Method and device for measurement of inertia force acceleration at shear flow of layers in granular material

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to technical measurements, and namely to measurements of inertia force acceleration value at relative shear of layers in granular material. It can be used in agricultural industry and processing industry, where grain cleaning machines operate based on use of layer-by-layer shear flow of grain medium under action of inertia forces on screens and sieves. Measuring method of inertia force acceleration at shear flow of grain contained in a trolley with application of marks from contrast material on cross section of grain body for determination of shear value of each grain layer and the whole grain body relative t trolley bottom, movement of trolley on rails and its braking. Recording of trolley movement parameters at braking moment is performed by means of a cassette with photosensitive paper, which is installed on its lateral side and onto which the light falls from two fixed lamps through two holes in a curtain. One of the lamps fixes on photosensitive paper the braking path and the other one - time intervals. Braking of granular material - trolley system is performed using coil spring. Activation and deactivation of lamps at braking moment is performed automatically at opening and closing of contacts located on fixed stop. Method is implemented by means of the device containing a trolley having the possibility of being moved on rails under action of falling weight, photoelectric device for measurement of kinematic movement parameters of granular medium - trolley system at braking moment, which is made in the form of a cassette with photosensitive paper, which is fixed on the trolley side, and two lamps one of which fixes braking path and the other one fixes time intervals on photosensitive paper.

EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy of parameters of shear flows in granular medium, which are required for adjustment of sorting machines for optimum operating mode.

4 cl, 5 dwg

 

The device refers to the technical dimension, namely the measurement of the magnitude of the acceleration forces of inertia relative shear layers in the bulk body.

Applications are agricultural production and processing industry, where grain cleaning and sorting machines work on the basis of layer-by-layer shear flow grain environment on the working bodies (sieves, sieves) under the action of inertia forces of the reciprocating or circular motion. To configure them for optimal modes it is necessary to measure parameters of shear flow of the processing environment.

In the process of working machines in granular medium, there are two opposite forces, the ratio of which depends on the intensity of shear flow and, consequently, the performance of the machine. On the one hand it is a force of resistance to shear elementary layer inside the granular medium, gradually increasing the weight of the overlying layers. On the other inertial force acting on each elementary layer when changing the speed of the working body. It should be noted that the forces of inertia of the upper layers of the bulk of the body is transferred from the surface of the working body through a granular medium, therefore, the strength of the links inside the granular medium limits the magnitude of inertia forces transmitted elementary layers is yuca environment.

A device for determining the dynamic coefficients of the shear layers in the bulk body and the size of their shift, developed Its (Proceedings of VIM. T, M, 1964, S-139) in the article "Screening of granular bodies during their layer-by-layer motion on the Sith". A copy of the article and diagram of this setup Its are given in the Appendix to the application.

The device Its contains:

the cart with the side plates of transparent material moving along the rails;

- two-stage drum with the help of a thread and cargo moves the cart;

- brake friction device;

- recording device (inductive sensor) for measuring the speed of the truck.

The disadvantages of this device is that:

- no measuring and recording device for the determination of resistance to shear and inertial forces at the time of the shift.

to create inertial forces applied friction brake device, in which the magnitude of the braking force in the experience of constant, therefore, the inertial force acting on the grain environment, will be constant (pigv), while on real machines acceleration forces of inertia j is changed according to the harmonic law from 0 to j max (figa, 1);

the magnitude of the force of inertia and acceleration are determined by calculation, which complicates and with iget the accuracy of determining the parameters of shear layers of granular material, depending on the kinematic modes of the working body.

The goal of the proposed method is to improve the accuracy of measurement of shear flows in granular medium, required for setting up and sorting machines for optimal operation modes.

The proposed device (figure 2) consists of truck 1, moving on wheels on two rails, on which are mounted a movable stop 3 with a hole and block 4 with the thread on which the suspended load 5, the moving cart.

With the end wall of the truck fixed brake device (figure 3), consisting of a screw adjusting nut 1, washer 2, which compresses the spring 3 when the cart stop 3, and the screw passes freely through the hole in the fence.

To record the motion parameters of the truck at the time of braking on the sidewall mounted in the slots of the cassette (figure 4) photo paper 1. The paper is closed movable shutter 2, shutter moves in the slots of the cassette and has a length of 2 times greater than the length of the paper so that it remains closed when the stop shutter and movement of the trolley with the cassette. At the same time fixed focus 3, which has two holes, one above the other to expose the photo paper. Through the top hole records time from flashing strobe lamp 4, through the lower hole recorded from the lamp 5 path length of the brake.

The tripod has a fixed stop 6, which established the modern contacts enable strobe lamp 4. The movable stop shutter 3 clicks on the contacts fixed stop 6, the lamp 4 is included. The lamp 5, the recording start and end of deceleration (compression spring), is switched on by pressing washers 2 on the contacts established on the focus 3 (figure 3).

Both lamps turn off when the waste truck back after the reverse impact of the spring.

Calibration of the compression force of the spring 4 brake device (3)

Unlike device Its in this brake device is a twisted spring, the compression force which varies according to the law F=K x, which corresponds to the tangent line 2-2 (Fig 1) to the sine wave changes accelerate in the sorting machine.

Selecting springs with different stiffness coefficient K, it is possible to obtain different values of the acceleration forces of inertia during braking.

The calibration graph is constructed as follows. The screw 1 (figure 3) secure the thread 2, the second end of which is connected with the load 5. If we change the value of the goods F we obtain the displacement X of the spring. The resulting graph F=K x is then used to determine the braking force and inertial force when deciphering the records obtained on the photographic paper. The device operates as follows.

When measuring the magnitude of the relative shift of the grain layers depending on the magnitude of the force of inertia.

In the cart is filled with grain, so that the longitudinal cross section of the grain bodies is in the cart is a trapezoid, that allows for braking the grain to move along the carriage. In the cross section of the grain body with a thin layer of contrast material (chalk, flour) made label, offset them when meeting with the brake device indicates the amount of shift of each layer of the grain and all grain body relative to the bottom of the truck. At the bottom of the truck stacked elements from the surface of the working bodies and sorting machines.

The initial velocity of the cart at the time of braking V0sets the value of the path of the acceleration of the truck and the weight of the cargo.

In the tape recording device is placed, photo 1, is closed by the shutter 2 (figure 4). Set the tripod with a fixed stop 6. Before braking, the stop roller blind 3 clicks on the stop 6, the closed contacts of the lamp 4 strobe. Roller blind hole stops against the lamp, and the cartridge with photo paper moves with the trolley. Photo paper is the timestamp and the movement path of the truck.

Path, the beginning and the end of the fixed braking lamp 5, which is switched on by pressing washers 2 stop 3 (3), (closed contacts on the stop). On paper remain level, which are determined

V0- speed at the time of braking;

X - path inhibition equal to the amount of compression of the spring - X.

Thus, by changing the speed of the truck, the time and p the e brake you can set different speed inertial forces acting on the grain environment in the cart. On the other hand, measuring the amount of shift of each layer of the grain and all grain body on the bottom of the truck, can experimentally using this device to determine the best modes of sorting machines, in which there is a maximum value of the layer-by-layer shear flow. Figure 5 shows a fragment of a recording on photographic paper route and time of movement of the truck at the time of braking.

;;;

where j is the acceleration of the inertial force at the time of braking of the truck;

Fm max≈Fi max- maximum force of inertia of the system is equal to the spring force;

mCR=mT+mr+m3is the reduced mass of the system (truck, cargo, grain).

The maximum inertial force acting on the grain, is determined from the graph (see figure 5):

Fi max C=jmax·mC,jmax=Fm max/mCR.

If Fi max C>FSt- shear flow layers in the bulk body is missing;

If Fi max C>FStbut = FCH- shear flow layer occurs throughout the thickness of the granular body, but granular medium is not moved along the bottom of the truck.

If Fi max C>FSN - shear flow layer takes place all over loose body, in addition, all granular medium is moved relative to the bottom of the truck.

FSt- force the sliding resistance of the top layer of grain,

FCH- the strength of the resistance to shear of the lower layer of grain.

The force of inertia Fi maxacting on the granular medium can be changed by increasing the path of acceleration or weight of the load 5, this increases the system speed in the braking torque Vo.

1. A method of measuring acceleration forces of inertia at the time of the shift of grain poured into the cart with the labeling of contrast material in the cross-section of the grain of the body for determining the amount of shift of each layer of the grain and all grain body relative to the bottom of the truck, moving truck on rails and its inhibition, record of motion parameters cart, characterized in that the recording of the motion parameters of the truck at the time of braking is performed with the help of the installed on the sidewall of the cartridge with photo paper, which through the two holes in the door gets the light from the two stationary lamps fixing on photographic paper one - way brake, and the second time intervals when this braking system "granular medium truck" carried out by using a twisted spring, and turn on and off lamps at the time of braking is carried out automatically when the loan is assured and opening contacts, located on a fixed position.

2. The device for implementing the method of measuring the acceleration of the inertial force at the time of braking rectilinearly moving truck with a loose medium according to claim 1, comprising a carriage capable of moving along the rails under the action of the falling weight, characterized in that it is equipped with photoelectric device for measuring kinematic parameters of motion of a system of "granular medium truck" at the moment of braking, made in the form of a cartridge with photo paper, fixed to the side of the truck, and two lamps fixing on photographic paper one - way braking, the second time interval.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the cartridge is made with movably installed in its grooves shutter having two holes at different heights to expose the photo paper and the length of the roller blind is two times greater than the length of the tape, to protect the paper from curing.

4. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the braking device is mounted directly on the trolley in its front part and begins to work at the time of the meeting of the trolley with a fixed focus.



 

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