Scanning laser beacon for spacecraft

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: scanning laser beacon has a housing and a laser light source mounted in a scanning unit in a gimbal suspension. The device includes an anamorphic optical system mounted in the scanning unit on the same optical axis as the laser light source. The axis of the gimbal suspension is perpendicular to said optical axis, and the anamorphic optical system is a fisheye lens in a section perpendicular to the scanning direction. A swinging drive, which is in mechanical connection with the scanning unit, swings in the scanning plane.

EFFECT: possibility of detecting a passive spacecraft in half the solid angle at distances of up to 160 km when pointing an active spacecraft on said passive spacecraft.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of optical measurement of relative convergence SPACECRAFT), namely the scanning laser beacons.

Laser beacons not only have the best visibility for the background compared to conventional light beacons, but also allow us to automate the process of motion control while increasing the accuracy of orientation and guidance without participation of the operator.

There are various designs of the scanning laser beacons.

For vehicle navigation in the absence of restrictions on the angle of entrance into the zone of orientation and guidance can be used in laser beacons with a circular or fan-shaped diagram of the scanning laser beam[1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7].

A known design of a scanning laser beacon to set the course and glide path reduction of aircraft, as well as providing the pilot with a visual contact with the runway during landing at night and in low visibility conditions[8; 9; 10; 11].

As radiation sources in each beacon is used by two lasers. In the glide path beacons are used lasers, generating different accent to the eyes of the operator of the radiation. The Central lighthouse with only the same lasers. To ensure control of beams of lasers in space orientation and euda deflectors vertical and horizontal scanning. To adjust the output power of the laser beacon is equipped with devices weakening with a set of neutral attenuators.

The laser beams of all three beacons scan in the vertical plane sinusoidal with a frequency of 0.5 kHz in the following angles: for the Central beacon of 4.5°for lateral beacons of 2.5°. Both low-frequency scanning in the horizontal plane. In the glide path beacons beams scanned by an angle equal to 15°. The scan angle of the Central lighthouse in the horizontal plane is equal to 7°. Reverse laser beams extinguished.

For the prototype accepted design of a scanning laser beacon [7], based on the cyclic creating sequentially in time setisactive field pointing in the azimuth plane. Scanning laser beacon includes the laser, mirror, motor, coil, solenoid, alternator, clutch, rotating disk and a return spring.

The coil is installed in the magnetic field of the electromagnet, under the influence of the voltage coming from the generator performs an oscillatory motion by a sawtooth or sinusoidal trajectory. The laser beam performs scanning space in the vertical plane. Angular scan size can be controlled by increasing or decreasing the amplitude of the voltage generator. Rotary serologicals on the clutch, connected to a generator producing a sequence of pulse width modulated pulses (PWM sequence). During the rotation of the drive motor at time of receipt of the pulse generator to the electromagnet of the clutch disk periodically drawn, overcoming the return force of the spring. As a result, over the duration of the pulse of the clutch rotates the mirror, however, rejects and laser beam by an angle proportional to the time of coupling of electromagnetic coupling with the rotating disk. At the end of the pulse the mirror together with the clutch under the influence of spring returns to its original state. This scanning cycle with a variable rotation angle of the laser beam is periodically repeated.

The principle of forming satisactory circular zone of orientation following. At the time of filing with the pulse generator, the greatest duration of the laser beam from the original zero position makes a full rotation in azimuth (horizontal) plane. Decreasing the duration of the pulses in the sequence generated by generator sector azimuthal scan consistently from cycle to cycle shrinks to a selected minimum value. The full cycle of formation satisactory zone is equal to the repetition period of the packs PWM sequences. The least duration of them is of the pulse is determined by the minimum sector size.

The described device performs the reverse scan, and the scanning in the vertical plane.

The disadvantage of analogs and prototypes is a small amount of solid angle in space, which can be detected beacon, as well as lack of reliability due to the complexity of structures.

The objective of the invention is to increase the probability of passive detection KA and reduced requirements for preliminary orientation relative to the active SPACECRAFT during their convergence by increasing the solid angle, which can be detected laser beacon. Simultaneously, the invention is more reliable due to its simplicity.

The problem is solved using a scanning laser beacon, comprising a housing, a laser light source mounted in the scanning unit in a cardan suspension, and it introduced anamorphic optical system installed in the scanning unit on the same optical axis with the source of laser radiation; axis gimbal perpendicular mentioned optical axis, and an anamorphic optical system is a cross section, perpendicular to the direction of scanning, wide-angle lens type "fish eye", and the swinging actuator in mechanical communication with the scanning BL is kOhm, made swinging in the plane of the scan.

Figure 1 shows the design of the proposed invention, where:

1 - body;

2 - the source of laser radiation;

3 - scanning unit;

4 - anamorphic optical system;

5 - gimbal suspension;

6, the swinging drive.

Laser scanning lighthouse consists of a laser light source 2 and the anamorphic optical system 4, is placed in the scanner unit 3, mounted in the gimbal suspension 5, the tilting actuator 6 and the housing 1.

The laser light source 2 is used to receive optical radiation with the necessary parameters, anamorphic optical system 4 forms the desired pattern, the swinging drive 6 provides movement of the scanning unit 3 in the scanning plane. Axis gimbal 5 is perpendicular to the optical axis.

In operation, the lighthouse, the scanner unit 3 is rotated by an angle of 180°, then the scan continues in the opposite direction.

Optical anamorphic system 4 provides the radiation divergence in the plane perpendicular to the scanning direction 180°, and in a plane coincident with the scanning direction, the divergence of up to 1° (see Figure 2).

Feature anamorphic system is that in the meridional and sagittal planes its focal p is stoane have different values. Basically, anamorphic system can be applied to the refractive surface of various forms, most commonly used cylindrical lens.

In the plane perpendicular to the direction of the scan lens is a so-called "fish - eye optical system with a field of view of 180°, for example, the type of lenses "zodiac" and "MS Zenithar-2.8/16".

The design can be used one or more solid-state lasers, fiber lasers, semiconductor lasers.

Swinging the actuator 6 may consist of a motor and a transmission, comprising a Cam and a crank-slider mechanisms.

Technical result achieved - increase the probability of detecting passive KA and reduced requirements for preliminary orientation relative to the active SPACECRAFT during their convergence by increasing the solid angle, which can be detected laser beacon.

It is possible to provide passive detection of CA in the full solid angle, i.e. with the approach of active SPACECRAFT from any direction. This is achieved by the installation of a passive SPACECRAFT from opposite sides of the two scanning laser beacons (see figure 3), each of which covers the solid angle of 2π.

Also you can calculate the distance between the active and passive KA is the exploits of measuring the signal strength of the beacon passive KA.

When designing laser beacons encounter the following difficulty. With the increase in solid angle, which emits a beacon, decreases the divergence of the radiation and, consequently, with increasing distance between the passive and active KA decreases the power density of the radiation detector, which reduces the probability of passive detection CA.

Thus, the range of the laser beacon and the angle in which it is detected that represent a certain average value, minimum meet the requirements of the task.

Object detection is carried out in the far approach. For currently used for measurement of airborne radio systems detection range is over 100 km

To substantiate the possibility of practical implementation will calculate the maximum detection range of the radiation of the lighthouse. Original data: beacon radiates in a continuous mode, scanning is performed by chart 1°×180° (0,110 cf), the radiated power is 2 watts.

The maximum detection range of the laser light on the background space is estimated by the formula:

where Rmthe radiation power of the laser beacon; Sn- size of the aperture of the receiving optics; τ is the transmittance of the optical path; Pn- minimalist guest the other received power of the reflected signal; Ωm- the solid angle of radiation patterns of the lighthouse.

To estimate the detection range, the following assumptions: the area of the receiving aperture adopted Sn=2,83·10-3m2(diameter 6 cm); a threshold received signal strength is Pn=10-12W; optical transmission is equal to τ=0.5 in.

The maximum detection range against the background of outer space will be:

Lmax=160397 m

For comparison, we can take the characteristics of the known constructions of the laser beacons.

One of the first on-Board opto-electronic systems for measurement of convergence KA was established in 1967 in space flight Center them. Marshall (USA) [12, 13, 14]. The equipment included installation of passive KA laser beacon for a more reliable and rapid relative orientation of the interacting KA. The lighthouse had a conical radiation pattern, equal to 10°. Average radiation power was 200 mW. Due to the fact that the field of view of the receiving optical system on the active KA was also equal to 10°, before convergence interacting SPACECRAFT had to be oriented towards each other with an accuracy of not less ±10°. The maximum detection range passive SPACECRAFT was 120000 m within the cone 0,024 Wed(10°×10°).

Currently aboard the International space the th station (ISS) set the laser subsystem reference units (RU). RU set the coordinate system to the docking station by placing them on the body of the ISS in certain fixed points, through the formation of three radiating apertures with a conical directivity equal to 30° (exposure level of 0.5). The subsystem provides the definition of all parameters of the relative position and the relative motion of the passive SPACECRAFT at distances up to 200 m At a distance of less than 10 m maximum angle at which may be a light emitting aperture of RU, is 49°. The maximum detection range passive KA is 7500 m within the cone 0,214 Wed(30°×30°).

Literature

1. Application 3313161 (Germany). MCI NC 3/00.

2. Pat. 59-16222 (Japan). MCI G01S 1/70.

3. Pat. 446751 (Australia). MCI H01S 1/00.

4. Pat. 1346852 (UK). MCI F21Q 3/02.

5. Pat. 371283 (Sweden). MCI F21Q 3/02.

6. Pat. 132211 (Norway). MCI G08G 3/00.

7. Pat. 2530034 (France). MCI G01S 1/70.

8. Pat. DE 3222473 (GERMANY). Light laser beacons.

9. A.S. 714927 (USSR). The scanning light beacon / Foomodule, Gagalady, Viavideo.

10. A.S. 714928 (USSR). Device for light signaling in the orientation of moving objects.

11. A.S. 736772 (USSR). Optical-mechanical scanning device / Gailoan, Aracoeli, Viavideo.

12. Navigation, 1966, vol.3, No.3.

13. Aviation Week, 1964, vol.80, No.20.

14. Lehr C.G. Laser Tracking Systems. - in: Laser Applications, Academic Press., 1974, vol.2, p.13.

SC is nyuushi laser beacon spacecraft comprising a housing, a laser light source mounted in the scanning unit in a cardan suspension, characterized in that it introduced anamorphic optical system installed in the scanning unit on the same optical axis with the source of laser radiation; axis gimbal perpendicular mentioned optical axis, and an anamorphic optical system is a cross section, perpendicular to the direction of scanning, wide-angle lens type "fish eye", and the swinging actuator in mechanical communication with the scanning unit, made swinging in the plane of the scan.



 

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