Highly inflammable fuel briquette
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: briquettes are designed for fireplaces, different domestic stoves, for cooking, heating of residential and domestic premises, to heat railway cars, temporary cabins, etc. A highly inflammable fuel briquette contains the main layer, including a coal-containing component and a binder, and an igniting layer containing nitrate and a binder. The coal-containing component is represented by coal slacks in amount of 30-60%, the binder is paper wastes in amount of 40-70%, and the igniting layer contains potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate in amount of at least 80 wt % of the igniting layer. At the same time the briquette is made with a hole, the area of the cross section of which makes from 25 to 40% from the area of the briquette cross section. Availability of both a flammable component (paper wastes) and an oxidant (potassium or sodium nitrate) in the igniting layer makes it possible for it to easily ignite from low-energy sources of heat (for instance, matches). Availability of a central hole increases completeness of fuel briquette burning and reduces emissions of hazardous substances into atmosphere.
EFFECT: fuel briquette is formed on an extruder, which simplifies and cheapens its manufacturing process.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
The invention relates to a method of producing fuel briquettes from coal and waste paper intended for fireplaces, various household stoves for cooking, heating residential and commercial buildings, for heating railway cars, caravans, etc.
The famous "Fuel element" (patent No. 2375415, publ. 10.12.2009) to obtain thermal energy method for burning sawdust, characterized in that the crushed wood pulp is applied evenly on the paper tape, and the resulting "sandwich" is folded in a multi-layer coil with a Central channel along the centerline.
The main drawbacks of this invention are the need to use the new wrapping paper, need to wet sawdust, and then, then waste heat energy for evaporation of this moisture.
The famous "briquettes" (patent No. 2268914). The briquette contains and 47.5-52.5 per cent of the rubble, to 28.5-31.5% dropout coal and 19-21% sawdust.
The main disadvantages of such briquettes are in the impossibility of its low-energy ignition sources, heat, low combustion efficiency.
The famous "Moisture resistant fuel briquette and method thereof" (patent No. 2345124, publ. 27.01.2009). Briquette-based coke, anthracite fines and binder - molasses contains additional ermantraut when soo is wearing components in wt.%: 20-25 anthracite, 25-30 ermantraut, 5-16 molasses, the rest is coke breeze.
The main disadvantages of such briquettes lie in the complexity of its formation, the inability of low-energy ignition sources, heat, insufficient high combustion efficiency and consequently in the increase of emissions of harmful substances.
The famous "Flammable fuel briquettes (Patent No. 2208044, publ. 10.07.2003)adopted for the prototype. The main layer of the brick consists of coal, and incendiary layer contains hexamethylenetetramine in the amount of 25-50%, potassium nitrate 5-20%, coal to 100%; the binder used thermoplastic 3,4-polyisoprene or epoxy resin that is modified by introduction of low-molecular liquid butadiene rubber having carboxyl groups in a ratio of resin - rubber 1 mol of 0.08 to 0.1.
The major drawback of the briquette are its relatively high cost due to the use of a large number of expensive components and the complexity of forming a two-layer structure.
The technical result of the invention is to simplify the manufacture and composition of the fuel briquette while maintaining the possibility of ignition from the low-energy heat sources and the reduction of harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
The technical result is achieved that formed overlaminates fuel briquette, consisting of a base layer containing carbonaceous component and a binder, and incendiary layer containing nitrate and a binder, as a carbonaceous component use of coal slurries in the amount of 30-60%, as a binder used paper waste in the amount of 40-70%, and incendiary layer contains potassium nitrate or additionally, the sodium nitrate in the amount of 80-100%, while the briquette is made with a hole, the cross-sectional area which is from 25 to 40% of the cross-sectional area of the briquette.
The essence of the technical solution is illustrated by a drawing) which shows the appearance of the briquette. (1) - main layer of briquettes, (2) - incendiary layer (3) has a longitudinal hole.
Use as a carbonaceous component of the coal slurry and the use as a binder of waste paper gives you the opportunity to get simple to manufacture and composition of the fuel briquette and simultaneously utilize coal and waste paper. Coal slurries provide the calorific value of the fuel briquette. Paper waste is both a binder and a combustible component.
The presence in the main layer of waste paper allows the core layer, easily ignited by incendiary layer, firmly and steadily lit. When the content of coal slurries above 60% and containing the AI waste paper in the main layer is less than 40% decreases the strength of the briquette. When the content coal slime below 30% and waste paper more than 70% in the core layer substantially decreases the calorific value of the fuel briquette.
The presence of incendiary layer pellet of potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate and paper waste as a fuel binder allows this layer can easily be ignited by a low-energy heat sources (e.g., matches).
When incendiary layer of potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate in the amount of less than 80 wt.%, incendiary layer poorly ignited by low-energy heat sources.
Potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate in dry form presoviet in the base layer, and when this happens their partial dissolution in the waste paper base layer. As a result, in the finished briquette get incendiary layer, which contains as a fuel binder (paper waste)and an oxidant (potassium nitrate or sodium), which allows him to easily ignited by low-energy heat sources (e.g., matches).
The presence of a Central hole increases the combustion efficiency of fuel briquettes and reduces emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. In addition, this fuel briquette made on the extruder, which also simplifies and cheapens the process of making briquettes. Having a single Central aperture due to the technologist is she making fuel briquettes - getting multiple holes or off-center location of the holes on the extruder is very difficult.
The presence of the hole cross-sectional area less than 25% of the cross-sectional area of the briquettes reduces the completeness of combustion of the briquettes due to insufficient airflow. The presence of the hole cross-sectional area more than 40% does not increase the completeness of combustion, excessive increases in the volume of briquettes (without increasing caloric content)reduces the strength of the briquette.
Example. Made bricks from sludge (0.5 mm) long-flame coal with ash content of 12.4%, humidity - 45,2%, the moisture content of the paper is 4.4%. In the manufacture of briquettes of mixing wet coal slime with dry paper waste, the sludge is partially dehydrated, and paper, on the contrary, moistened. Humidity is necessary paper-coal charge is adjusted by changing the content of sludge, if necessary, the sludge is dewatered in advance.
Data on the composition of the briquettes are shown in table 2. When the amount of sludge in the primary layer 80% of this layer worse ignited, and was less strong than when the amount of sludge from 30%to 60%. When the amount of potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate 70 wt.% round layer cake was ignited worse than when the number of one of the nitrates 80 wt.% and more. The briquette was formed in the form of a cylinder is emetrol 40 mm, the diameter of the inner hole 12 mm, the length of the briquettes from 180 to 220 mm Briquette formed by the extruder with zones of mixing and pressing. Potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate is served in the main layer in dry form, the external surface of the briquette by additional screw. In the pressing zone, the briquette is strengthened, and it emerges from the extruder having sufficient strength to transport it for drying. The pellets after drying, easily ignited, burned steadily and not actually allocated smoke.
Flammable fuel briquette consisting of a base layer containing carbonaceous component and a binder, and incendiary layer containing nitrate and a binder, characterized in that as the carbonaceous component use of coal slurries in the amount of 30-60%, as a binder used paper waste in the amount of 40-70%, and incendiary layer contains potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate in the amount of not less than 80 wt.% incendiary layer, and the briquette is equipped with a hole, the cross-sectional area which is from 25 to 40% of the cross-sectional area of the briquette.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: mixed fuel includes lignin and hydrogen in the weight ratio of lignin to hydrogen of 9:1 to 1:9, mainly of 2:1 to 1:3.
EFFECT: more complete combustion of lignin; reduction of ash content of fuel.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of producing solid organic fuel, particularly fuel briquettes, and can be used to heat houses, in field conditions, on transportation and in industry. The fuel briquette is made with longitudinal holes and contains organic binder in form of polypropylene production wastes in amount of 2.0-10.0 wt %, oxidising agent - potassium nitrate 2.0-5.0 wt %, catalyst - MnO2+Fe2O3 mixture with weight ratio thereof ranging from 4:1 to 1:6 in amount of 0.1-1.5 wt % and sawdust - the rest.
EFFECT: high calorific value of the briquette and reduced smoking.
1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in grinding organic origin stock elements to nanoparticle radius of not over 100 nm. Liquid-packed ring pumps are used to created rarefied atmosphere deprived of oxygen and containing water vapors. Fuel is minced in said atmosphere. Surface of produced nanoparticles is coated with monolayer of sorbed water molecules. Sorbed water molecules dissociate in rarefied atmosphere into OH radial and atoms of hydrogen or its isotopes. Note here that atoms of hydrogen or its isotopes penetrate into fuel nanoparticles to ne accumulated therein. Produced fuel particles are mixed with ethanol to produce homogeneous mix.
EFFECT: higher calorific value, pollution-free fuel.
1 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: composition for obtaining solid composite high-carbon fuel includes organic binding agent, coal and coke fillers. As organic binding agent there used is fermented residue formed as a result of anaerobic fermentation of organic animal residues, vegetation residues, domestic waste and sewage sludges. The following component ratio, wt %, is used: coal filler 10-80, coke filler 10-80, fermented residue is the rest.
EFFECT: use of the composition allows simplifying the technology and increasing the efficiency of preparation process of the composition for obtaining solid composite high-carbon fuel, reducing ash content of the obtained composite fuel, increasing ecological properties of the process and reducing financial costs.
12 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method of obtaining a product containing inflammable fuel from biomass raw material. The method involves pretreatment of biomass raw material having density less than approximately 0.5 g/cm3 using one or more pretreatment methods. The pretreatment methods are selected from a group comprising irradiation, ultrasonic treatment, pyrolysis and oxidation. Pretreatment via irradiation involves irradiation with an electron beam. The obtained biomass raw material then undergoes conversion using microorganisms to obtain a product containing inflammable fuel.
EFFECT: improved method.
16 cl, 40 dwg, 9 tbl, 20 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains organic binder and crushed waste wood. The organic binder used is fermented residue formed during anaerobic fermentation of organic animal wastes. Components are in the following ratio, wt %: waste wood 10-90, fermented residue - the rest.
EFFECT: high environmental friendliness of the process of producing solid moulded fuel, broader capabilities of using animal wastes to produce moulded fuel and low financial expenses.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: wood dust is mixed in ratio of 1:1 as to volume with liquid manure of cattle stock with natural moisture content of 80-90%. Then, the obtained mixture is formed and subject to drying in natural conditions.
EFFECT: simplifying the technological process, excluding energy consumption during preparation of components, and calorific capacity and mechanical strength of fuel elements meets high requirements.
2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: in method, soil is prepared to grow Galega orientalis: acid soils are limed, peat and manure compost is added. Ploughing is carried out, seeds are treated before sowing with the aqueous solution of rizotorfin in amount of 40÷45 g - on a dry basis per 1 kg of seeds; the aqueous solution of boric acid in amount of 12÷20 g per 1 kg of seeds; the aqueous solution of ammonia molybdate in amount of 6÷8 g per 1 kg of seeds. The sowing rate is 25÷27 kg/ha. Vegetating plants are sprayed with the aqueous solution of boric acid in amount of 800÷1000 g per 1 ha of soil in the phase of 5÷7 leaves. In the beginning of growth and after the first hay crop, the plants are sprayed with liquid humic fertiliser from biohumus in amount of 0.10÷0.15 g per 1 ha of soil. At the 5th, 10th and 15th years of life the crops are treated with a disk harrow and are further sprayed with liquid humic fertiliser from biohumus in amount of 0.08÷0.10 g per 1 ha of soil. Green mass is cut in budding phase and is distributed into rolls by forage harvesters. Then the green mass is cured in rolls for 2÷3 days with drying to residual moisture of 60÷65%, the green mass is ground by forage harvesters until the fibre length makes 1÷3 cm. The ground green mass is dried in the drying drum at the temperature of 100÷110°C, granulated, granules are cured for 48÷54 hours until residual moisture makes 9÷12% and packed.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to produce ecologically clean biofuel.
4 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves dropwise addition of diesel fuel to a pelleting press while pressing crushed wood wastes. The method of producing biofuel from wood wastes involves crushing, drying, mixing components and subsequent pressing, wherein the binder and component which reduces the load on the press matrix owing to increase in the slip coefficient between the material and cavities of the matrix is diesel fuel which is added in the following ratio, wt %: wood wastes 99.0-99.9; diesel fuel 0.1-1.
EFFECT: higher cost-effectiveness of the technological process without loss of quality characteristics of the obtained biofuel, improved water-repellent properties and higher combustion heat of the biofuel, lower ash content and high wear resistance of the press matrix.
SUBSTANCE: moulded fuel contains a dry mixture of wood wastes and wastes from starch production in ratio of 3:1 and lipid-containing animal wastes in the following ratio of components, wt %: said lipid-containing wastes 30-60; mixture of ground solid fuel and starch production wastes - the rest. The lipid-containing wastes are wastes from fish processing, meat processing and bird processing. The method of producing moulded fuel involves selection of components, grinding and mixing the ground solid fuel, moulding the mixture, wherein before grinding, the solid components are separated on vibrating screens into two fractions with particle size less than 8 mm and greater than 8 mm and the latter is taken for grinding. Each fraction is then taken for drying and the components are dried to moisture of 12-16%. The components are then mixed and the mixture is then moulded in an extruder at pressure of 5-10 MPa and temperature of 140-200°C. The ready fuel is packed into sacks.
EFFECT: invention enables recycling and utilisation of wastes from food production and improves physical and mechanical properties of the fuel blocks.
5 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: solid fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabrication of hydrocarbon moldings in the form of briquettes or granules. Which can be used as natural solid fuel substitutes for municipal and industrial needs but also as fertilizers and/or soil structure improvers. Carbon-containing moldings contain (i) ground peat and/or lignin (5-50%), (ii) wood-vegetable components in the form of sawdust and/or wood chips, and/or bark, and/or straw, and/or chaff, and/or seed shells, and/or oilcake, and/or plant stems and leaves, and/or animal components in the form of poultry dung and/or manure (1-10%), and (iii) binder in the form of burnt lime, sodium hydroxide, or potassium hydroxide (balancing amount). Method of fabrication comprises dispensing, mixing, grinding, and activation of peat and/or lignin with binder, after which is added above-indicated wood-vegetable and/or animal components and resulting mixture is remixed. Final mixture is converted into moldings, which are then compacted by lying during 2 to 30 h.
EFFECT: extended consumer's market of low-cost and environmentally safe fuel product, enabled utilization of wide range of energy organic wastes, and improved fertility of soil.
6 cl, 9 ex
FIELD: production of coal-containing fuel; preparation of briquettes (granules) for furnace units of minor and medium heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: fuel (briquette, granule) contains 47.5-52.5% of culm, 28.5-31.5% of coal screenings and 19-21% of sawdust. Fuel thus produced is cheaper than similar fuels due to utilization of coal output wastes and wood-working process wastes without binding materials; fuel possesses high heat of combustion of coal; slag forming is excluded; finely-dispersed ash may be used as mineral fertilizer.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: fuel briquettes for domestic and industrial use in boiler houses and railway car furnaces.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel composition contains 20-65% of waste of leather production process; 10-30% of hydrocarbon sludge; 0-20% of wood waste; the remainder being peat. Hydrocarbon sludge contains up to 200 g/kg of petroleum products. Waste of leather production process is used in form of leather dust, leather cuttings and leather chips. Fuel composition may also include waste of wood-pulp and paper industry, weaving and sewing processes in the amount of up to 10 mass-%. Proposed fuel enhances utilization of sludge of car repair plants, engineering plants and other works containing up to 200 g/kg of petroleum products.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: heat-and-power industry; wood-working industry; petroleum industry: other industries; methods of production of the fuel briquette.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the fuel briquettes, which may be used as the fuel in the municipal housekeeping, in the residential buildings boiler rooms in the capacity of the kindling material for ignition, and also in the capacity of the heat insulating material. The method of production of the fuel briquette provides for injection molding of the filler material in the form of the waste of the woodworking industry mixed with petroleum. In the capacity of the filler material use 80-85 % of the salvage sawdust saturated with petroleum at purification of the oil-polluted waste waters, in which add 15-20 % of wood meal, intermix and mold under pressure of 4.5 - 5 MPa. The invention allows to produce the briquettes of the higher thermal value, the smaller ash content, and also allows to recycle the wastes of the industrial productions and to improve the ecological state of the environment.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the briquettes of the higher thermal value, the smaller ash content, and also to recycle the wastes of the industrial productions and to improve the ecological state of the environment.
FIELD: manufacture of fuel elements from wood dust produced at wood-working houses.
SUBSTANCE: wood dust 17 and binder are fed by means of charging device 15 and device 18 for feeding of binder into space 16 between contours 1 and 2 made from steel whole stretched or plated belt. Cylindrical drive brushes are positioned in upper parts of both contours. Mass produced is mixed and compacted in space 16 upon actuation of drive units 5, 6 and movement in downward direction of adjacent runs of contours 1 and 2. Pressure of compressed mass is perceived by converging runs of both contours and by straight roller supports 10 and 11 mounted on columns 3 and 4. Simultaneously with displacement of mass in downward direction, said mass is cut-through by acute edges of partitions 14 when partitions 14 of contour 1 approach run of contour 2. On approaching to lower units 5 and 6, individual fuel elements 20 formed as bars-logs are produced from said mass. Fuel elements are discharged onto conveyor 19.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction of complex, and reduced costs for manufacture of said complex.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns obtaining of moulded fuel, particularly of carbonaceous mouldings in the briquette or pellet form made of organic carbonaceous waste. Additionally, carbonaceous mouldings can be used in agriculture as fertiliser and/or soil structure-forming agent. The process involves proportioning, activation mixing of the components, activated component moulding under the pressure of 120 MPa to obtain carbonaceous mouldings. Organic carbonaceous waste includes lignine and/or sewage treatment sediments, and/or animal manure, and/or bird droppings. The components or their mix are dried to 40% dampness before moulding, either by direct contact with drying medium containing up to 14 mass % of oxygen with the components or their mix; or without direct contact with the drying medium heated up to 500°C.
EFFECT: fast adhesion of organic carbonaceous component particles in mouldings and higher moulding solidity due to the optimal component dampness and moulding pressure.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the production of non-toxic solid fuel briquettes from production wastes and can be used in various industries. The method allows for obtaining solid fuel briquettes, containing in mass.%: chips of clear wood - 25-30, tobacco dust wastes - 10-15, grain husk - 10-15, organic binding substance - 40-55, with uniform density in the whole volume and improves their calorific capacity. The method involves grinding the organic material to a fraction in the range of 0.1-5 mm, drying to moisture of 9-14%, mixing the components of the mixture with the molten organic binding substance and subsequent pressing into briquettes at specific pressure in the range of 30.0-40.0 MPa. The device consists of a case with a receiving funnel, transmission shaft, joined to a hub, with an angle hole, in which a spindle is freely fitted, on the lower part of which a former block is mounted inclined to the axis of the shaft, with a cone-shaped packing surface. The former block is made with grooves for supplying the reinforcement material under the packing surface of the working organ. In the lower part of the case there are cut plates and a matrix, with calibrated openings, the dimensions of which correspond to the cross sectional dimensions of the briquettes. On the cone-shaped surface of the forming block there are pressure clutches, with dimensions corresponding to the dimensions of the calibrated openings of the matrix, into which the enter during spherical motion of the forming block. The transmission shaft is fitted with provision for vertical displacement. The forming block is made with provision for pressing at specific pressure in the 30.0-40.0 MPa range.
EFFECT: increased productivity of the whole cycle of making briquettes.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: working elements of complex are made in the form of two flexible circuits with solid surfaces from rubberized tape, infinitely closed on drive and tension units installed on stands. Both circuits are installed in vertical plane. At that stand of the first circuit is oriented vertically, and stand of the second circuit - at sharp angle to stand of the first circuit. Both circuits are arranged as converging downwards, and branches of both circuits facing each other are installed with possibility of their resting on flat friction supports fixed on stands with coating of anti-friction material relative to material of circuits tape. On the sides tapes of circuits are limited with vertical walls. The first vertically oriented circuit is arranged with baffle partitions of triangular cross section installed normally to its surface and fixed in it with the same pitch. Sharp edges of partitions face the second circuit. Above upper tension units, loading device is installed with the possibility of continuous supply of saw dust into space between circuits. Device for continuous supply of liquid binder is also installed there for supply to the same space. Drive unit of the first vertically oriented circuit is installed below drive unit of the second slating circuit by at least one step of baffle partitions installation in the first circuit. Vertically oriented plate is installed on the side of the second circuit on the frame with the possibility of displacement relative to it and side walls in vertical plane, fixation on frame and interaction with its upper edge with external surface of the second circuit tape. Conveyor is installed under drive units with the possibility of molded raw fuel elements reception and transportation into drying department. Distance between branched of both circuits facing each other in area of lower units installation and distance between surface of the first circuit tape in area where it envelopes drive unit and plate surface is accepted as equal to height of partitions. Stands of both circuits in their upper part are connected to each other by screw couplings. Speeds of the first and second circuit tapes are accepted as different.
EFFECT: simplification and cheapening of complex structure with provision of its high efficiency.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: while carriage 32 travel relative to the frame 24 guides 33 frames 24, required angle is regulated between racks 3, 4 and circuits 1 and 2. There are connected drives 5 and 6, sawdust 22 charging device 20 and liquid binder feeder 23. Sawdust and liquid binder are supplied continuously to the space 21 between circuits 1 and 2 wood sawdust and the liquid binding. Simultaneously there is connected crank drive 29 which by rod 28 makes the rack 4 and the second circuit 2 to vibrate in a vertical plane. In the intercircuit space 25, sawdust 22 and liquid binder are mixed, while formed mass is pressed by moving adjacent branches of circuits 1 and 2.
EFFECT: simplified and cheaper utilisation of equipment, higher performance reliability and quality of moulded fuel cells.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: wood industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for production of fuel elements from composite based production waste. A required angle α between posts 3 and 4, and cycles 1 and 2 is set by moving a carriage against guides 26 of frame 18. Drive units 5 and 6, loading device 14 for sawdust 16 supply and liquid binder feeding device 17 are activated. Sawdust 16 are mixed with the liquid binder in intercycle space and the mixture thus obtained is packed by means of downward movement of the adjacent sides of cycles 1 and 2. When the device is running, pressure of the mixture being compressed is taken up by convergent belt sides of both cycles 1 and 2 and by flat friction bearings 9 10 and 1 fixed to posts 3 and 4. Simultaneously with the downward movement of the mixture, the mixture is cut by sharp edges of transverse walls 13 while cycle side 2 is gradually approaching walls 13 of cycle 1.
EFFECT: invention allows to simplify the equipment being used and to make it cheaper, to increase performance reliability and quality of the fuel cells being formed.
4 cl, 4 dwg