Integrated technology of operation and production of maksinio vehicles hybrid aircraft (versions), turboprop jet engine, wing (versions), method of generating lift and method of turboprop jet engine operation
SUBSTANCE: version of every hybrid aircraft consists of fuselage, turboprop and wings. First version incorporates bearing devices arranged on both sides of fuselage and consisting of aircraft transverse wing root with engine fan ahead of front edge at fuselage nose and wings arranged there behind, several wings at top or bottom side, along fuselage. Second version incorporates top and bottom pairs of cantilever straight wings with spacing between pairs for gas-air flow from engine nozzles. Turboprop et engine incorporates shaped confuser and diffuser sections of propfan ring inner surface. Wing versions feature availability of bearing section and airfoil section. Methods comprises using said aircraft and engine.
EFFECT: higher safety, lower costs.
13 cl, 8 dwg
The invention relates to a single technology exploitation and production of aircraft, mainly for operation and production engineering industries - aerospace, engine, automotive engineering and shipbuilding, mainly for operation and design beaurocracy aircraft with turbofan engines on the supporting planes, with the possibility of aircraft (horizontal) and helicopter (vertical) mode of flight.
A few layout known VTOL (vertical takeoff-landing) equipped with lifting motors for vertical movement on the take-off and landing and lifting lively marching to the horizontal.
Two hoisting engine RD-41 YAK-141 are vertically behind the cockpit, lift-cruise engine R-79-300 has a system bleed air from the engine highways haul it to inkjet wheels and swivel nozzle with afterburner mode.
Engine RD-36-35 VTOL YAK-38 provided with a fuel pump located in Koke with rotation of the rotor shaft.
More perfect is a lift-cruise engine company rolls-Royce series Pegasus. Last modification of its 11-61 (F402-RR-408) with digital control system and two pairs of rotary nozzles. The flow from the front pair of nozzles which surrounds the cap is about with flaps in vertical flight to create additional thrust (http://otol.boom.ru/engR-79/index.html).
The main disadvantage of these VTOL is absolutely insufficient payload not exceeding the interval 500-1500 kg in Addition, the presence of front and rear pairs of rotary nozzles and additional traction force from the wing flow increases and the negative impact of the jet stream even on the metal surface of the ship and especially on the dirt surface of the aerodrome.
Used on the TU-154 turbofan engine NK-8-2U has a built-in fan shared a gondola with a gas generator. On the upper end of the gondola windowancestor engines installed multi-blade screws opposite rotation from the turbine of the gas generator through the differential gear. The pass ratio of the engine, ultra-high and the efficiency is increased annular fairing with a cylindrical inner surface (http://kurs3.as-club./ru/aero/html/kurs_80_html).
Famous fan turbofan engine NK-8-2U, described in "Addition to the technical description of NK-8-2 AD. Turbofan engine NK-8-2U", p.33, Fig.11. The fan consists of inlet guide vanes at the inlet to the engine with a cook on the hub and the guide apparatus between the wheels I and stage II, forming the fan rotor, which is part of the rotor of the low-pressure compressor. The disadvantage of this ve is tilator is low dvuhkonturkoy it.
Kit bearing areas of known science and manufactured aircraft consists of one at least of the wing and two half-planes or one plane tail.
By A.S. USSR №467570, B64C 3/18 for 1984 is known wing of the aircraft, made of plating attached to the power set of spars, ribs and stringers.
The set of supporting planes of an aircraft of canard configuration described in U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2000251, B64C 39/12 1992, consists of two half-planes of monocryl connected by a Central wing with the fuselage, the two half-planes tail and front horizontal tail biplanes scheme. All known bearing plane and sets them to create a lifting force only in high-speed interaction of the apparatus with the air environment.
Amp traction on patent 2344308, F02K 7/04 for 2006 has a hollow hemispherical Radome. The inner surface of the nose portion of the fairing with one, at least, a screen for changing the direction of the ejected flow to the opposite.
The change of flow direction on the opposite associated with the occurrence of energy loss.
The patent 2375601, F02K 7/04 for 2006, there is a method of operation of the air-jet engine with traction modules pulse detonation combustion, including when eshiwani fuel with air and burning the mixture in the cavity, the compressed fuel is evaporated in the heat exchangers. Mix a pair of fuel with air in the mixing chamber for detonation combustion, which serves down their heat engine with electric starter and generator.
The closest in technical essence to the claimed plane is the plane, described in the patent 2349505. It consists of a fuselage with a cockpit and passenger cabin or cargo compartment, power plants with reverse thrust on the bearing surfaces, bearing surfaces, air-start installation and control systems, fuel, air conditioning and chassis with wheels of trucks on low pressure tires.
The closest in technical essence to the proposed power plant is turbopropfan engine (TWD) NK-93, consisting of zakuporivanija propfan and gas generator. Stage fan, rotating clockwise from the planetary gearbox with seven satellites, consumes 40% of capacity and has 8 blades, and rotating counterclockwise with 10 blades consumes 60 percent. The saber blades with a sweep angle of 30° is made of magnesium or of epoxy gravitoelectric.
The closest in technical essence to the claimed unit slice of the wings is a box wing aircraft "Ilya Muromets" (http://aeroplan.boom.ru/shavrov/sh_cont.htm). It is izvirnega and lower split on wingspan different elongation, interconnected vertical connections. Seven sections of the upper and lower four are made of plating on the power set of the spar on the front edge of the stringer on the rear connected with ribs having a cross-sectional shape of the wing to interact with the air and stacked with each other. The fuselage thus rigidly connected to the Central section of each wing.
The closest in technical essence to the claimed portion of the wing is a wing of the aircraft by A.S. USSR № 467570, B64C 3/18 for 1984, made of plating attached to the power set of spars, ribs and stringers.
The closest in technical essence to the claimed is the cowling of the engine NK-93, consisting of a set of ribs mounted on the input guide apparatus and mounted on the external and internal shells.
The disadvantage of the shell is executing the inner surface of its cylindrical and her respective ends of the blades of the screws.
The closest in technical essence to the claimed method is a method ejector gain traction engine of the aircraft, containing the mixture of the ejected gas from the environment into the mixing chamber from the ejection of the mixture in the environment in the direction of motion of the aircraft and changing the direction of flow on protivopolojnoe in the hollow fairing, attached to the motor housing, the mixing chamber and/or the structural elements of the apparatus (see RF patent 2344308, F02K 7/00 for 2006).
The closest in technical essence to the claimed method of creating a lifting force is the method described in U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2002671, B64C 9/00 1991. It consists of the formation of the accelerated fluid flow variable intensity and direction in the direction opposite to the movement above the support surface, while the enhanced stream are formed from two components, the intensity of which change simultaneously or differentially change the direction of the thrust vector.
The invention solves the problems of unification of technology exploitation and production of aircraft by eliminating the need for operation and production uneconomical helicopters, airplanes, and security of air travel and flights without expensive to manufacture and uneconomical operation of air transport infrastructure while reducing nomenclature aircraft, the cost and increase the comfort, safety, and traffic and flights with improving working conditions for flight crews.
The essence of the invention lies in the fact that beaurocracy the plane containing the fuselage with the cockpit and passenger cabin or cargo compartment, a power plant with R is versa thrust on the bearing surfaces, bearing surface, the air-start installation and systems management - fuel, air-conditioning, and a chassis with wheels of trucks on low pressure tires, equipped with a combined wings on the sides of the fuselage from the root of the transverse wing on the fore part of it and the adjoining longitudinal parts with rings fan (propfan) before the front edge of the half-planes transverse wing, with the location of the longitudinal parts in the fan air stream and one, at least, a fragment of the wing at the top and/or bottom side of the fuselage, not located in the fan air flow, mounted on the end of the root portion longitudinal beam, the rear ends of each of which are connected with the ends of the rear cross beam mounted on the rear fuselage, with the longitudinal beam and the corresponding side of the fuselage mounted wing slice or set of fragments with the pie part or straight, and the halves of the transverse beams rear wheels of the pitch, on the rear ends of the sides of the fuselage mounted by means of brackets rear wheels of course, handlebars made with the possibility of deflection of the rudders rate and pitch in the braking mode, and the ends of these are equipped with holes for jet rudders, with slice wing, cranemore, and the longitudinal portion of each of the combined wing is made with the total area of the bearing surfaces of the fragments is equal to the total square plane transverse wing aircraft of the same class.
Beaurocracy plane, which in addition to the combined wings on the sides of the fuselage installed on the upper side of the wing slice of pie or straight, at least front and rear bearing fragments, of which the straight anterior and posterior fragments provided with a rudder pitch.
Beaurocracy the plane containing the fuselage with the cockpit and passenger cabin or cargo compartment, a power plant with reverse thrust on the bearing surfaces, bearing surfaces, air-start installation and control system, fuel, air conditioning and chassis with wheels of trucks on low pressure tires, of which the sides of the fuselage is equipped with upper and lower pairs of cantilever straight sections between pairs for gas flow from the nozzles of the engines.
Turbopropfan engine consists of zakuporivanija two propfan with counter-rotating screws from the three-stage free turbine of the engine through the planetary gearbox, two-stage compressor, single stage turbinelike and medium pressure accordingly, torque of the compressor high and low pressure in front of the front transverse edge of the wing shell propfan made with profiled confused and diffuser portions of the inner surface of the flow channel compressors are made with confused plots spacers guide vanes and diffuser inner surfaces of the spacers impellers, impellers, rotors of compressors made group - with two or three wheels for the installation of the set of blades of the corresponding stage of the compressor on one disc and the rim.
Turbopropfan engine, each guide unit compressor high and low pressure which has a spacer with a confused area of the inner surface from the end face of the front flange to the plane of arrangement of the front edges of the blades of the device, until the middle of the guide blades or to the plane of arrangement of the rear edges of the blades with a smooth transition confused surface of the diffuser on the remaining width of the spacer guide vanes, the inner surface of each of the spacers impellers made diffuser and therefore its slope made the ends of the impeller blades of compressors.
Turbopropfan engine, the end of each LAPACK the propfan and the opposite end of the inner cone surface of the spacers impellers of the compressor high pressure is made with the angle of inclination, great angle them at the impellers of the compressor low pressure 0.5-1 degree.
Turbopropfan engine, which in addition to profiling the outer spacers similar confused plots are made on the inner spacer guide vanes and diffuser made the ends of the rims and discs of the impeller with the ends of the locking parts of the blades.
Combined the wing of the plane containing one of at least a fragment wing or a set of sets of fragments, the side bearing system with fan (windowancestor), nose over-ring with a diameter equal to the length of the cantilever fragments with a total area of one at least a fragment of a wing or set console fragments is equal to the total cross-wing and empennage of an airplane of the same class, and each composite wing is made from the root of the transverse half-plane on the front end of the fuselage, srednenapryazhennyh on the side with the nacelle in the middle of the half-plane, the upper or Niederbronn with the pylon in the middle of it for engine nacelle for each half-plane is at least one slice wing and/or set the console pie shaped slices or a pair of sets of linear fragments located in the air stream from new fan (propfan), and one, at least, slice wing, located not in the flow from the fan (propfan).
Combined wing aircraft with vergaraspainjul half planes transverse wing have a pylon on the bottom side of them, and nizheraspolozhennym - pole on the upper side and the nacelle at the end of the pylons, and the longitudinal part of the combined wing is made of upper and lower set of console fragments with the pie part, the total area of the bearing surfaces of each of them is equal to the total cross-wing and empennage of the aircraft of similar capacity, with the chord length, the curvature of the bearing surfaces, as well as the number of sets and pieces in the sets is determined at the design of the conditions for the creation of the lifting force of the plane, equal to the estimated flight weight at maximum range flight, since the modes of operation of the engines of 0.5-0.7 typ up to par considering the flow rates of airflow fragments.
Slice the wing of a plane containing a set of bearing surfaces, each of which is made of plating on the power set of the spar on the front edge of the stringer on the rear connected with ribs having a cross-sectional shape of the wing to interact with the air and holes on the fuselage end brackets soy is inane wing to the fuselage, each slice end brackets it is supplied by opening the front or top for fixing the front end of the subsequent fragment and the back or bottom hole for fixing the rear end of the previous fragment, except brackets front and rear edges of the first edge of the last fragment of the wing, with one hole on the front edge of the front bracket and the rear edge of the rear wing fragment, not located in the stream, and is located in the fan flow wing each fragment has mounting holes at the ends of the fragment.
Slice wing aircraft with fragments of structural synthetic material made with the mounting holes at the ends of the reinforcing metal elements.
Shell propfan contains input Kok connected with the outer and inner shells are mounted on the frame of a set of ribs connected with guide vanes mounted on the pylon, and each inner side of the ribs made from portions of ensuring confused and diffuser inner surface of the inner shell, while the confused part is located from the end plane of the location of the leading edge of the blades of the first screw with a smooth transition in her cone surface with an inclination angle corresponding to the angle of NAC is it the end of the blades of the screws with a smooth pair of the second diffuser surface and an end of the cylindrical surface.
The way turbopropfan engine includes a split in the fan air flow on the threads of the first and second circuit with the acceleration of the flow by covering the screws propfan, the compressed air of the first circuit in compressor supply fuel into the combustion chamber and burning it for education accelerated gas flow, the energy extraction gas flow in turbines of high and low pressure to the rotation of the compressors and the planetary gear from the free turbine through a gearbox of the second screw propfan, the air flow of the second circuit accelerate through the interaction of a radially moving mass flow with a profiled inner parts of the shell and the ends of the propfan blades, and the first circuit - the inner surface of the spacers and the ends of the impeller blades of compressors for changing the direction radially moving parts of the air flow on the axis.
The way to create a lifting force aircraft, on which is formed an accelerated fluid flow variable intensity and direction in the direction opposite to the movement above the support surface, while the enhanced stream are formed from two components, the intensity of which change simultaneously or differentially with change when it is directed is I thrust vector, for climb to a safe height from the point of touch in the Parking lot during takeoff with the exception of the horizontal movement of the inclusion of each of the reverse mode freezes and/or braking of the wheels of the chassis and when depressing from a safe height in hang mode for extra selected or planned touch point, when planting lift of the aircraft create by means of the blower fan air flows combined wings, when you climb safely to the height of the flight level to the lifting force of the combined wings from the fan flows is added to the carrying power from the high-speed interaction with the air environment of the combined wing and one at least a fragment of the wing, and when planning with echelon to the point of tangency to a safe height to reduce the lifting force from the speed of interaction with the air environment through the inclusion of the control of pitch, rate and reverse in the braking mode with automatic relaying of the valves in hang mode, proportional to the speed reduction planning to hang above the touch point, and after hovering above the touch point regulate the magnitude of the lifting force of the engine revolutions and consequently the rate of flow of the combined wings fan flows to control the speed of vertical movement of the touch point at which tance.
Inclusion in the layout of the aircraft carrier system of combined and slice the wings enables the creation of a magnified lifting force that is not associated with a huge and dangerous landing and takeoff horizontal speed and almost guaranteed safety. Due to the fact that the aircraft layout is practically unlimited increase in the area of the bearing surfaces and thus the cost of production less the cost of the aircraft, and almost limitless improved comfort and increased traffic is also associated with difficult submitted by reducing the cost of the establishment and operation of air transport infrastructure and operations.
Moreover, sharply reduced the role of human factors in safety - impact of it in normal flight and extreme situations, approaches zero.
1 shows the side view of the claimed plane, figure 2 is a view in plan not him, figure 3 - front view (along arrow a) and figure 4 - rear view (along arrow B in the plane with a sector bearing surfaces on the side walls). Figure 5 respectively on the side wall with pairs of rectilinear bearing surfaces. Figure 6 is a structural diagram turbopropfan engine. Figure 7 is a fragment of the profiled channel flow compressor with schematic depicts the eat group of impellers (with three steps on each disk) and Fig - the flight path of the aircraft on takeoff (left part) and landing (right part).
The plane in figure 1 comprises a fuselage 1 with a drum 2 propfan before the root part of the transverse wing 3 (2, 3) on the shaft turbopropfan of 4 engines with a thrust reverser 5 installed in the middle of each half-plane 3. Passenger or cargo area with cabin crew conventionally not shown. At the end of each half-plane 3 secured the front ends of the longitudinal beams 6, with the rear ends of which are connected the ends of the rear transverse beams 7 are fixed on the top side of the fuselage the middle of a beam or the second end to a corresponding side wall of the fuselage.
Between each longitudinal beam 6 and the corresponding side of the fuselage has the upper 8 and lower 9 kit bearing areas. On the rear fuselage mounted on brackets, rudders course 10 and pitch 11. On the upper wall kit bearing areas 12 by brackets 13.
The upper 8 and lower 9 (figure 4) fragments of the longitudinal part of the combined wings are made of the sector to ensure their durability taking into account the high temperature zone of the gas jet from the nozzle of the engine.
Hole jet rudders, niche and landing gear without depreciation with wheels of trucks on low pressure tires conventionally not shown.
You may follow the plane with rectilinear in the top 14 and bottom 15 pair sets console fragments (figure 5).
Turbopropfan engine 4 figure 6 consists of a propfan 2, two multi-screw counter-rotating which rotate the turbocharger 16, and the second screw is connected to the turbine through a differential gear 17. And shell 2 propfan it is made with a profiled inner surface of confused 18 and diffuser sections 19 (6). Similarly profiled flow passage of the compressor, at least.
Diffuser surface 20 of the spacers impellers and confused areas 21 of guide vanes of a compressor fluidly coupled to each other (Fig.7). Shown in Fig.7. a nine-storeyed compressor has three disk 22 instead of nine to three sets of blades 23 on each of them. Option compressors can be arrangement which was extremely important for drives or combined with two - and trehkomplektnuyu impellers.
Works turbopropfan engine as follows.
Since the beginning of the rotation of the propellers to run part of the cowling 2 air flow receives from the blade screws propfan (6) axial, circumferential and radial pulses. District mass partially discarded to the inner surface of the shell 2, and a large part of the circumferential and radial mass axial blown away by the masses of shells n the ass creating the main part of the thrust. Radially discarded fraction of the air flow loses energy upon contact with a cylindrical inner surface, creating air tube for axial movement of the flow. On sduw this tube portion of the axial flow at the ends of the blades of the screws loses axial velocity and the creation of a thrust not involved, reducing the pass ratio. In the propfan with a profiled inner surface of the radial part of the flow interacting with diffuser surfaces 19, receives the axial direction, increasing the velocity of the peripheral layer flow and, accordingly, the thrust of the engine.
Similarly accelerate the air flow in the channel of the compressor diffuser inner surface 20 of the spacers impellers of the compressor. The result of such repeated many times acceleration of the air flow through the balancing effects of impellers on the air flow of the secondary circuit increases the compression of air at the compressor outlet. Accordingly increases the rate of gas flow from the combustion chamber and increases energy, the perceived turbine. Increases and transmitted from the blades windowancestor included in the shell 2 air and additionally increases the engine thrust.
Operate aircraft with regulation is the use of lifting force, respectively, setting and flight phase as follows.
After loading or landing of passengers in the Parking lot or the touch point start the engine and stalling wheel chassis include reverse thrust in the hover mode. If the situation precludes the possibility of lateral movement, such speed engines in which the lifting force from the blow-off air flow from windowancestor 2 combo wings 3-8-9 will exceed the takeoff weight of the aircraft and will throw it off from the Parking lot with a gradual climb. The speed-up of the aircraft you can adjust the speed of the engine, and its orientation in space aerodynamic rudders course 9 pitch 10. And after climbing to a safe height Nbes (Fig - trajectory shown by the solid line), where there are no restrictions on horizontal movement, the thrust reverser off and the plane begins to gain horizontal speed simultaneously with height, including configuration cabrerana to assigned flight level. Thus, starting from horizontal movement to the lifting force from the fan blowing composite wings added lift force increasing in proportion to the increase of the horizontal speed from high-speed interaction of these wings and a fragment of a wing with atmospheric air. Therefore, horizontal flight echelon of the aircraft can in the draw on the mode of engine operation to 0.5 nominal that provides increased flight range.
For routine or emergency landing include reverse thrust in the hover mode, rudders course 9 pitch 10 in the braking mode and urgently reduce the height of the flight echelon in the steep planning to a safe height in the direction of a planned or forced touch points. And after reaching a safe altitude, moving the aircraft in level flight with minimum walking speed for approaching the target touch point over which the plane crashes (the right part of the trajectory on Fig). Setting the speed engines in which the lifting force from the blower fan flow combined wings 3, 8, 9 becomes less than the landing weight of the aircraft, start vertical movement for lowering the contact point and at a height of 2-1,5 meters short-term increase engine rpm and increase lifting force to reduce the speed of touch with Parking to the "soft landing" with a speed of 0.3-0.15 m/S.
Additional technical result of aircraft technology, air traffic and flight operations is enhanced operational capabilities. During takeoff with a margin due to the lifting force from the fan blowing composite wings 3-8-9 from the touch point, the surrounding space which does not prevent the increase in horizontal / min net and after-service as described in example 1, the plane at the same time gaining speed and altitude by increasing the lifting force of the combined wings and a fragment of the wing and at the expense of increasing the speed of interaction with the air environment (Fig takeoff trajectory for this case is shown by the dashed line). After the flight echelon planning for planting performed as described in example 1 way in the direction of the touch point to the height of the alignment Nvar (5-6 m above the point) hanging over it and the vertical movement or hang in front of the touch point and additional lowering and closer to the point.
Described in this application and the applications 2010100721, 2010119884 layout of aircraft and methods for their exploitation illustrate only a part of the technical result and benefits of unified technology exploitation and production of aircraft - aircraft declared. And even these benefits - guaranteed safety of the aircraft beaurocracy air travel and flights with the reduction of production costs and operate with reduced inventory of vehicles and in industry, and in operation is enough to prove the industrial applicability of ETAPE.
In ETAPLE very important factor is increased by an order of capacity, compared with the aircraft layout. And as it drove the increase of carrying capacity of the aircraft layout is possible with a simultaneous decrease in 2-4 times the power supply capacity of the aircraft, then for any manufacturer of aircraft and helicopters, especially the interest in the production of these expensive to manufacture, not cheap and dangerous in operation of the apparatus will disappear by itself. And for carriers unlimited possibilities in traffic to impossible for planes comfort also exclude any choice between ETAPE and aircraft-helicopter technology. This follows from the fact that the sites for take-off and landing of the claimed aircraft can be used the area around the city: the intersections of streets and squares or designated areas on the outskirts, evenly spaced on the periphery of cities, suburbs, villages.
The combination of the layout of the aircraft composite wings in ventilator flow provides a manifold increase in the total bearing area, which in turn provides a lifting force greater take-off weight of the aircraft is already on the engine rpm below the nominal mode of engine operation. And this immediately eliminates two problems with aircraft technology: no operation takeoff decibels, as necessary, in the selection and arrangement of huge areas of the country airfields with runways, taxi-ways and lighting equipment on them.
Aircraft long-haul layout class TU-154, BOEING, AIRBUS unthinkable without the four engines of the carrier and plane. In the claimed compositions, their capacity can provide one engine. Safety rules have to put two engines in these pages. Accordingly, when the weight of one engine of this class 2500 kg weight reduction by reducing the number of engines with 4 two is 2500×2×4=20000 kg this technical effect in the inventive arrangement, the weight of each of the two engines is reduced by the weight of six to nine drives the compressor. Accordingly, the weight of the apparatus 50×9×4=1800 kg In the amount of relief will be 20000+1800=21800 kg, respectively, this value will increase the capacity of the claimed composition.
As stated technology fits perfectly into the infrastructure of cities, ETAPE turns into reality the implementation of what was previously considered unattainable principle of air "from the front door to entrance". That means savings in transport costs and time and increase consumer services of air carriers.
Thus, repeatedly proven industrial applicability of ETAPE in the aviation and transportation, as well as similar applications in engine building, automotive and transport, shipbuilding and possibly rail transport will certainly determine the translation of these industries on ETAPE.
When Turbov eventlisting engine air flow in the shell 2 propfan is divided into streams of the first and the second circuit. While cast by the blades of the screws propfan to the ends of the blades and diffuser sections 18, 19 of the air flow gets axial direction with higher speed (6). This effect is obtained from the blades 23 and diffuser surfaces of the outer shells against the ends of the impeller blades of compressor high and low pressure (7). As a result, the output from the compressor high pressure air stream enters the combustion chamber with high pressure and accordingly the gas flow from the combustion chamber after the combustion of fuel in it acts on the blades of the turbine stages with greater kinetic energy and increased torque, which shafts with a free turbine and gear 17 is transmitted to the screws propfan. Mastered by industry turbojet engines made with confused flow channels. In such channels in each stage air flow is constantly hampered and part of the energy of the engine is lost to overcome this inhibition. Compared to the confused nature of these engines, is depicted in Fig.7 with confused plots guides-speed of flow channel already reduces aerodynamic losses in the compressor and the degree of decrease in flow rate. The most advantageous arrangement is formed cone plots of impellers with FAP, aplaudida steps with the formation of a common diffuser flow passage (not shown conventionally).
Described in the beginning of this section the Bass (beaurocracy plane) is preferred for local airlines. Medium-range and Intercontinental preferable to perform multiple paired rows of bearing surfaces on the side walls above and below the axis TWD (turbopropfan engines) offset pairs of polumetra for his education gap between the pairs for the gas flow from the nozzles of the engines (not shown). This arrangement provides cooling of the bearing surfaces of the air flow from the screw TRD fan of TVD or screws TWD. Mid-range Bass can be performed with a cantilever bearing surfaces on the side walls of the fuselage.
The support device on the side walls consists of the root parts of the transverse wing aircraft with 3 sides 2 propfan turbopropfan engine 4 (1, 2) before the front edge of each piece. For each engine installed in series along the length of the fuselage bearing plane 8 or 9, each of which is made in the form of part of an aircraft wing, for example - its root part or Central part of the wing of one plane. At the end of each root portion has front end of the longitudinal beams 6, the rear end of which is connected to the end of the rear cross beam 7. On the longitudinal beams installed outer ends plaskota is 8 or 9, and on the beams 7 - elevators pitch 13. The total area of the bearing surfaces and lateral root parts on each side wall is equal to the total area of the wing and empennage of the aircraft of similar capacity, and the number of bearing surfaces on the wall and their geometrical parameters determined at the design of the conditions of the blowing velocity of the bearing planes of the air flow from the screws and ensure maximum flight range of the modes of operation of the engines of 0.5-0.7 nominal to nominal.
Support unit of the upper wall is made of a set of bearing surfaces 13 (2), each of which has a covering on the power set of the spar on the front edge of the stringer on the rear and installed on them ribs having a cross-sectional shape of airplane wings and brackets for installation on the fuselage with the mounting holes, with each upper end of the brackets is executed with the front or top opening for fixing the front end on the next in the series of the carrying surface and the back or bottom hole for fixing the rear end of the previous carrier plane, except for the brackets of the front and rear edges of the first edge of the last carrier plane, having one hole on the front edge of the front bracket and the rear edge at the rear of the plane.
1. Beaurocracy amulet, consisting of a fuselage with a cockpit and passenger cabin or cargo compartment, turboprop engine, bearing surfaces, control systems, fuel, air conditioning and chassis with wheels of trucks on low pressure tires, characterized in that it has installed on the sides of the fuselage bearing device consisting of a root portion of a transverse plane of the wing with the engine fan in front of the front edge of it on the forward fuselage and behind him bearing planes, each with the ability to interact with the air stream from the propeller and one, at least near the bearing surfaces on the top or bottom side, located at the length of the fuselage, mounted on the end of the root portion of the end of the longitudinal beam, the rear end of which is connected to the end cross beams mounted on the rear fuselage, with the longitudinal beam and the corresponding side of the fuselage mounted the ends of the bearing surfaces, and the halves of the transverse beams rear wheels of the pitch, on the rear ends of the sides of the fuselage mounted on the brackets of the rear wheels of the course, while the handlebars are made with the possibility of variations in the braking mode, and the trailing edges of control surfaces with openings for ink-jet rudders, with each series bearing of poverhnostya the top or bottom wall, at least a longitudinal portion of the bearing devices each side wall and root parts of the aircraft wing is made with the total area of the bearing surfaces, is equal to the total area of the bearing surfaces of the aircraft of similar capacity.
2. Beaurocracy aircraft according to claim 1, characterized in that in addition to carrying devices on the sides of the fuselage on the upper sector (wall) has a number of sectoral or rectilinear bearing surfaces, and at least the front and the back straight of them are equipped with rudders pitch.
3. Beaurocracy aircraft comprising a fuselage with a cockpit and passenger cabin or cargo compartment, turbogenerating engine, bearing surfaces, control systems, fuel, air conditioning and chassis with wheels of trucks on low pressure tires, characterized in that the sides of the fuselage is equipped with upper and lower pairs of cantilever rectilinear bearing surfaces with a gap between the pairs for gas flow from the nozzles of the engines.
4. Turbopropfan engine, consisting of a set in the front of the gondola twin-screw blower with counter-rotating screws from the three-stage free turbine of the engine through the planetary gearbox, two-stage compressor, single stage turb the n high and medium pressure torque, respectively, the rotors of the compressor high and low pressure, characterized in that it is made with profiled confused and diffuser portions of the inner surface of the shell propfan, a flow channel compressors are made with confused plots spacers guide vanes and diffuser inner surfaces of the spacers impellers, impellers, rotors of compressors made group - with two or three wheels to install sets of blades of the respective stage compressors on one disc and the rim.
5. Turbopropfan engine according to claim 4, characterized in that each guide unit compressor high and low pressure has a spacer with a confused area of the inner surface from the end face of the front flange to the plane of arrangement of the front edges of the blades of the device, until the middle of the guide blades or to the plane of arrangement of the rear edges of the blades, with a smooth transition confused surface of the diffuser on the remaining width of the spacer guide vanes, the inner surface of each of the spacers impellers made of the diffuser, and therefore its slope made the ends of the impeller blades of compressors.
6. Turbopropfan engine according to claim 4, characterized in, Thu the end of each propfan blades and the opposite end of the inner cone surface of the spacers impellers of the compressor high pressure is made with the angle of inclination, great angle them at the impellers of the compressor low pressure 0.5-1°.
7. Turbopropfan engine according to claim 4, characterized in that in addition to profiling the outer spacers similar confused plots are made on the inner spacer guide vanes, and diffuser sections made the ends of the rims and discs of the impeller with the ends of the locking parts of the blades.
8. Wing besaratinia plane containing the set of supporting planes or half-planes, each of which is made of plating on the power set of longerons, stringers and ribs, and the kit is installed on the fuselage angle of attack and has a total area of the bearing surfaces, is able to create a lifting force greater than the takeoff weight of the aircraft, characterized in that each supporting part on the sides of the fuselage is made from the root of the transverse half-plane on the fore part of it, srednenapryazhennyh on the side with the gondola in the middle of the half-plane, the upper or Niederbronn with the pylon in the middle of it for gondolas, each half-plane is located, at least one set of console pie form or paired sets of rectilinear bearing planes, each with the possibility of blowing air flow from the propeller fan (propfan), and also to what ina least one row of bearing surfaces located on the top wall of the fuselage.
9. Wing besaratinia aircraft of claim 8, wherein verkhnenaberezhny part of the half-plane transverse wing made with pylon on the bottom side of them, and nizheraspolozhennym - pole on the upper side and from the gondola at the end of the pylon, and the longitudinal side parts are made of upper and lower set of console planes with the pie part, the total area of the bearing surfaces of each set is equal to the total of the square root of the wing and tail surfaces of an airplane of the same class, with the chord length, the curvature of the bearing surfaces, as well as the number of sets and pieces in the sets is determined at the design of the conditions of creating a lifting force aircraft equal to the estimated flight weight at maximum range, since the modes of operation of the engines of 0.5-0.7 nominal to nominal speed of flow of the blow-off of its planes.
10. Wing besaratinia plane containing the set of bearing planes, each of which is made of plating on the power set of the spar on the front edge of the stringer on the rear connected with ribs having a cross-sectional shape of the wing to interact with air, and holes on the fuselage end brackets connected to what I mentioned planes with the fuselage, characterized in that each end of the said bracket provided with a front or top opening for fixing the front end of the subsequent carrier plane and the back or bottom hole for fixing the rear end of the previous carrier plane, except for the brackets of the front edge of the first and the rear edge of the rear bearing plane on the side walls of the fuselage, and the bearing surfaces on the upper or lower wall of the mounting hole is made at their ends.
11. Wing besaratinia aircraft of claim 10, characterized in that its supporting plane is made of synthetic structural material with the mounting holes on the ends of the reinforcing metal elements.
12. The way turbopropfan engine, including the separation of the air flow on the threads of the first and second paths with acceleration of flows of compressed air for the first circuit in compressor supply fuel into the combustion chamber and burning it for education accelerated gas flow, the energy extraction gas flow in turbines of high and low pressure to the rotation of the compressors and the planetary gear from the free turbine through a gear of the second stage propfan, characterized in that the air flow speed in the first circuit internal diffuser on top of the awns of the spacers and the ends of the impeller blades of the compressor by changing the direction of their movement on the axis.
13. The way to create a lifting force besaratinia aircraft, on which convert the energy of the fuel in the engine and move the plane with the interaction of bearing surfaces with air, characterized in that for climb to a safe height and lowering it on a scheduled or selected touch point using the lifting force from the blower bearing surfaces, air flows from the screws engines regardless of horizontal movement of the aircraft, at the planning level flight at a safe altitude set simultaneously in the working position to reduce the speed to zero over the touch point control surfaces of the aircraft or include reverses, and climb to the specified tier and flight perform on the mode of engine operation with regard to the lifting force created by the upper set of bearing surfaces and lateral bearing surfaces and transverse parts of the wing from blowing their ventilatory flow and speed of interaction with the air, the speed of vertical movement with touch points and adjust the engine rpm.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: in propeller fan with annular gas channel there located are hollow posts with through longitudinal slot on outlet edge and with inner cavity in which shanks of blades of propeller fan are arranged; inner cavity of hollow posts, which is made in the form of profile of rotating blades of turbine with inlet and outlet edges, is connected to compressor; at that, on the side of inlet edge of hollow post there is additional zigzag-shaped slot; posts consist of separate segments the number of which is equal to the number of blades of propeller fan, and joint between segments forms longitudinal through slots on the side of inlet and outlet edges of hollow posts; at that, there are seals on outer side from annular gas channel between posts and shanks of blades of propeller fan.
EFFECT: improving reliability and efficiency of operation by arranging the cooling of hollow posts and blades of propeller fan and reducing hydraulic losses in gas channel and losses in joints between segments of hollow posts.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: turbo-fan engine comprises two gas generators consisting of axial compressor, combustion chamber and turbine arranged along shared airflow, and nozzles. Additionally, it incorporates nacelle shared by aforesaid gas generators, common two-stage free turbine mounted between gas generators and running in opposite directions to transmit torques with the help of two one-stage reductions gears and two shafts mounted in parallel between gas generators and to auger-type fan mounted in nacelle.
EFFECT: higher reliability and operating economy.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engine production, particularly to blowers of aircraft gas turbine engines. Proposed screw-type blower comprises 1st and 2nd turbine wheels arranged one behind the other and furnished with vanes running in disks relative to radial axes. Front edges of the 1st turbine wheel vanes feature a departure from radial rotational axis increasing from the hub to periphery to create the vane sweep forward. 2nd turbine wheel vane front edges feature a departure from radial rotational axis decreasing from the hub to periphery to create the vane sweep forward. Birotary stew-type blower can be cowled.
EFFECT: reduced noise level.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engine production, particularly to aircraft gas turbine engine blowers. Proposed birotary blower consists of two consecutive impellers running in opposite directions. To produce required profiles of both impellers, necessary distributions of blades angles are corrected by algebraic summation of their designed angles. Birotary screw-type blower can be cowled.
EFFECT: reduced operating noise.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: in bypass gas-turbine engine with fan drive via simple coaxial reduction gear, fan is arranged as birotatory. The first impeller of birotatory fan downstream air flow is arranged with the possibility of rotation from the first intermediate gear of reducer downstream the flow. Invention protects values of ratios of reducer master gear toothing width to width of slave gear toothing located on the shaft of the first impeller of birotatory fan, number of intermediate gear teeth engaged with gear of internal coupling of simple coaxial reducer, to number of teeth of internal engagement gear of simple coaxial reducer, number of slave gear teeth located on the shaft of the first impeller of birotatory fan to number of teeth of intermediate gear engaged with gear of simple coaxial reducer.
EFFECT: lower noise level due to arrangement of fan with working vanes fixed relative to disk, higher reliability due to design simplification, lower number of parts and reduced weight.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: super-bypass gas turbine engine incorporates a birotary blower with its rotors being linked up, via an idler gear, with a simple coaxial reduction gear. The blower rotor, first along air stream, accommodates the reduction gear external gearing driven gear. The blower rear rotor accommodates internal gearing driven gear. The reduction gear idler gear comprises the front and rear parts, along the air stream, with different number of teeth. The invention covers gear ratios of the reduction gear idler gear rear, along air flow, the number of teeth of internal gearing gear, the number of teeth of the reduction gear idler gear front part and the number of teeth of external gearing gear. It also protects the ratios between the mean diameter of the idler gear rear bearing rolling bodies and that of the front bearing. The proposed invention allows reducing loads on rolling bearings to up the turbine reliability and down its noise. Note also that the birotary blower is driven, via a preset gear ration reduction gear, from the low-pressure turbine, the driving force being transmitted to the blower front and rear rotors.
EFFECT: higher reliability and lower noise.
FIELD: engines and pumps, transportation.
SUBSTANCE: aircraft turbine assembly incorporates a high-pressure stage comprising a high-pressure turbine coupled, via a high-pressure shaft, with a high-pressure compressor, a low-pressure turbine and a unit-directional rotation auxiliary compressor. The said low-pressure turbine incorporates the turbines with contra-rotating low-pressure inner and outer shafts arranged so as to run, at least, coaxial with the aforesaid high-pressure stage and radially inside it. The low-pressure inner shaft turbine is coupled, via the low-pressure inner shaft, with the front fan blade rim to transmit the driving force. The low-pressure outer shaft turbine is coupled, via the low-pressure outer shaft, with the rear fan blade rim to transmit the driving force. The auxiliary compressor incorporates, at least, one first rotating blade rim coupled with the low-pressure outer shaft to transmit the driving force and arranged axially behind and downstream of the rear fan blade rim. At least, one rim of the low-pressure turbine controlled guide blades is arranged crosswise the low-pressure turbine flow passage between the low-pressure inner and outer shafts turbines.
EFFECT: higher fan efficiency.
13 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: gas engine turbine assembly incorporates a high-pressure turbine coupled, via a high-pressure shaft, with a high-pressure compressor, a low-pressure turbine comprising contra-rotating low-pressure inner-and-outer-shaft turbines. The low-pressure turbine includes the low-pressure inner and outer shafts. The low-pressure inner shaft turbine incorporates the first low-pressure turbine blade rims coupled, via the low-pressure inner shaft, with the front fan blade rim to transmit a driving force. The low-pressure outer shaft turbine incorporates the second low-pressure turbine blade rims coupled, via the low-pressure outer shaft, with the rear fan blade rim to transmit a driving force. The turbine assembly contains also a unit-directional rotation blower also transmitting a driving force. The said blower is coupled with the low-pressure outer shaft and arranged axially upstream and downstream relative to the rear fan blade rim.
EFFECT: high-efficiency fan and higher efficiency of the gas turbine engine.
11 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: aircraft industry.
SUBSTANCE: unit of gas-turbine engine of flying vehicle contains high-pressure stage including high-pressure turbine with possibility of transmission of drive force connected with high-pressure compressor by high pressure shaft and rotating around engine centerline, low-pressure turbine with flow path of low-pressure turbine and arranged after high-pressure stage. Low-pressure turbine has turbine with low-pressure inner and outer shafts rotating in opposite directions including rotors of turbines rotating in opposite directions, respectively, with inner and outer low-pressure shafts which are, at least partially, arranged for rotation coaxially with high-pressure stage and in radial direction inside relative to stage. Rotor of turbine with low-pressure inner shaft includes first blade rims of low-pressure turbine connected to transmit drive force with blade rim of first fan by means in low-pressure shaft. Rotor of turbine with low-pressure shaft includes second blade rims of low-pressure turbine connected for transmission of drive force with blade rim of second fan by outer low-pressure shaft. At least one row of low-pressure turnable blades is arranged across flow path of low-pressure turbine between adjacent pair of one of first blade rims of low-pressure turbine with inner shaft and one of second blade rims of low-pressure turbine with outer shaft.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of fan in operation.
10 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: aircraft industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed superhigh by-pass ratio turbojet engine is provided with double-row opposite rotation fan whose rotors are connected with low-pressure turbine through reduction gear. Driving central gear of reduction gear is connected with external driven gear installed on first rotor of fan through idler gears and with internal driven gear installed on second rotor of fan. Idler gears are installed on combination bearing unit consisting of two sliding bearings with antifriction bearing placed in between. Inner race of antifriction bearing is installed on axle of idler gears by means of elastic member. Ratio of diameter of pitch circle of internal driven gear to diameter of pitch circle of driving central gear is 2-5.
EFFECT: improved reliability and economy, reduced mass of engine.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multimode aircraft. Proposed aircraft comprises fuselage 1 with dogtooth extension, wing with outer wings 3 smoothly jointed with fuselage 1, all-moving horizontal tailplane 5, and all-moving vertical tailplane 5. Fuselage middle section is flattened and made up of a set of aerodynamic sections. Engines are mounted in engine nacelles 6 spaced apart along horizontal line while engine axes are directed at acute angle to the plane of aircraft axis of symmetry along flight direction. Said dogtooth extension 2 comprises rotary parts 8.
EFFECT: increased radar deception, better maneuverability at larger angles of attack and aerodynamic quality at supersonic speeds.
10 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device consists of carcass, housing 1, internal combustion engine 9, rubber propulsor 2 comprising push surface made up of disk 6, spiral activator 5 provided with pulley 15 driven by Gall chain 16, operating spring 20 to contract and release rubber propulsor by said spiral activator 5 in acting by rod 10 to allow air feed into space formed under said propulsor and lower disk 6. With rubber propulsor 2 contracted and spring 20 released, air is abruptly ejected downward to produce jet thrust. There are flexible rods 12 to joint bottom disk 6 with top disk 8 to maintain saucer shape at pressure developed by contracted spring 20 and at jet force acting on bottom disk 6 in air ejection downward when rubber propeller 2 is contracted and released by pressure of operating spring 20.
EFFECT: expanded operating performances.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering, namely to aircraft turbojet engine and method of its mounting. Aircraft turbojet engine 1 comprises fin 7. Note is secured on turbojet engine primary structure 11 to make integral unit therewith. Method of mounting turbojet engine consists in fin 7 is mounted on turbojet engine structure 11 to form integral unit 7, 1. Then said integral unit is mounted and secured on airframe tail part 2.
EFFECT: reduced engine weight and easier mounting of engine and fin.
12 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft with low noise at take-off and landing. Aircraft comprises airframe, two wings, vertical tail consisting of at least two fins and at least one gas turbine engine mounted at aircraft tail part. Tail unit forms with airframe tail part a channel. Gas flows generated of gas turbine engine enter said channel. Main undercarriage support is arranged right under airframe. Sweepback wings feature sweep angle (φ) not exceeding 10° and elongation not smaller than 10 and are arranged in lateral direction with respect to airframe and do not carry engines.
EFFECT: reduced air craft noise in take-off and landing.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering, particularly to pilotless aircrafts equipped with jet engines. Propose aircraft comprises sustainer, pylon-mounted outside fuselage, and booster engine, pylon-mounted behind aforesaid sustainer.
EFFECT: improved flight characteristics.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: airplane comprises fuselage, nose conical portion, wings, stabilisers, fuel tanks, rocket propulsion system and pipelines for supply of fuel components to it. Rocket propulsion system is installed in back part of fuselage and comprises turbopump set, two combustion chambers and flat central body in between. Rocket propulsion system of airplane comprises turbopump set with impellers of oxidant and fuel installed on shaft, turbine, start-up turbine and coaxially installed gas generator and combustion chamber. Two combustion chambers have been used, and flat central body is installed in between.
EFFECT: reduced time of speed-up.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: aircraft power plant comprises turbojet engine sustainers and, additionally, an offset screw fan with its diametre not exceeding fuselage boundary layer at the point of its mounting. Note that the said screw fan is coupled with aforesaid turbojet engine sustainers by mechanical or gas-dynamic transmission.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
4 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to auxiliary facilities for fixation of power units on aircraft. Turbojet engine (TJE) is designed for installation on top of aircraft hull (1) tail unit by means of mounting suspension ((28, 128), (28', 128')) and comprises fan (11), front part (12) of body, back part (18) of body, auxiliary devices (22, 23, 24, 25) installed along external side of body front part (12), which contains points ((31, 32, 33), (31', 32' 33')) for fixation of mounting suspension (28, 28'). Fixation points are located so that to provide for same fixation of TJE (10) in any side of hull (1) of aircraft. Auxiliary devices (22, 23, 24, 25) are located so that they are accessible outside hull (1) independently from side, on which TJE is installed.
EFFECT: inventions are aimed at reduction of production costs.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: transport, aviation.
SUBSTANCE: method of reducing noise produced by aircraft two engines mounted on wings in symmetry to fuselage lengthwise plane consists in that the fuselage rear part is additionally provided with tail elements forming a channel symmetric relative to aforesaid fuselage lengthwise plane. Note that third engine is mounted on the top of the aforesaid tail part so that its axis lies in the plane of symmetry of aforesaid channel corresponding to appropriate vertical lengthwise plane of symmetry. Note also that third engine is uplifted relative to aforesaid fuselage rear part top and arranged before aforesaid tail elements with its outlet located at the inlet of aforesaid channel made up of tail elements. Aforesaid third engine either differs from engines mounted on the wings or is identical to them.
EFFECT: reduced noise produced by aircraft engines.
19 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: airplane contains fuselage with passenger saloons and turbo-jet engine (4). Airplane is equiped with forced-flow jet engine. Fuselage is made as rectangular tube at upper and lower planes of which passenger saloons (1) are installed. Tail part of rectangular tube contains jet engine with forced-flow jet engine attached to it.
EFFECT: decrease of drag.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft with oscillating slats contains fuselage, engines, two wings installed in tandem one of which is installed in front of and the other behind aircraft centre of gravity. Movable slot-type slats are installed as propeller in front of and above wing leading edges with possibility of oscillating movements. Vertical fins with flight rudders are installed on wings at rear edge side. Engines are located inside fuselage in pairs and have kinematical links with each oscillating slat.
EFFECT: improvement of aircraft design.
4 cl, 5 dwg