Scanning laser beacon for spacecraft
SUBSTANCE: scanning laser beacon has a housing and a laser light source mounted in a scanning unit in a gimbal suspension. The device includes an anamorphic optical system mounted in the scanning unit on the same optical axis as the laser light source. The axis of the gimbal suspension is perpendicular to said optical axis, and the anamorphic optical system is a fisheye lens in a section perpendicular to the scanning direction. A swinging drive, which is in mechanical connection with the scanning unit, swings in the scanning plane.
EFFECT: possibility of detecting a passive spacecraft in half the solid angle at distances of up to 160 km when pointing an active spacecraft on said passive spacecraft.
The invention relates to the field of optical measurement of relative convergence SPACECRAFT), namely the scanning laser beacons.
Laser beacons not only have the best visibility for the background compared to conventional light beacons, but also allow us to automate the process of motion control while increasing the accuracy of orientation and guidance without participation of the operator.
There are various designs of the scanning laser beacons.
For vehicle navigation in the absence of restrictions on the angle of entrance into the zone of orientation and guidance can be used in laser beacons with a circular or fan-shaped diagram of the scanning laser beam[1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7].
A known design of a scanning laser beacon to set the course and glide path reduction of aircraft, as well as providing the pilot with a visual contact with the runway during landing at night and in low visibility conditions[8; 9; 10; 11].
As radiation sources in each beacon is used by two lasers. In the glide path beacons are used lasers, generating different accent to the eyes of the operator of the radiation. The Central lighthouse with only the same lasers. To ensure control of beams of lasers in space orientation and euda deflectors vertical and horizontal scanning. To adjust the output power of the laser beacon is equipped with devices weakening with a set of neutral attenuators.
The laser beams of all three beacons scan in the vertical plane sinusoidal with a frequency of 0.5 kHz in the following angles: for the Central beacon of 4.5°for lateral beacons of 2.5°. Both low-frequency scanning in the horizontal plane. In the glide path beacons beams scanned by an angle equal to 15°. The scan angle of the Central lighthouse in the horizontal plane is equal to 7°. Reverse laser beams extinguished.
For the prototype accepted design of a scanning laser beacon , based on the cyclic creating sequentially in time setisactive field pointing in the azimuth plane. Scanning laser beacon includes the laser, mirror, motor, coil, solenoid, alternator, clutch, rotating disk and a return spring.
The coil is installed in the magnetic field of the electromagnet, under the influence of the voltage coming from the generator performs an oscillatory motion by a sawtooth or sinusoidal trajectory. The laser beam performs scanning space in the vertical plane. Angular scan size can be controlled by increasing or decreasing the amplitude of the voltage generator. Rotary serologicals on the clutch, connected to a generator producing a sequence of pulse width modulated pulses (PWM sequence). During the rotation of the drive motor at time of receipt of the pulse generator to the electromagnet of the clutch disk periodically drawn, overcoming the return force of the spring. As a result, over the duration of the pulse of the clutch rotates the mirror, however, rejects and laser beam by an angle proportional to the time of coupling of electromagnetic coupling with the rotating disk. At the end of the pulse the mirror together with the clutch under the influence of spring returns to its original state. This scanning cycle with a variable rotation angle of the laser beam is periodically repeated.
The principle of forming satisactory circular zone of orientation following. At the time of filing with the pulse generator, the greatest duration of the laser beam from the original zero position makes a full rotation in azimuth (horizontal) plane. Decreasing the duration of the pulses in the sequence generated by generator sector azimuthal scan consistently from cycle to cycle shrinks to a selected minimum value. The full cycle of formation satisactory zone is equal to the repetition period of the packs PWM sequences. The least duration of them is of the pulse is determined by the minimum sector size.
The described device performs the reverse scan, and the scanning in the vertical plane.
The disadvantage of analogs and prototypes is a small amount of solid angle in space, which can be detected beacon, as well as lack of reliability due to the complexity of structures.
The objective of the invention is to increase the probability of passive detection KA and reduced requirements for preliminary orientation relative to the active SPACECRAFT during their convergence by increasing the solid angle, which can be detected laser beacon. Simultaneously, the invention is more reliable due to its simplicity.
The problem is solved using a scanning laser beacon, comprising a housing, a laser light source mounted in the scanning unit in a cardan suspension, and it introduced anamorphic optical system installed in the scanning unit on the same optical axis with the source of laser radiation; axis gimbal perpendicular mentioned optical axis, and an anamorphic optical system is a cross section, perpendicular to the direction of scanning, wide-angle lens type "fish eye", and the swinging actuator in mechanical communication with the scanning BL is kOhm, made swinging in the plane of the scan.
Figure 1 shows the design of the proposed invention, where:
1 - body;
2 - the source of laser radiation;
3 - scanning unit;
4 - anamorphic optical system;
5 - gimbal suspension;
6, the swinging drive.
Laser scanning lighthouse consists of a laser light source 2 and the anamorphic optical system 4, is placed in the scanner unit 3, mounted in the gimbal suspension 5, the tilting actuator 6 and the housing 1.
The laser light source 2 is used to receive optical radiation with the necessary parameters, anamorphic optical system 4 forms the desired pattern, the swinging drive 6 provides movement of the scanning unit 3 in the scanning plane. Axis gimbal 5 is perpendicular to the optical axis.
In operation, the lighthouse, the scanner unit 3 is rotated by an angle of 180°, then the scan continues in the opposite direction.
Optical anamorphic system 4 provides the radiation divergence in the plane perpendicular to the scanning direction 180°, and in a plane coincident with the scanning direction, the divergence of up to 1° (see Figure 2).
Feature anamorphic system is that in the meridional and sagittal planes its focal p is stoane have different values. Basically, anamorphic system can be applied to the refractive surface of various forms, most commonly used cylindrical lens.
In the plane perpendicular to the direction of the scan lens is a so-called "fish - eye optical system with a field of view of 180°, for example, the type of lenses "zodiac" and "MS Zenithar-2.8/16".
The design can be used one or more solid-state lasers, fiber lasers, semiconductor lasers.
Swinging the actuator 6 may consist of a motor and a transmission, comprising a Cam and a crank-slider mechanisms.
Technical result achieved - increase the probability of detecting passive KA and reduced requirements for preliminary orientation relative to the active SPACECRAFT during their convergence by increasing the solid angle, which can be detected laser beacon.
It is possible to provide passive detection of CA in the full solid angle, i.e. with the approach of active SPACECRAFT from any direction. This is achieved by the installation of a passive SPACECRAFT from opposite sides of the two scanning laser beacons (see figure 3), each of which covers the solid angle of 2π.
Also you can calculate the distance between the active and passive KA is the exploits of measuring the signal strength of the beacon passive KA.
When designing laser beacons encounter the following difficulty. With the increase in solid angle, which emits a beacon, decreases the divergence of the radiation and, consequently, with increasing distance between the passive and active KA decreases the power density of the radiation detector, which reduces the probability of passive detection CA.
Thus, the range of the laser beacon and the angle in which it is detected that represent a certain average value, minimum meet the requirements of the task.
Object detection is carried out in the far approach. For currently used for measurement of airborne radio systems detection range is over 100 km
To substantiate the possibility of practical implementation will calculate the maximum detection range of the radiation of the lighthouse. Original data: beacon radiates in a continuous mode, scanning is performed by chart 1°×180° (0,110 cf), the radiated power is 2 watts.
The maximum detection range of the laser light on the background space is estimated by the formula:
where Rmthe radiation power of the laser beacon; Sn- size of the aperture of the receiving optics; τ is the transmittance of the optical path; Pn- minimalist guest the other received power of the reflected signal; Ωm- the solid angle of radiation patterns of the lighthouse.
To estimate the detection range, the following assumptions: the area of the receiving aperture adopted Sn=2,83·10-3m2(diameter 6 cm); a threshold received signal strength is Pn=10-12W; optical transmission is equal to τ=0.5 in.
The maximum detection range against the background of outer space will be:
For comparison, we can take the characteristics of the known constructions of the laser beacons.
One of the first on-Board opto-electronic systems for measurement of convergence KA was established in 1967 in space flight Center them. Marshall (USA) [12, 13, 14]. The equipment included installation of passive KA laser beacon for a more reliable and rapid relative orientation of the interacting KA. The lighthouse had a conical radiation pattern, equal to 10°. Average radiation power was 200 mW. Due to the fact that the field of view of the receiving optical system on the active KA was also equal to 10°, before convergence interacting SPACECRAFT had to be oriented towards each other with an accuracy of not less ±10°. The maximum detection range passive SPACECRAFT was 120000 m within the cone 0,024 Wed(10°×10°).
Currently aboard the International space the th station (ISS) set the laser subsystem reference units (RU). RU set the coordinate system to the docking station by placing them on the body of the ISS in certain fixed points, through the formation of three radiating apertures with a conical directivity equal to 30° (exposure level of 0.5). The subsystem provides the definition of all parameters of the relative position and the relative motion of the passive SPACECRAFT at distances up to 200 m At a distance of less than 10 m maximum angle at which may be a light emitting aperture of RU, is 49°. The maximum detection range passive KA is 7500 m within the cone 0,214 Wed(30°×30°).
1. Application 3313161 (Germany). MCI NC 3/00.
2. Pat. 59-16222 (Japan). MCI G01S 1/70.
3. Pat. 446751 (Australia). MCI H01S 1/00.
4. Pat. 1346852 (UK). MCI F21Q 3/02.
5. Pat. 371283 (Sweden). MCI F21Q 3/02.
6. Pat. 132211 (Norway). MCI G08G 3/00.
7. Pat. 2530034 (France). MCI G01S 1/70.
8. Pat. DE 3222473 (GERMANY). Light laser beacons.
9. A.S. 714927 (USSR). The scanning light beacon / Foomodule, Gagalady, Viavideo.
10. A.S. 714928 (USSR). Device for light signaling in the orientation of moving objects.
11. A.S. 736772 (USSR). Optical-mechanical scanning device / Gailoan, Aracoeli, Viavideo.
12. Navigation, 1966, vol.3, No.3.
13. Aviation Week, 1964, vol.80, No.20.
14. Lehr C.G. Laser Tracking Systems. - in: Laser Applications, Academic Press., 1974, vol.2, p.13.
SC is nyuushi laser beacon spacecraft comprising a housing, a laser light source mounted in the scanning unit in a cardan suspension, characterized in that it introduced anamorphic optical system installed in the scanning unit on the same optical axis with the source of laser radiation; axis gimbal perpendicular mentioned optical axis, and an anamorphic optical system is a cross section, perpendicular to the direction of scanning, wide-angle lens type "fish eye", and the swinging actuator in mechanical communication with the scanning unit, made swinging in the plane of the scan.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water transport. Proposed method proceeds from generation of control signals for actuators. For this, current coordinates of below points are continuously defined in time: oil terminal mechanical center O (φo, λo), tanker aft point A (φA, λA), and tanker fore point F (φF, λF) to determine point F1 located on line connected oil terminal center with tanker aft point A. Note here that point F1 is located at fixed distance d from oil terminal center. Then, current coordinates of point F1(φF1, λF1) are calculated to calculate distance between current positions of points F and F1, and to determine magnitude of length FF1. Proportionally with said length generated is control signal for actuators designed to drive tanker fore point F to point F1. Which makes point O, F, A located on one line to meet freight operation safety requirements.
EFFECT: stabilised position relative to oil terminal.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises valve body with inlet, outlet and throat arranged there between, drive secured to valve body to comprise valve plate and diaphragm articulated with valve plate. Said valve plate is arranged inside valve body to reciprocate between open position and closing position in response to pressure variation and valve body outlet taken up by diaphragm. It comprises also valve port arranged in valve body throat. Note here that said port comprises cylindrical component including valve seat and channel extending through valve port. Valve seat is tightly jointed with valve plate in closing position. Note here that said valve port features selected set of parameters including channel diameter and seat height corresponding to seat length along said channel. Said set is preselected from multiple sets of parameters, each including channel diameter and seat height. Note also that seat heights of said sets are in inverse relation with channel diameters.
EFFECT: high-efficiency gas flow at preset outlet pressure.
22 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: gas regulator comprises diaphragm and threaded elements including: case, adjusting screw and cover from nonmetallic thermoplastic material with moulded different-diameter threads. Case is jointed to cover by larger-diameter thread. Adjusting screw is fitted in cover by smaller-diameter thread while moulded threads on cover feature equal pitch and arranged coaxially. Note here that one of said elements has moulded thread. All elements are made from glass-filled polyamide with polyamide content of 64-75 wt %.
EFFECT: lower costs at higher quality, lower weight.
4 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises valve disc and valve port made to provide for additional sealing in shutting off in the case of clogging. In the latter case, disc stays in direct contact with body section making the part of said valve port. Note here that said port comprises body and cartridge fitted therein to slide. In standard shutting off, valve disc gets in direct contact with main seat on cartridge. However at clogging, cartridge is pushed into body to force valve disc in direct contact with aforesaid additional sealing outside of cartridge.
EFFECT: increased valve capacity, decreased sizes.
26 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises valve body defining valve inlet and outlet, valve opening made between said inlet and outlet, valve disc arranged in vale body to displace between open position and closed position for control over fluid flow through valve body. Note here that valve disc has sealing surface to get in contact with valve opening when disc is closed. Besides, it comprises cylindrical element articulated with valve disc edges to extend above said sealing surface to direct fluid flow from valve opening to valve outlet.
EFFECT: reduced pressure drop.
23 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises assembly with control component and diaphragm coupled with control component. The latter control fluid flow through device, relief valve coupled with control assembly, drive case accommodating, at least, control assembly parts. Note here that drive case has top and bottom part. Every said part comprises flange adjoining diaphragm edges. Drive case has also fasteners to joint said parts together, outlet channel defined by case top section and comprising relief valve. Note here that outlet channel has connection section arranged, at least, partially above case top flange upper surface, and thrust surface defined by case top flange upper surface. Note here also that said thrust surface represents solid annular surface that allows free access to aforesaid fasteners.
EFFECT: ease of use.
15 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises valve with inlet and outlet, and opening arranged between said inlet and outlet, and actuator. The latter is coupled with valve and comprises valve plate arranged in vale to displace between closed position, operating position, and safety position. Besides, device comprises cartridge arranged in valve and provided with cylindrical first part adjoining opening, second cylindrical part adjoining actuator, and part with channel arranged between first part and valve outlet. Note here that cartridge first part features inner size that allows receiving, at least, part of valve plate when the latter stays in operating position so that valve plate and cartridge allows fluid to flow from opening into outlet and from actuator.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
25 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft on-board automatic control systems. The aircraft pitch angle control system has an angular velocity sensor, a pitch signal selector, an angular position sensor, a comparator unit, an integrator, amplifier units Kϑ, Kω and K∫, an adder, a steering machine amplifier, a steering machine with feedback and an altitude control. The first input of the comparator unit is connected to the output of the angular position sensor, the second input of the comparator unit is connected to the output of the pitch signal selector. The output of the angular position sensor is connected through the amplifier unit Kϑ to the first input of the adder. The second input of the adder is connected through the amplifier unit Kω to the output of the angular velocity sensor. The third input of the adder is connected through the amplifier unit K∫ and the integrator to the output of the comparator unit. The output of the adder is connected through the steering machine amplifier to the input of the steering machine, the output of the steering machine is connected to the input of the altitude control and through the feedback to the fourth input of the adder.
EFFECT: reduced overcontrol in transient processes when processing a given pitch angle command and the resultant reduction in power consumption of the drive of the control device.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for generating an integral adaptive signal for stabilising gliding motion has an angle sensor 1, an angular velocity sensor 2, a control signal selector 3, a comparing element 4, an adder amplifier 5, an adder 6, an integrating amplifier 7, an impact pressure sensor 8, a scaling amplifier 9, a functional nonlinear element with controlled limitation 10, a reference signal selector 11, a logic comparing unit 12, a controlled switch 13, a modular function signal generator 14 and a signal limiter 15.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities and high accuracy of control.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: flight time, angle of deviation from the mean line of fire and lateral deviation therefrom are measured on-board an aircraft; a liquidation command is generated, issued and used when flight time, angle and (or) lateral deviation values exceed maximum values of these parameters given on-board the aircraft; failure of the aircraft to respond to the descent commands is further detected and if the descent command is not executed, a liquidation command is generated, issued and used. The apparatus for ensuring safety of a flight experiment has an angle liquidation program set unit, a unit for generating angle liquidation commands, a heading sensor, an actuator, a clock, a unit for generating time liquidation commands, an integrator, a lateral deviation liquidation program set unit, a unit for generating lateral deviation liquidation commands and a roll signal generator.
EFFECT: reducing the size of the hazard zone when an aircraft fails to perform programmed descent.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, navigation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making and is intended for generation of data field of laser teleorientation systems (DF LTS) and navigation, optical communication, and can be used in control, landing and docking of aircraft, etc. continuous length-adjusted laser radiation band is generated as well as delay between three scanning cycles originating in object banking is generated by a certain law, the object accommodating control field generation system.
EFFECT: control over object with no zones wherein object laser control does not exist, scissors-like laser radiation directional pattern.
FIELD: control of moving objects with tele-orientation in the laser beam.
SUBSTANCE: the system has a laser, optoelectronic scanning system, output optical system and a control unit of deflectors. The control unit of deflectors has a formation unit of sync signals and raster parameters, driver of raster codes, driver of shift codes, adder and a double-channel frequency synthesizer. Raster codes Zs and Yt from the outputs of the raster code driver and shift code Kφ from the output of the shift code driver are fed the inputs of the adder connected to the inputs of the double-channel frequency synthesizer, codes Zs=Zt, Ys=Yt+Kφ or Zs=Zt+Kφ, Ys=Yt or Zt+Kφ, Ys=Yt+Kφ are formed. The control inputs of the shift code driver are connected to the control outputs of the formation unit of sync signals and raster parameters and the driver of raster-codes. The laser system of tele-orientation is made for input of the "DESCENT" command to the input of the formation unit of sync signals and raster parameters.
EFFECT: enhanced noise immunity of the system and enhanced methods of control of objects.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spaceship control around center of mass. Proposed method consists in that axes of spaceship bound coordinate system (XKA, YKA, ZKA) are aligned with those of solar-orbital coordinates (XCOCK , YCOCK). ZCOCK). Note here that YCOCK is directed to the Sun while axis YKA aligned therewith is perpendicular to working surface of spaceship solar batteries. Axes XCOCK and XKA are located in spaceship orbit plane and describe general (at definite semi-pass) spaceship direction. Axis ZCOCK complements system of coordinate axes to right rectangular one. Solar-orbital system represents quasi-inertial system relative to the Sun. Axis YCOCK is set by spaceship device setting to direction to the Sun. Spaceship linear speed and spaceship orbit plane are defined by known methods and appliances.
EFFECT: optimum utilisation of solar energy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control over spacecraft motion about center of mass with the help of instrument that determined direction to Sun. In orienting spacecraft in solar-orbital coordinate system (SOCS), necessary conditions are created for most efficient use of solar power by solar batteries arrange on spacecraft. Proposed method consists in entering spacecraft orbit parameters into onboard computer. Search angular speed is set to spacecraft to allow said instrument to capture the Sun by instrument vision field. Then, component of angular speed about coupled axis Xsc is zeroed to keep the Sun in the field of vision of said instrument. Obtained zero magnitude is maintained and spacecraft is turned about two other axes to align single vector of direction to the Sun with said coupled axis Ysc . At this orientation of spacecraft, it performs angular motion about coupled axis Zsc within the angle of ±10° to complete spacecraft orientation in SOCS/.
EFFECT: automatic computation of mismatch angles from measurement of solely direction to Sun.