylinder and the main elastic elements have a gas cavity control through check valves and chokes constant cross section is connected with the gas main cavities of elastic elements, and on the other side of the valve springs installed.



 

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12 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: support surface of rotor trunnion is made in the form of toroidal surface and installed on spherical support surface in cavity of support toe. The latter is installed on a damping element arranged in cavity of housing with lubricating liquid. Radius of toroidal surface of trunnion is 0.4÷0.95 of the radius value of spherical support surface of the toe, and distance between axial line of toroidal surface and trunnion axis is 0.05÷0.6 of the radius value of spherical support surface of the toe. Geometrical parametres of the support meet the ratio: , but not less than 1, where: r - radius of the toe sphere, m; ρ - radius of torodial surface, m; δ- distance between axial line of torodial surface and trunnion axis, m; P - axial load, H; F - radial load, H; β - slope angle of figure end from rotation axis under influence of radial load, rad.

EFFECT: increasing carrying capacity of support and decreasing costs for manufacturing and repairing thereof.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: tuning to required damping frequency is performed. Dynamic rigidity or transfer factor dip is experimentally determined at first breadboard specimen. Then on increasing damper slit width, tuning frequency is increased along with increasing damping. Thereafter, tuning frequency is decreased by decreasing damper slit width. Aforesaid reduction is performed by increasing the number of slit pairs. Proposed device comprises interconnected pendulums pivoted to protected object. Each pendulum comprises weight suspended to aforesaid object. One object is located above the points of attachment of its suspension to the object, the others being located below aforesaid points. Tight cylindrical barrel is covered with cap and filled with hydraulic fluid. Movable modular hollow piston is arranged inside aforesaid cylindrical barrel fixed between two cylindrical springs. There is a system of channels inside aforesaid piston. It consists of top and bottom covers and uneven number of round plates. Aforesaid slits are formed by flat round rings arranged between aforesaid covers and plates. Former and latter comprise central bores, while even plates have peripheral orifices arranged nearby inner cylindrical surfaces of round rings.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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