Methods and apparatus for enhancing quality of solid fuel

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for cleaning solid fuel, for example coal, has: an input apparatus for obtaining data on the initial sample of solid fuel associated with one or more characteristics thereof; an apparatus for comparing said data with the required characteristic of the solid fuel and determining the difference; at least one sensor for monitoring pollutants released when processing solid fuel; an apparatus for controlling processing in accordance with a feedback signal received from at least one sensor; a multilayer conveyor belt for moving the solid fuel which is configured to transmit the main part of microwave energy. The first layer of the belt is wear-resistant and the second layer has high heat-resistance. Characteristics of the solid fuel are: moisture, ash and sulphur content or the type of the solid fuel. Pollutants are water, hydrogen, hydrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide gas, liquid sulphur, ash.

EFFECT: controlling solid fuel processing.

21 cl, 13 dwg

 

This application claim priority to the following provisional applications, each of which is thus completely embedded in it by reference: provisional application US No. 60/788,297, filed March 31, 2006, provisional application US No. 60/820,482, filed on July 26, 2006, provisional application US No. 60/828,031, filed October 3, 2006, and provisional application US No. 60/867,749, filed November 29, 2006.

The technical FIELD TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES.

The invention relates to the processing of solid fuels, and more particularly to processing of solid fuel that uses microwave energy to the output of pollutants.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

The presence of moisture, ash, sulphur and other materials, of which the solid fuel is changed, is usually a consequence of the incompatibility of the parameters of a combustible fuel and education in the process of combustion pollutants. Solid fuel burning may result in formation of harmful gases, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur oxides (SOx). In addition, combustion of solid fuels may result appears in inorganic ash substances additional elements. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), which are allocated as a result of the combustion of solid fuels, can contribute to global warming. Each of these products can be is formed on a different level depending on the quality of the solid fuel.

To remove some of the unwanted substances that may be present in the solid fuel, different methods of processing, such as washing, air drying, drying drums and heating. For such procedures, you may need to solid fuel was fragmented, sprayed or otherwise treated, to a size that is not optimal for the end user. Moreover, to reduce gas emissions on fuel plants can be used cleaner exhaust gases. Therefore, there is a need to further reduce adverse selection, produced by the burning of solid fuels, and to reduce the cost associated with such allocations.

DISCLOSURE of INVENTIONS

Aspect the present invention relates to the purification of the sold fuel, partly based at least on the initial state of the solid fuel. In implementations of the invention, the solid fuel being tested, or checked as a separate sample to generate the original data set of variables related to the original fuel characteristics. Once defined, or final (processed) characteristics of the fuel can be known and may be running the process control is of the quality and/or its regulation occurs in relation to the original specifications and specified characteristics. The described method and system may include operations such as the introduction of the original data sample of solid fuel and the required characteristics of solid fuels to determine the difference between the initial and final composition of the product; comparing, and combining the input data related to the processing of solid fuel, is able to determine the operating parameters of the processing to obtain the desired processed product; and transmitting the operating parameters for the installation of control and a controller to control processing of the product in the installation processing of solid fuel.

Aspect the present invention relates to the provision of information for the further regulation of the processing of solid fuel installation processing of solid fuels for sale. Disclosed here is a method and apparatus can include a check of solid fuels with subsequent processing to clean it and provide information concerning the test verification processing device. Set the output parameters of the solid fuel can get the characteristics of final treated solid fuel from a remote installation, testing, processing characteristics can reflect the finally produced processed solid fuel; set the output parameters of the solid fuel may pass x is tion of final treated solid fuel on the installation of the current control; set the current control may compare characteristics of the final treated solid fuel with the desired characteristics of the solid fuel to determine the operating parameters of the control processing of solid fuel; and regulatory parameters obtained for the characteristics of the finally processed and cleaned of solid fuel may be in addition to any other operating parameter of the regulation of solid fuel.

Disclosed here is a method and a device may include a solid fuel, continuously loaded into the treatment setting that is controlled operating parameters. The controller can handle solid fuel operating parameters by continuous feed them to the system processing device, such as a belt conveyor, microwave devices, sensors, data acquisition, installation, pre-heating, cooling systems and the like. Continuous maintenance of processing equipment data sensor allows you to measure the results of processing of solid fuel, operating systems, continuously set on the setting of the processing conditions of the environment and transmit the measured information to the controller and setting the current control. Set the current control may compare the measured information with operating parameters of the processing Tverdov the fuel and adjust operating parameters. Adjusted operating parameters may be sent to the controller unit for continuous processing of fuel.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus may include the management and regulation of the processing of solid fuel, generated using the processing parameters and the parameters of the input sensors. The method and the device can use the received operating parameters of the processing of the installation of generation parameters for controlling processing of solid fuels in order to continuously ensure their installation process. The method and apparatus can provide the management and regulation of the operating parameters of the processing based on the input sensor unit for continuous processing. The method and apparatus can provide the flow adjusted operating parameters of the processing controller, which provides the operating parameters of the system installation continuous processing.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus may include sensors used to measure the performance of solid fuel conveyor systems. Sensors solid fuel conveyor systems can measure removed from the solid fuel products, such as moisture, sulfur, ash, and others. Sensors installation processing of solid fuels, working in the mode of continuous data providing device clicks the processing, can measure the operating parameters of the continuous data provision systems processing device used for the processing of solid fuels. The sensors may transmit the measured information to the controller device for continuous processing, device management and installation pricing/business. Sensor data allocated product can be used by installation management and controller for adjusting operating parameters of a conveyor installation. The sensor information of the working system can be used by setting pricing/business to determine the cost.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus can include a device control processing of solid fuel use in continuous real-time parameters of the feedback loop. The method and the device can monitor providing continuous data with system parameters from the installation of generation parameters on the controller setup processing. A continuous flow of data on the controller setup processing may cause in different systems the emergence of system parameters that allow systems to perform various processing of solid fuels. Sensors conveyor systems can measure various workers and isolated from solid fuel products and paragraph is to Radauti measured information on the installation of control. Installing the control may adjust the processing parameters of solid fuel by comparing the measurements of the sensors and the required operating parameters; and installation of control may pass adjusted the settings on the controller. The controller/sensor/device management, regulatory feedback loop can be continuously covered by the real-time feedback loop to maintain the desired, final treated solid fuel.

Disclosed here is a method and a device may include a device management and control of the microwave processing system of solid fuel. Install the microwave system operating parameters, such as frequency, power and duty cycle can be controlled by controller conveyor system during processing of solid fuels. The output of the microwave system and selected products from solid fuels can be measured by the sensors to determine the effectiveness of microwave parameters; measurements can be transferred to the installation control. Installing the control may adjust the operating parameters of the microwave system on the basis of comparison of the data measured by the sensors, and the desired values of the operating parameters (for example, setting the parameter generation). Adjusted microwave operating parameters of the microwaves in the new system can be transferred to the microwave system controller setup processing in the form of analog data.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus can include a managed deleting selected from solid fuel products in continuous operation of the installation processing of solid fuels. The set of sensors can measure the volume or level of excretion products separated from the solid fuel. The set of sensors can transmit information about the selected products on the controller and the control unit to obtain information about the level of remote products. The set of sensors can transmit level is selected, remote product installation pricing/business; setting pricing/business can determine the market value of selected products or the cost of the selected products.

Aspect the present invention relates to a conveyor, continuously loading within the treatment setting. The conveyor can feed solid fuel through the install processing, despite the fact that the solid fuel is processed (for example, flow of coal through a field of microwave energy). Method and device supply installation of the conveyor allow its integration with transporting solid fuel through the installation process. The conveyor may include a combination of characteristics such as low absorption of microwave energy, high abrasion resistance, high temperature resistance to elevated, continue the sustained fashion over time temperatures, thermal insulation, resistance to burning, high melting point, nesaista structure and resistance to exit out of control due to temperature effects. Pipeline installation may be made of a strong, connected to each other with tape. Conveyor installation can include multiple ribbed, flexible workers joined sections.

Aspect the present invention relates to devices and methods for processing solid fuel. The implementation of the present invention relates to a conveyor installation, adapted for moving solid fuel (e.g. coal) through the installation process. In implementations of the invention, the setting processing of solid fuels adapted for processing of solid fuel by passing it through a field of microwave energy. In implementations of the invention a conveyor system adapted to obtain stable performance, when used in the processing of solid fuel.

The implementation of the present invention relate to devices and methods for transporting solid fuel through the install processing of solid fuels. The devices and methods can affect pipeline installation, adapting transporting solid fuel through a microwave installation of fuel treatment. In implementations is subramania conveyor installation adapted, to have at least one or combination of characteristics, such as low microwave power loss, high abrasion resistance, high continuous temperature resistance, localized high temperature resistance, thermal insulation, resistance to burning, high melting point, nesaista structure with respect to the particles, non-porous structure with respect to moisture, resistance to dermoptera, or other such characteristics that create a flexible pipeline installation.

In implementations of the invention, the conveyor unit is a conveyor belt. The conveyor belt may be mainly in the form of a continuous tape. The conveyor belt may include a variety of flexibly connected to each other with solid partitions. In other implementations of the invention, the pipeline is another physical building that is designed for transporting solid fuel through a continuous or mainly of continuous processing.

In implementations of the invention, the setting processing of solid fuels can be microwave installation of fuel treatment, which can also handle solid fuel other systems, such as systems for heating, washing, gasification, combustion and vaporization. Conveyor installation of the mod is et to be made from a material with low loss microwave power. For example, it can be adapted to have low loss in the frequency range from 300 MHz to 1 GHz. Conveyor installation can be temperature stable during prolonged exposure to high temperatures. For example, it may be temperature stable upon prolonged exposure to temperatures within the area roughly equal to 200°F, or about. Conveyor installation can be temperature stable when the localized temperature around 600°F or about. There are many other attributes and material conveyor systems, as well as processes for control is described here by a conveyor system.

The present invention relates to improved methods and devices for engaging the microwave installation generating magnetrons, continuously associated with the installation processing of solid fuels. Disclosed here is a method and apparatus may include the washing of the magnetron through a direct transfer system DC high voltage to avoid failure voltage (e.g., substations), and then restore it (for example, for use in a magnetron). The power system may include provision of a high voltage power plant conversion of high voltage, which may be adapted to receive the AC voltage and outputting a high e.g. the supply of direct current.

Disclosed here is a method and a device may include applying a DC high voltage by a high voltage AC from the installation distribution Board; direct generation of high DC voltage from a high voltage AC and high-voltage supply of DC magnetron associated with the installation of continuous processing of solid fuel.

Disclosed here is a method and a device may include applying a DC high voltage by a high voltage AC from the power plant switchboard; converting high voltage AC to high voltage DC and high-voltage supply of DC magnetron associated with the installation of continuous processing of solid fuel, and installation of the distribution of high power voltage can be protected retransformation device inductor in conjunction with a high-speed device, breaking the circuit.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus may include pricing, business for processed solid fuel using a process with feedback. Installing business can receive operating information processing solid fuel systems installation processing of solid fuel, such the AK installation management sensors, removal system, set the output parameters of solid fuel or the like. Installing business may be able to determine the cost of final treated solid fuel using operating information from the above systems. The cost may include the cost of electricity required for the various systems conveyor systems for processing of solid fuel, the cost of remote products from solid fuel collected in the removal system, the cost of used inert gases and the like. Installing the business can determine the final value of the processed solid fuel by adding to the cost of processing the initial value of the raw solid fuel.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus may include modeling the cost of processing solid fuels designed for special installation the end user. The method and apparatus can provide a database containing a set of characteristics of solid fuels for a variety of samples of solid fuel, a set of basic characteristics of solid fuel used mainly settings the end user, the set of operating parameters used to convert sample of solid fuel in the main solid fuel used end on what lebialem, and a set of solid fuels, associated with the implementation of a set of operating parameters. The method and apparatus may further identify characteristics of the solid fuel obtained for the initial sample of solid fuel; identify the technical characteristics of the main solid fuel used by installing the end user; to find in the database the set of operating parameters associated with the transformation of the initial sample of solid fuel in the main solid fuel; and find in the database the set of values associated with the task of operating parameters.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus can include business, ensuring the production of solid fuels, adjusted for the selected system to the final consumer. The method and apparatus can provide the technical characteristics of the selected installation the end user for the primary solid fuel; a comparison of the technical characteristics set characteristics of the initial sample of solid fuels; determination of operating parameters of the processing to process the initial sample with the aim of converting it into the main solid fuel, the corresponding technical data received from the selected end user; processing the initial sample of solid fuel in accordance with the workers setting the mi treatment, measurement characteristics of the primary solid fuel and the price calculation is the main solid fuel.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus may include a database for processing solid fuel; a set of characteristics for a variety of samples of solid fuel; a set of basic characteristics of solid fuels used for the settings of the end user; and a set of operating parameters used to convert sample of solid fuel in the main solid fuel used to install the end user.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus may include compiling a database for processing of solid fuels. The method and apparatus can form the set of collected basic characteristics of solid fuels for a variety of samples of solid fuel; set collected basic characteristics of solid fuels used for set installation, the end user; and a set of the collected operating parameters used to convert sample of solid fuel in the main solid fuel used by the end consumer.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus may include generating processing parameters of solid fuel, based on the desired final characteristics of the processing. The method and apparatus can provide as input information danielakaneva sample of solid fuel and the required characteristics of a solid fuel selected for installation, the end user; compare and merge input parameters related to the handling of solid fuel, to determine the operating parameters for the production of solid fuel, corresponding to the parameters of the selected installation the end user; and transmitting the operating parameters for the installation of control and a controller for controlling processing of the product in the installation processing of solid fuel.

Disclosed here is a method and apparatus may include the production of solid fuel, the corresponding parameters of the selected system to the final consumer. The method and apparatus can provide the first set of characteristics for the initial sample of solid fuel; the identification of the set of characteristics of the solid fuel at the output corresponding to the selected installation the end user; determining operating parameters of the processing to process the original sample of solid fuel for its subsequent conversion to parameters of solid fuel, corresponding to the parameters of the selected installation the end user; and processing the original sample of solid fuel in accordance with operating parameters of the processing in which the original sample of solid fuel can be transformed into output solid fuel corresponding to the selected final installation needs the index.

The method and apparatus may include the gasification of solid fuels by selecting solid fuel gasification; identification of the characteristics of solid fuels, related to gasification; treating the solid fuel using the operating parameters for the removal of gas and gas gathering allocated during the processing of solid fuels. The solid fuel may be processed using microwave technology, heating technology, technology pressure technology of vaporization or the like. As gas can be synthetic gas, hydrogen, odnookonny carbon or the like.

The method and apparatus may include the gasification of solid fuels by selecting solid fuel gasification; determination of operating characteristics of solid fuels on the basis of the requirements of the gas from the end user; processing of solid fuel using the operating parameters for the removal of gas and gas gathering allocated during the processing of solid fuels. The end user may be a plant for the production of electricity, chemical plant, fuel cells and the like. The solid fuel may be processed using microwave technology, heating technology, technology pressure technology of vaporization or such that the CSOs. As gas can be synthetic gas, hydrogen, odnookonny carbon or the like.

The method and apparatus may include the gasification of solid fuels by selecting solid fuel gasification; determination of operating characteristics of solid fuels on the basis of the requirements of the gas supply to the final consumer; treating the solid fuel using the operating parameters for gas production and gas gathering allocated during the processing of solid fuels. Requirement gasification may include obtaining a pre-selected amount of gas. Requirement gasification may include obtaining a pre-selected gas. The solid fuel may be processed using microwave technology, heating technology, technology pressure technology of vaporization or the like. As gas can be synthetic gas, hydrogen, odnookonny carbon or the like.

The method and apparatus may include liquefaction of solid fuels by selecting solid fuel intended for liquefaction; identification of the characteristics of solid fuels on the basis of the requirements of the liquefaction; determination of operating characteristics of solid fuels on the basis of the requirements of the liquefaction; treating the solid fuel using the operating parameters for the production of tremouille. The operating parameters may include the Fischer-Tropsch process, the process of Bergius, the process of direct hydrogenation, the process of low-temperature carbonization (LTC) and the like.

The method and apparatus may include processing of solid fuels by selecting solid fuel intended for processing; identification of the characteristics of solid fuels; determination of operating parameters of solid fuels on the basis of the characteristics and processing of solid fuel using the operating parameters and the operating parameters may include pre-heating solid fuel and Polnarev solid fuel.

System for the General processing of solid fuel may include the installation of continuous flow processing of solid fuel, which removes contaminants from a solid fuel to produce a purified solid fuel energy source (e.g., purified coal, used in a microwave continuous processing); and the use of solid fuel installations (for example, installation of electricity, installation of steel production etc)located around the installation processing of solid fuel, in which the purified solid fuels as the energy source, is used as a source of energy located around the installation and the kami. Setting processing of solid fuels can provide processing of solid fuels directly for installation, consuming solid fuel, for plants that use solid fuels for installation, use solid fuel, or the like. Setting processing of solid fuel may indirectly provide processing of solid fuels for installation, consuming solid fuel, for plants that use solid fuels for installation, use solid fuel, or the like. Installing the consumption of solid fuels may require special processed solid fuel from the installation processing of solid fuels. Special processed solid fuel can be a typical source of energy for solid fuel installations, consuming solid fuel. Special processed solid fuel can produce typical neverderefaliases product installation using solid fuel. Special processed solid fuel can specify special characteristics in the solid fuel. Source of energy solid fuel may be synthetic gas, hydrogen, or the like. Source of energy solid fuel may be solid installation, consuming optimally treated solid fuel. Neverthelesse products can be ash, sulfur, water, odnokon is carbon, carbon dioxide, synthesis gas, hydrogen, or the like. Installing the consumption of solid fuels can be plant for the production of electricity, installation of steel production, chemical installation, installation of landfill waste, installation of water production or the like.

Disclosed here is a method and a device may include providing the original data sample of solid fuel associated with one or many of the characteristics of the solid fuel that is to be processed by the installation processing of solid fuels; required characteristics of solid fuel; comparing the initial data sample of solid fuel with data related to one or many characteristics required parameters of solid fuels to determine the Delta structure of solid fuels; determination of operating parameters for the operation processing of solid fuel for the purification of solid fuel, partly based at least on the Delta structure of solid fuel; and managing contaminants separated from the solid fuel in the process processing, and regulation of the operating parameters of the processing, aimed at creating a purified solid fuel. Setting processing of solid fuels can be microwave installation processing of solid fuels. Solid fuel can is t to be coal. The data sample of the solid fuel can be a database.

Characteristics of solid fuel can be percentage of moisture, ash, sulphur content, the type of solid fuel or the like.

Work processing option can be microwave power, microwave frequency, the applied microwave frequency, or the like.

Contaminants include water, hydrogen, hydroxides, sulfuric gas, liquid sulfur, ash or the like.

Selected pollutants can be controlled by the installation of sensors of a solid fuel. The sensors can provide feedback information to regulate the operating parameters of the processing.

The method and apparatus may also include a stepped supply high-voltage power voltage supplied from the power shared with a private line directly to the microwave generator in the installation process, where you own the design of the transmission line may be adapted to supply a high voltage (e.g., above 15 kV).

The method and apparatus may also include a stepped construction of the multi-layer conveyor belt feeding the solid fuel through the installation process, where the multi-layer conveyor belt can be adapted to what ragozzine through the main part of the microwave energy, the upper layer of tape may be resistant to wear, and the second layer may be temperature stable to high temperatures.

These and other devices, methods, objects, characteristics and advantages of the present invention can be understood to a person familiar in this process, proceeding from the following detailed description of preferred implementations of the invention and drawings. All the documents mentioned herewith included in the present description in its entirety by reference.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

The invention and the following detailed description of certain implementations of the invention, therefore, can be understood by reference to the following drawings.

Figure 1 shows the implementation, which provides full architectural installation system processing of solid fuel.

Figure 2 shows an implementation that apply to the processing of solid fuels for consumers treated solid fuel.

Figure 3 shows the implementation of the configuration of the conveyor belt with many layers.

Figure 4 shows the implementation of the conveyor belt without the surface layer.

Figure 5 shows the implementation of the conveyor belt with integrated middle layer, made of a temperature stable material.

Figure 6 shows the implementation of the configuration of the tape transport is and with many built-in layers, which may be made of a temperature stable material.

7 shows the implementation of the magnetron, which can be used as part of the microwave system installation processing of solid fuel.

On Fig shows the implementation of the installation of high voltage applied to the magnetron.

Figure 9 shows the implementation of transformerless input high voltage installation transmission.

Figure 10 shows the implementation of the installation of the transmission input high voltage transformer.

Figure 11 shows the implementation of transformerless input high voltage installation transmission with the inductor.

On Fig shows the implementation of a direct high-voltage DC voltage on the input set transmission power to the transformer.

On Fig shows the implementation of high voltage on the input set transmission with isolation transformer.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Figure 1 shows the structural diagram of the present invention relating to a device for the processing of solid fuel 132 that uses electromagnetic energy to remove products from solid fuels by heating the products contained within the solid fuel, with the aim of improving the characteristics of the solid fuel. The above is realizatsii setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be used to handle any type of solid fuel, including, for example, and without limitation, coal, coke, charcoal, peat, wood and briquettes. Although many implementations of the present invention will be disclosed in connection with the processing of coal, it should be clear that such implementations may relate to other types of processing of solid fuel, such as coke, charcoal, peat, wood, briquettes, and the like.

As shown in figure 1, the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may be used as a standalone installation, or may be associated with a coal mine 102, installing coal's storage 112, or the like. As further shown in figure 2, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be connected with the fuel 200 installation, install the conversion of coal 210, install a by-product of coal 212, the installation of a shipment of coal 214, installing coal's storage 218 or the like.

In implementations of the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 can be used to improve the quality of coal by removing products that are not related to coal that can interfere with optimal combustion characteristics of a particular type of coal. By-products can include moisture, sulfur, ash, water, hydrogen, hydroxides, volatile substances or the like. By-products m which may reduce the rate BTU/lb (British thermal unit/lb-British thermal unit/pound) combustion characteristics of coal, because the requirement to measure BTU for heating and removal of by-products exhibited before the coal starts to burn (e.g., water), or other products, which prevent the penetration of air into the structure of the coal during combustion (e.g., ash). Coal can have many gradations, which can be estimated using the number of products in the coal (e.g., water, sulfur, hydrogen, hydroxides and ash). In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 can process coal by improving the number of stages of the process aimed at removing by-products from coal. In carrying out the invention a method of removing by-products from coal can be completed by heating by-products inside the coal, contributing to the selection of by-products from coal. Heating can be accomplished with the use of electromagnetic energy in the form of microwave energy, or energy of radio waves (microwaves), which on heating products. In implementations of the invention coal can be processed using the system of transportation, transporting coal, at least one microwave system 148 and/or other stages of the process.

With reference to Figure 1, the circuit elements of the installation processing Tverdov the fuel 132 is shown with the implementation of the installation processing of solid fuel 132 together with other related systems for the processing of coal. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may receive the coal, at least, of the shaft 102, installation, or storage of coal 112. There may be a number of databases that track and remember the characteristics of the raw coal from the mine and the required characteristics of coal 122 special type of coal or special single loop node. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 can have many systems and components support processing of coal, which can determine the operating parameters, manage and change the settings to transport coal through the camera processing coal to remove by-products from the chamber, to collect and store waste products, the export of processed coal, and the like. After the coal to be processed in accordance with the described here are methods and devices, it can be transmitted to install consumer of coal, the type presented in figure 2. In addition, data and other settings information obtained during the processing of coal, may be transferred to the user setting, the type presented in figure 2.

With reference to Figure 2, showing the hand operation of the coal after it is processed in the installation of 132 processing of solid fuels. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 can improve the quality of coal by cleaning it from side products is tov, and this may allow different plants that use coal, to operate with improved combustion and a small amount of by-products. Installation using coal, may have in its composition, but without limitation, fuel and installation of coal (for example, production of electricity, heat, metals), install the conversion of coal (gasification), installation of by-products of coal, install the shipment of coal, installation, storage of coal, and the like. Using treated coal in the installation processing of solid fuel 132, for plants that use coal, you receive the possibility of using coal of inferior quality, to have a small amount of by-products, have reduced the allocation of by-products, have high coefficients of combustion (e.g., BTU/lb) and the like. Depending on, for example, on the volume of coal required for private plants that use coal, the installation processing of solid fuel 132 can be directly associated with plant that uses coal or treatment setting solid fuel 132 can be remotely removed from plants that use coal.

At a high level setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be composed of h is the PSS systems, which may cover aspects of the invention; some systems may contain additional system modules or devices. System setup processing of solid fuel 132 may include the installation of generation parameters 128, receiving 124 installation, installation management 134, installation of gas producing 152, installation antipatharia 154, conveyer unit 130, container 162 installation, installation of reprocessing 160, installation, removal 158, installation of cooling 164, installation of distribution 168, installation, testing 170, and the like. Conveyor installation 130 may additionally include the installation of preheating 138, the controller 144, microwave/radiowave device 148, the installation control settings 140, system sensor 142, the removal device 150, and the like. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may receive coal, at least, of the shaft 102, installation, or storage of coal 112 and may provide the processed coal, at least, fuel coal 200 installation, installation, conversion of coal 210, the installation of by-products of coal 212, the installation of coal handling 214, installation, warehousing coal 218, and the like.

Again with reference to Figure 1, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may receive the raw coal from many different IP is full of coal raw material, such as coal mine 102, installation, or storage of coal 112. The installation exit processing of solid fuel 132 can be used by many different coal companies, such as coal fuel 200 installation, install the conversion of coal 210, installation of by-products of coal 212, install the shipment of coal 214, installation, storage of processed coal 218, and the like. To begin the processing of coal in the installation processing of solid fuel 132 must enter the coal feedstock to specify the number of operations process (heating, cooling, collection of by-products) and send the output of processed coal in the installation receiving the output 168 for its distribution. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be connected to a source of carbon (e.g., coal mine or installation of storage), can be lonely located, may be associated with a plant that uses coal, or the like.

In implementations of the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be placed in the source of coal, to enable the source of the coal to have optimal characteristics to produce our coal. For example, produced in a coal mine, the coal may be of low quality with a high moisture content. Coal mine may be able to extract coal, obrabotati in the same place and therefore, can provide the highest mark of quality coal. Another example is the coal mine 102 to change the brand of coal, where the coal mine 102 may be able to handle the coal of various grades, to have similar characteristics of coal by processing it in the installation processing of solid fuel 132. This may enable the coal mine 102 to have a simplified system of warehousing, being able to store coal of the same quality, instead of storing coal of varying quality in certain areas with defined boundaries. Such storage of coal of the same quality can also enable the coal mine 102 to provide consumers with high-quality hard coal of the same grade. This may also simplify the requirements associated with the combustion characteristics of coal, guided only by using a single high-quality coal. The hardness of the supplied coal can increase the efficiency of coal use, as described below with reference to Figure 2.

In implementations of the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 can be only one setup that could get coal raw materials from a variety of private coal mines 102 and plants coal's storage 112, and ensure the process of obtaining high-quality coal for perar the sale. Lonely located setting processing of solid fuel 132 may store a variety of raw materials and process it on the spot. For example, based on customer requirements, the installation processing of solid fuel may be able to choose a brand of raw coal and process coal, giving it some of the characteristics for delivery to this customer. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may also process and store different types and grades of coal, which the customer may regularly request.

Setting processing of solid fuel 132 associated with plant that uses coal, may receive the raw coal from the many coal mines 102 and facilities storage 112 for processing in accordance with the proposals of the owner, described below, with a detailed view in figure 2. Thus, a plant that uses coal, may be able to handle the coal in accordance with the desired characteristics. A plant that uses coal, may also be, for example, a specially designed installation processing of solid fuel 132, if the business requires a large amount of processed coal.

As shown in figure 1, the raw coal can be obtained directly from the coal mine 102. Coal mine can be open type or underground. Coal is the shaft 102 may have a different quality of the same type of coal or may have different types of coal within the same coal mine 102. After coal is mined, the coal mine 102 may store the extracted coal raw materials in the above installation location of storage of coal 104, which can store the coal of different types and/or may store the coal of various grades. After coal raw coal can be tested to determine characteristics 110 raw coal. Coal mine 102 may use the standard installation testing of coal characterization 110 coal. Coal characteristics may include: percent moisture, percent ash, percent volatile matter percent fixed carbon, BTU/lb, BTU/lb M-A Free moving-average Free - moving Average value released), forms of sulfur, the grinding characteristics of the mine (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting point of the ash, the analysis of the mineral composition of the ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric constant and other. The raw coal may be tested in accordance with the test standards such as ASTM standard D388 (Classification of grades of Coal), ASTM Standards D 2013 (the Method of preparing coal samples for analysis), ASTM Standards D 3180 (Practical standard for the calculation of coal, analysis of coke on the basis of certain data in different databases), US Geological Survey Bulletin 1823 (Methods OTB is RA and inorganic analysis of coal) and the like.

Installing the storage of coal 104 can also sort or change the size of the coal produced coal mine 102. Thus, the obtained raw material may not correspond to the desired size or shape for resale in the coal company. If you want to change the size, installing the storage of coal 104 can change the size of the coal feedstock by use of spraying operations, coal crushing, ball and Burr mills or the like. After the raw coal will be reduced to the size of the coal can be sorted by size for storage or can be stored after it is received at the output of the procedure of the cast to size. Coal enterprises using different coal can find different sizes of coal, primarily to ensure their processes of burning coal; the fixed layer of the fuel coal 220 may need a large angle, which has a long burning time, pulverised fuel coal 222 may need very small amounts of charcoal burning.

Using the characteristics of the coal feedstock 110, coal mine 102, setting 104 storage may be capable of storing coal raw materials according to the classification of coal raw material for its loading on the installation process or mining companies. Install GTG is narrow 108 may be associated with the installation of 104 storing coal for coal shipment of raw materials to customers. Installation of shipment 108 may be in the form of Railways, ship, barge or the like; it may occur independently or in Association supplied coal to the customer. Installation 104 storing coal may use the transport system, which may include conveyer unit 300, trucks, rail cars, trucks, tractor, or similar setup to send classified coal for the installation of shipment 108. In the above implementation can be at least one transport coal system to transport coal raw materials for the installation of shipment 108.

Installing storage 112 can be a lonely enterprise warehousing, receiving raw coal from the many coal mines 102 for storage and resale. Received raw coal from a coal mine 102 may be coal, extracted from coal mines, coal with predetermined sizes, sorted by coal and the like. Coal mine 102 can pre-check the coal meets the criteria 110 and may provide for the grant of coal properties on the installation of the storage 112. Installing storage 112 may be a company which buys coal from coal mines 102 for distribution and resale to many customers, or may be associated with coal is ahtoy 102, which may be remote from the installation of storage 112 the distance.

On the basis of plant storage 112 coal coal raw materials can be tested to determine its characteristics. Installing the storage of coal 112 may use the standard installation testing to determine characteristics of the coal. Coal characteristics may include percent moisture, percent ash, percent volatile matter percent fixed carbon, BTU/Ib BTU/Ib M-A Free, forms of sulfur, the grinding characteristics of the mine (HGI), the total mercury content, melting temperature, analysis of the mineral composition of the ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric constant and the like. Coal raw materials can be tested in accordance with the test standards such as ASTM standard D388 (Classification of grades of Coal), ASTM Standards D 2013 (the Method of preparing coal samples for analysis), ASTM Standards D 3180 (Practical standard for the calculation of coal, analysis of coke on the basis of certain data in different databases), US Geological Survey Bulletin 1823 (Methods for sampling and inorganic analysis of coal) and the like.

Installing the storage of coal 112 can also sort or change the size of the coal produced coal mine 102, for example, if the coal does not match the required size or shape for its PE prodaji to company, consuming coal. Installing the storage of coal 112 can change the size of the coal raw material by using sputtering, coal crushing, ball and Burr mills or the like. After the size of the coal raw material changes, the coal can be sorted by size for storage or can be stored after it is received at the output of the procedure set size. Different companies using different coal can find various them suitable size coal. For example, coal combustion, system 220 with a fixed layer of the fuel coal may require a large angle, which has a long burning time, while other plants require very small sizes of charcoal burning.

Using the characteristics of the coal raw material, installing the storage 104 may be able to store the raw coal according to the classification of raw coal for shipment to installation processing or mining companies. Installation of shipment 118 may be associated with the installation of storage 114 coal for shipment of raw coal to the customers. Installation of shipment 118 may be in the form of Railways, ship, barge or the like; it may occur independently or in combination delivery of coal to the customer. Installing storage angle is 114 may use the transport system, which may include conveyer unit 300, trucks, rail cars, trucks, tractor, or similar setup to send classified coal on unit shipment 118. In the above implementation can be at least one system of transportation of coal to transport coal raw materials for the installation of shipment 118.

Coal characteristics 110 from both coal mine 102 and install storage 112 may be stored in the setting data storage pattern 120. Installing the sample data 120 may contain all the data for private parties of coal, the volume, variety, type, shipment, or similar data, which can be described by parameters, which may include percent moisture, percent ash, percent volatile solids, the percentage of fixed carbon, BTU/Ib BTU/Ib M-A Free, views of sulfur, the grinding characteristics of the mine shaft (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting point of the ash, the analysis of the mineral composition of the ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric constant and the like.

In implementations of the invention, the setting data storage of coal sample 120 may be in the form of a personal computer or a specialized computer for storing and tracking characteristics of the coal 110. Computer devices shall be in the form of a desktop computer, server, web server, small portable computer, device, CD-ROM, digital video disc, hardware, system control or the like. All computer devices can be placed one behind the other or, if you exceed the number of computing devices of a certain value, can be distributed to remote from each other the distance. Computing devices can be connected via a local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), Internet, intranet, P2P or other new types of interfaces, using wired communication or wireless communication technology. Installing these coal sample 120 may include data collection, which can be a database, relational database, XML, RSS, ASCII file, a uniform file, text file or the like. In carrying out the invention the installation of 120 data storage sample of coal can be a search engine for finding the required data characteristics of the coal.

Installing these coal sample 120 can be placed in the coal mine 102, installing storage 112, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 or may be at a distance from any of these facilities. In carrying out the invention any of these facilities may have access to the data characteristics of the coal, using a branched chain. On any of the connected the second installation, upgrading and modification of access. In carrying out the invention, the setting data storage of coal sample 120 may be an independent company engaged in the storage and data distribution characteristics of the coal.

Installing storage of coal sample 120 can supply information baseline on the installation parameter generation 128, install the required characteristics of coal 122 and/or installation pricing/business 178. In implementations, the baseline information may be not only changed these settings, but can be used, for example, to determine the operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132 to remember the original characteristics of the coal, or calculate the cost volume of coal.

The required characteristics for coal is determined by the setting of desired characteristics 122. Installation determine the required characteristics of coal 122 may be implemented as computing devices or specialized computer facilities for the storage of the final desired characteristics of the coal for its identification. The computing device can be a desktop computer, server, web server, small portable computer, device, CD-ROM, digital video disc, hardware, system management, or similar devices. All computer devices can be o f the s out for each other, or, if you exceed the number of computing devices of a certain value, can be distributed to remote from each other the distance. Computing devices can be connected via LAN, WAN, Internet, intranet, P2P or other new types of interfaces, using telephone or radio communication technology.

Install the required characteristics of coal 122 may include data collection, which can be a database, relational database, XML, RSS, ASCII file, a uniform file, text file or the like. In carrying out the invention the installation of 122 required characteristics of coal can be search engine to find the information desired characteristics of the coal.

In the above implementation, the installation of the required characteristics of coal 122 can be defined and supported by the installation processing of solid fuel 132, for example, the desired characteristics of the final treated coal for each type and brand of coal, which installation can handle. Such characteristics can be stored in the installation of 122 required characteristics and can be used in conjunction with information from the data setup of the coal sample 120 by generating parameters installing 128 to set operational parameters for the handling of solid fuels 132.

In the implementation of the image is the shadow can be many data records required characteristics of coal 122; may be the data records for each type of coal and coal grade, which can be processed by the installation processing of solid fuel 132.

In carrying out the invention the data required characteristics of coal 122 can be recorded for each shipped a consignment of coal obtained from the installation processing of solid fuels. Here may be required characteristics of coal 122, improved installation processing of solid fuel 132, based on the quality of the coal and exchange operations performed by the processing device solid fuel 132. For example, the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may only be able to reduce a few percent of the amount of sulfur or ash, consequently, the installation of the required characteristics of coal 122 can consider, based on the initial values of the percentage of sulfur and ash resulting from operations data exchange with the installation processing of solid fuel, which is able to evaluate.

In the above implementation, the desired properties of coal 122 can be improved based on customer requirements. The required characteristics of coal 122 can be enhanced to provide improved combustion characteristics, reduce some of the discharge or the like.

Based on the characteristics of the coal sample and data obtained from the us is anouki the desired characteristics of the coal 122, can be defined operating parameters for a data processing device solid fuel 132. Operating parameters can be transferred to the conveyer unit 130, the controller 144 and the installation control 134. Operating parameters can be used to control gas installation environment of the conveyor 130, the admission control of the volume of the coal, the temperature of pre-heating, the required installations of sensors, microwave frequency, microwave energy, microwave periodic cycle (e.g., pulsed or continuous), the issuance volume of coal, the degree of cooling and the like.

In implementations of the invention, the installation 128 generation parameters can generate the base operating parameters for various devices and systems installation processing of solid fuel 132. Set generation parameters 128 may be implemented as computing devices or specialized computer facilities for the storage of the final desired characteristics of the coal for its identification. The computer device may be a desktop computer, server, web server, small portable computer or similar device. All computer devices can be placed one behind the other or, if you exceed the number of computing devices of a certain value is s, can be distributed to remote from each other the distance. Computing devices can be connected via LAN, WAN, Internet, intranet, P2P or other new types of interfaces, using telephone or radio communication technology. Set generation parameters 128 may be able to store the operating parameters as a database, relational database, XML, RSS, ASCII file, homogeneous file, text file or the like. In the above implementation of the work stored base settings can be found for finding the required data characteristics of the coal.

To start the generation procedure parameters, setting processing of solid fuel 132 can identify some of shipped coal, which could participate in the process and required the generation of operating parameters set generation parameters 128 for the shipment of coal. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 can also show finally processed parameters of coal. To find the required data to generate the operating parameters, set generation parameters 128 may request both installation as the installation data of the coal sample 120, and install the required characteristics of coal 122.

From the installation data of the coal sample 120 may require the I data for the characteristics of the raw coal 110 to determine the initial characteristics of the coal. In carrying out the invention there may be more than one data record data for a particular case of shipped coal. Install 128 generation parameters can choose the most recent characteristics, averaged characteristics, can choose the earliest characteristics or the like. Here is a possible algorithm to determine the appropriate data to use for the initial characteristics of the coal on the basis of data 120 of the coal sample.

Based on the required characteristics of coal 122 can be selected data to be finally processed coal. In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may select a particular coal desired characteristics 122. In implementation, the installation of generation parameters 128 may choose coal with recording the desired characteristics 122 on the basis of characteristics that can best match the parameters of the final treated coal required by the installation processing of solid fuel 132. Set generation parameters 128 may provide the system with the processing of solid fuel 132 indication of the selected coal desired characteristics 122, in order to accelerate the approval procedure with the working generation parameters.

In carrying out the invention set generation parameters 128 may use a computer application tasks, which can be the t to develop rules for the handling of coal raw material, to get the final treated coal. Rules can be part of the application tasks, or can be stored as data. Rules applied in the form of an applied problem, can determine the operating parameters that can be demanded by the setting processing of solid fuel 132 to process the coal. The resulting data can be created so that you can contain the baseline operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132.

In implementations of the invention may be set to a predefined baseline operating parameters to process some coal. Setting parameter generation 128 can improve the greatest correspondence between data of the coal sample 120, the desired characteristics of coal 122 and pre-defined parameters for determining the baseline.

Set generation parameters 128 may also determine the tolerances of operating parameters, which can support the processing of coal to produce the desired characteristics of the final treated coal.

As soon as the working parameters of the baseline is defined, set generation parameters 128 may issue operational parameters to the controller 144 and the installation control 134 to control the installation processing of solid fuel 132.

As shown in figure 1, the coal to the th is involved in the processing of solid fuel installation 132, can be subjected to procedures starting from the raw coal to finally processed coal, such as receiving coal 124, the conveyor 130 installation procedures in the installation of cooling 164, issue of coal and placing it outside the installation. Inside the conveyor system 130 may be a certain amount of processing of coal, such as pre-heating of coal, microwave processing of coal, collection of by-products (for example, water, sulfur, hydrogen, hydroxides and the like. In carrying out the invention the coal to be processed, can be carried out all procedures or part of them, and some procedures can recur, while others for this type of coal can be skipped. All step-by-step procedures and procedure parameters can be defined by setting generation options 128 and transmitted to the controller 144 to control procedures, as well as the installation management 134 checking the operating parameters based on the sensor 142 feedback loop. Install control 134 may also be used as transmitter parameters of the sensor, which can be used to determine how processing of coal corresponds, therefore, demand the coal.

As here indicated, treatment setting solid Topley is and 132 may use a conveyor line 300 (for example, elements 300A, 300B, 300C and 300D described together with here Figure 3-6) for transporting solid fuel through a conveyer unit 130. Step-by-step procedures for processing within the conveyor system 130 may include microwave heating, washing, gasification, combustion, evaporation, reverse loading, and the like. Such step-by-step procedures for the handling of solid fuels can be improved, while the solid fuel is on the conveyor belt 300. Step-by-step procedure can specify the conveyor belt 300 conditions such as radiofrequency microwave radiation, high temperature, abrasion and the like, and can track the confrontation with these conditions within increasing the working time interval. The conveyor belt 300 may be a continuous flexible structure, cacheline dump, metallophyte structure or to have another conveyor structure, and in implementations of the invention it is required only to monitor the environmental conditions conveyer unit 130. The belt conveyor can be affected by environmental conditions, such as radio frequency microwave radiation, high temperature, abrasion and the like. If it cacheline-articulated structure, along with environmental conditions, can also poznakomitcya situation, as zastoporivalis material, which is possible when large gaps at joints, microwave absorption and the like, which may be associated with cacheline-jointed structure. The effect of such conditions on the conveyor belt 300 may be minimized by the proper choice of material and structure of the conveyor belt 300.

Conditions of the installation environment of the conveyor 130 may require that the conveyor belt 300 has many characteristics, such as low microwave loss, high structural integrity, high strength, wear resistance, constant high temperature resistance, resistance to localized lifting high temperature, thermal insulation, resistance to burning through, high melting point, no schistosity to the penetration of solids and moisture resistance differential thermal effects, the ability to transport fluids and the like.

For the conveyor belt 300 may be a requirement to have a low microwave loss. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 can use a microwave to heat the solid fuel. The conveyor belt 300 can absorb energy and heat up. If the material of the conveyor belt 300 has no low microwave losses, tape Transporter may heat up and during operation may deteriorate. Radio frequency RF microwave installation, such as microwave system 148 conveyor system 130 may be used in the range from 300 MHz to 1 GHz and can take values of radio frequencies on which the conveyor may have a low microwave loss. Some of the working conditions inside the conveyor system 130 may cause some increase in the number of absorbed microwave energy by the conveyor belt 300. For example, when the solid fuel is dry, or when the reduced amount of solid fuel on the conveyor belt, there is little material for absorption therein of microwave energy. In the result, the conveyor belt 300 can absorb more microwave energy.

For the conveyor belt 300 may be a requirement to maintain a constant high temperature, resulting from the operation of the conveyor system 130. These constant temperatures can be assigned values of 150°F, 200°F, 250°F, or the like. The conveyor belt 300 can withstand such high temperatures outside working time interval. In addition, the conveyor belt 300 may be a requirement of maintaining a localized high temperature outside regular working temperature conveyor system 130. Such localized high temperatures can be caused by individual h is s solid fuel, developmental temperature 500°F, 600°F, 700°F or similar. These localized heat spots can burn the conveyor 300, which may lead to interruptions of operations of handling solid fuel 132.

For the conveyor belt 300 may be a requirement to withstand the constant wear during the processing of solid fuels. For example, the solid fuel may flow onto the conveyor from a height of one foot, two feet, three feet, etc. In another example, the solid fuel may wear out the belt conveyor 300, as it slides on the conveyor belt 300. For the ribbon may be a requirement to constantly resist wear outside of work time intervals.

For the conveyor belt 300 may be a requirement neskaistas its surface for solids, moisture and the like. If granular substances solid fuel in some place penetrate the belt conveyor 300, they can cause damage to the conveyor belt 300. For example, if the solid fuel in some place constantly penetrates through the belt conveyor 300 in the mechanical part of the conveyor system 130, the mechanical part of the conveyor system 130 can operate with difficulty, or can be jammed, which can lead to interruptions of operations of handling solid fuel 132. In addition, absorber who controls the moisture inside the conveyor belt 300 may increase the amount of microwave energy, which can be absorbed by the belt conveyor 300. The absorption of microwave energy can cause heating of the conveyor belt 300 and, as a result, reduce the service life of the conveyor belt 300.

The structure of the conveyor belt 300 may use a variety of materials in order to meet the requirement of environmental conditions conveyer unit 130. In implementations of the invention, these materials can be used as a layered, srednesrocnye, composite based on strips, frothy basis as a single layer, as an additive or in other combinations known in this area, so that the conveyor belt 300 resisted environment conveyer unit 130. As the material can be used butyl, rubber, braided polyester, aluminum, polyester, fiberglass, Kevlar, Nomex, silicone, polyurethane, laminated materials, ceramics, high temperature plastics, combinations thereof and the like. In implementations of the invention, the conveyor belt may be built on a layered basis, such as with a top layer, a structural layer, middle layer, bendable layer, a woven layer, straw-cloth layer, cork layer, the temperature-resistive layer, a layer of low microwave loss, non-porous layer, and the like. In future implementations of the mo layer is et to be movable, to facilitate the move, repair, reinforcement or the like.

In implementations of the invention, the conveyor belt 300A is made in a configuration with many layers, as shown in Figure 3. In this implementation, the bottom layer forms a structural layer 310 made of a matrix material 302, a reinforced structural cord 304, similar to the flexible structure. Such a structural layer 310 can satisfy such requirements as high structural integrity, high strength, and the like. An example of a combination of materials that can be combined to implement structural layer 310 can be white butyl rubber matrix 302 with braided polyester as structural cords 304. Other materials that can be used as a matrix material include natural rubber, synthetic rubber, a polymer of a hydrocarbon or the like. Other materials that can be used as structural cords 304 are Kelvar, Nomex, metal, plastic, polycarbonate, polyethylene terephthalate, nylon and the like. In this implementation, the top layer forms a coating 308, which can withstand high temperatures. The surface layer 308 may also have insulating properties, allowing to isolate it from the lower layer from the heated solid fuel. The surface of the hydrated layer 308 may not be of high strength, but it is required to have abrasion resistance, have a low coefficient of microwave losses, have thermal properties that allow you to keep warm, or the like. Examples of such surface layers 308 can be fiberglass, ceramics with low loss, and alumina fiber, alumina, organic fiber, composite materials or the like. In implementations of the invention, the surface layer 308 may be embedded in the form of a tightly woven material or foam form. Another example of the material of the surface layer 308 may be silicone. Silicone can withstand high temperatures, but may not have the abrasion resistance. In this regard, the top layer over the silicone, such as polyurethane, or an additive in the silicone can increase resistance to wear.

In implementations of the invention, the surface layer 308 may be performed in such a way that it can be easily removed, could be easily interchangeable, refurbished, re-filled or the like, on the surface layer 308. In this case, the requirement to have wear resistance and neskaitau structure may be weakened. In one implementation of the invention the surface layer 308 may be made in the form of rollers with a load of rotating rollers on one side of the tape transport is RA 300 and removing the load rollers on the other side.

In implementations of the invention, the conveyor belt 300V, shown in figure 4, can withstand the environmental conditions in the conveyor installation 130 without surface coating 308. This can be done by introducing a high-temperature material components inside the matrix material 302 as white butyl rubber is more resistant to high ambient temperatures in the conveyor installation 130. In implementations of the invention, the structural layer 310 can prevent the burning of the conveyor belt 300C caused by high temperature solid fuel, by embedding medium layer 502 of thermoresistive material, as shown in figure 5. An example of such a middle layer 502 can serve as materials Kevlar, Nomex, metal, ceramic, fiberglass or the like. In this configuration, the upper portion of the structural layer 310 may melt, but the conveyor belt 300C may still be in working condition, while it is possible to repair the upper part of the structural layer 310.

In implementations of the invention, the conveyor belt 300D may be resistant to environmental conditions conveyer unit 130 having a configuration with multiple layers, as shown in Fig.6, where the repeated combination of layers discussed previously. Adding layers can, in addition, so to increase the strength of the conveyor belt 300D, nizkolikvidnogo to reduce the high temperature of the solid fuel after combustion. There may be superficial layer 308, which may be resistant to temperature, having resistance to wear, can be replaced and the like. You can use structural layer 310A, with the middle layer 502. Such a composite layer is shown as an intermediate layer in the belt, but the implementations may be the top layer, intermediate layer, cork and the like. There may be structural layer V. Structural layer V shown as cork, but in implementations of the invention may be an intermediate layer or top layer. Other implementations of the invention consist of numerous layers, which are not limited to the combinations presented on Fig.6. For example, an implementation may consist of a combination of layers in which the middle layer 502 inside structural layer 310A is missing or has a different number of layers in the composite layer, or a composite layer made from a variety of substrates, and the like. Despite the fact that 6 illustrates a structure with multiple layers and composite layers, obviously, there may be numerous other layered structures that can be put into this area by a qualified technician and can be incorporated in the invention.

In implementations of the invention can be used other methods in preventing high the Oh temperature of solid fuel and preventing burnout. An example of an alternative method could be the use of a thermographic camera, for the provision of designated elements of solid fuel having a high temperature. After determination of the place of the element of solid fuels with a high temperature can be used, the procedure of aerosol cooling to reduce the temperature, or can be used sweeper to remove items before the conveyor belt 300 will become worthless. Another example of an alternative method consists in the possibility of measuring the dielectric characteristics of all elements of the solid fuel, which is fed to the input conveyor system 130, and delete those of them, which was defined high temperature. Another example of an alternative way could be to transport solid fuel on the conveyor belt, which in this configuration includes a fluidized bed, which is, therefore, aligns the temperature of all elements and insulates the elements of a solid fuel with high temperature on the conveyor belt 300.

In implementations of the invention, the controller 144 and installation of control 134 may have a system feedback loop with the controller, providing for issuance of the operating parameters on the installation processing of solid fuel 132 and conveyer unit 130, and set upravleniya, receiving data from sensors 142 conveyor system 130 to determine how the operating parameters require adjustment to produce the desired processed coal. During the processing of coal it is possible to continually use and regulation of the operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132 and conveyor system 130.

As the controller 144 may use a computer device, which may be a desktop computer, server, web server, small portable computer or the like. All computer devices can be placed one behind the other or, if you exceed the number of computing devices, a specific value can be distributed away from each other. Computing devices can be connected via LAN, WAN, Internet, intranet, P2P or other new types of interfaces that uses a wire communication or radio communication. The controller 144 may be commercially available as a managing electronic computing machine, the purpose of which is to manage the various devices, or it can be custom controller 144. The controller 144 may be fully automatic, may not take into account the work setting can be controlled manually, can be remotely control the tion and the like. The controller 144 is shown as part of the installation 130, but may not have the requirements of the location related to pipeline installation 130, the controller 144 can be installed at the beginning or end of the conveyor system 130 or somewhere in the middle. The controller 144 may have a user interface; the user interface can be clearly informed on the remote distance from the computing device connected to the controller 144 branched chain.

The controller 144 may provide operating parameters conveyer unit 130 and device installation processing of solid fuel 132, which may include a receiving unit 124, the pre-heater 140, control sensors 142, device replacement 150, a microwave device 148, the cooling device 164, the installation of issuing products 168, and the like. Here can be a duplex communication system with controller 144, transmission operating parameters, and various system and installation, transmission operating values of the current operation. The controller 144 may provide a user interface displaying both operating parameters and operating values of the current operation. The controller 144 may not be able to automatically adjust the operating parameters that can be adjusted by setting the control 134.

As in the system control 134 may use a computer device, which can be a desktop computer, server, web server, small portable computer or the like. All computer devices can be placed one behind the other or, if you exceed the number of computing devices, a specific value can be distributed away from each other. Computing devices can be connected via LAN, WAN, Internet, intranet, P2P or other new types of interfaces that uses a wire communication or radio communication. Install control 134 may have several operating parameters, as well as the controller 144, and may receive the same current operating parameters of various plants and systems. Installation 134 may have an algorithm for comparing the required parameters of the sensor, issued by the setting of 128 generation parameters, and current operational values obtained from the sensors 142, and to determine whether changes to the values of the operating parameters in comparison with required. For example, the installation control 134 may compare the current values of the sensor pair in a specific location of the conveyor system 130 with the desired values of the sensors and to determine how microwave energy must be increased or decreased. If a change in operating parameters require adjustment, the adjustment parameter may Betteredge to the controller 144, so he gave them to the appropriate device or devices. Installation management 134 can continuously control the installation processing of solid fuel 132 and systems conveyor system 130 to adjust the parameters.

As the most complete example, the controller 144 may provide the operating parameters of the installation control settings conveyor system 140, necessary for the operation of various systems conveyor system 130. Because the processing of coal is improving, installation management 134 can control the sensors 142 to determine whether the processed coal requirements of the sensor for the required processing of coal. If there is a difference between the required tabular values of the sensor and the current tabular values of the sensor, which are within acceptable limits, the installation control 134 may adjust one or more operating parameters and to transmit the operational parameters to the controller 144. The controller 144 may receive new operating parameters and to transmit the new settings to the device control parameters 140 to control various systems conveyor system 130.

Install control 134 may also receive feedback at the end of the processing of coal from the installation feedback 174 and setting the output settings, coal 172. Decide installation can get the final characteristics of the process of coal and transmit information to the control unit 134. Install control 134 may compare the characteristics of the final treated coal desired characteristics 122 to determine, does work parameter adjustment. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may use an algorithm that estimates the current operating values and end values of the treated coal to determine adjustments in operating parameters. The results of this correction must then be transferred to the controller 144 for revision systems installation processing of solid fuel 132.

The function and interaction of the various systems of processing of coal 132 and plants, shown in figure 1, can be illustrated by the example of the coal to be processed in the installation processing of solid fuel 132.

In this example, the operators of the installation processing of solid fuel 132 can choose the raw coal for processing inside the unit, treatment of the solid fuel 132 for delivery of specially treated coal to the customer. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may select the source of the coal and the coal desired characteristics 122 for final processing of coal. As described earlier, setting the parameter generation 128 may generate operational parameters for processing the selected coal. The parameters may include the assessment of coal to be processed,ambient air, the speed of the conveyor, the temperature of the coal, microwave power, microwave frequency, the required inert gas, the required table value of the sensor temperature pre-heating, the lower the cooling temperature, and the like. Setting parameter generation 128 may transmit the operating parameters and the parameters of the sensor at the installation control 134 and the controller 144; controller 144 may transmit the operating parameters and the parameters of the sensor at the installation control settings 140 and a system of sensors 142.

Continuing the consideration of this example, the reception setting 124 may receive the raw coal from a coal mine 102 or facilities storage 112, which can supply the coal for the installation processing of solid fuel 132. The raw coal can be delivered from stock area, placed in the setting processing of solid fuel 132. Reception setting 124 has an input section, a transit section and section adaptation, which can receive and control the flow and volume of coal that can be loaded in the installation processing of solid fuel 132. Reception setting 124 may have a receiving system, such as a belt conveyor 300 or the like, which may send the raw coal conveyer unit 130.

In the example implementation of the invention the selection setting may kontrolirovat volume of raw coal, arriving on a conveyor installation, on the basis of operating parameters issued by the controller 144. The selection unit may be able to change the speed of the receiving device determined by the controller 144 settings. In carrying out the invention the reception setting 124 may be able to send the raw coal at the receiving installation 134 in continuous mode, or may be able to send the raw coal with variable or pulsating speed with which raw coal is fed to the conveyer unit 130, in hoppers of coal hoppers of coal may have a predefined gap between filled with lots of coal.

In this example, conveyor installation 130 may receive the raw coal from the receiving installation 124 for transporting raw coal through the procedure of processing of coal. Procedures for the handling of coal may include the treatment of coal by preheating 138, the processing of coal in the microwave system 148, processing, cooling 164, and the like. Conveyor installation 130 may have a transport device that can be isolated to create a chamber where the coal can be processed and which can be prepared by the process.

In implementations of the invention as the salvage system may be a conveyor belt 300, the sequence of the individual containers or other means of transportation that can be used to move coal through the installation performing the procedure. The transport system may be made of such materials that may be able to withstand the high temperature of the processed coal (for example, metal or high temperature plastic). The transport device can contribute to the output of by-products, such as gas or liquid, from any coal output by-products, if necessary, may be collected conveyor 130. The speed of the transport system may be variable and controlled by a controller operating parameters 144. Conveyor installation 130 transport system can move with the same speed as the receiving installation 124 for storing balanced volumes of coal.

The ambient air inside the chamber conveyor system 130 can be maintained in a predetermined mode, when it can be used for output of by-products, preventing premature ignition of coal and ensuring the flow of gases in the direction of gas by-products of the corresponding removal system 150. The ambient air may be dry (low humidity or no humidity)to help remove the owner is the guy from coal, or can be used to control some condensation that forms on the walls of the chamber for collecting fluid in this area.

Luggage conveyor system 130 may be inert or partially inert atmosphere; the atmosphere with inert gases can prevent the combustion of coal during high temperature, which may be required for some products (e.g., sulfur).

Inert gases can be loaded by setting antipatharia 154, which can store the inert gases to feed them in the Luggage conveyor system 130. To inert gases include nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, krypton, xenon and radon. Nitrogen and argon are related to common inert gases used to supply non-combustible atmospheric gases. Install antipatharia 154 may be filled with gas tanks that can fill the chamber with inert gases. Entrance inert gas to create the appropriate gas environment can be controlled by the controller operating parameters 144. The controller 144 may control the flow of inert gas, using feedback from sensors inside the camera which can measure the current mixed gases. Based on data from sensor 142, the controller 144 may either increase or decrease the flow of inert gas for maintaining almost the situations of parameters, issued by the controller 144 and installation of generation parameters 128.

If the Luggage conveyor system 130 is used as the inert gas nitrogen, it can be obtained elsewhere, in the installation of gas generation at 152. For example, the installation of gas generation 152 may use the procedure of the amplitude of the absorption pressure (PSA) for the supply of the nitrogen required by the Luggage conveyor system 130. Installation of gas generation 152 may produce nitrogen for the installation of antipatharia for its placement in the chamber. The flow of nitrogen in the chamber can be controlled by the controller 144, as discussed previously.

Any of the gases that are released into the environment, can be obtained using positive or negative pressure applied to the atmosphere inside the chamber. Gases can flow into the chamber with a positive pressure, ensuring the flow passing through a conveyor installation of coal 130 and the output flow from the plots of the camera. In such process, for suction gas into the chamber through the coal may be applied negative pressure. And that, and another process may be used to collect the selected side of the gas product in the removal system 150.

In the example implementation of the invention, the controller may control the flow of gases in the chamber by measuring the gas velocity, the direction of gas input led the rite of pressure, output values of the pressure and the like. The controller 144 may provide the management and configuration of gas flow by changing the blades and blowers within the conveyor system.

For processing of coal inside the chamber conveyor system 130 may be supported by the vacuum or partial vacuum. The vacuum environment can contribute to the output of by-products from coal and can also serve as a preventive measure against ignition of coal by printing environments, contributing to the ignition of coal.

Continuing the processing operation of the coal within the conveyor system 130, the coal may primarily act on the installation preheating 138. Installing a pre-heater 138 may heat the coal to a temperature specified operating parameters; operating parameters can be set by the controller 144. To remove moisture from the surface and moisture, which can be even below the surface of the coal, the coal may be preheated. Eliminating excessive moisture can be implemented microwave systems 148, which, for greater efficiency will be used later, because there may be at least wet the surface for the absorption of microwave energy.

Installing a pre-heater 138 may contain the same atmosphere as in the stationary part of the conveyor system 130, or who may support different atmosphere.

Installing a pre-heater 138 may use the same installation, transportation, and stationary part of the conveyor system 130, or may have its own installation transportation. If installing a pre-heater has its own installation transportation, it can be controlled by the controller 144 and to change its velocity, providing, thus, the removal of specific humidity during pre-heating. The output moisture can be detected by sensor water vapor, or may be used in the operation of weighing coal before heating and after, to determine the amount of moisture that can be removed by setting the preheating 138. In the setup, the implementation of the sensors 142 may measure the weight of coal graduated procedure before and after the preheating process. For the efficient amount of moisture removed from the coal, you can use the feedback controller 144, and the controller 144 may adjust the speed of the transportation device installation preheating 138, providing, thus, an adjustment, if necessary.

After installing preheating 138 coal may be in the pipeline 130 installation procedures for the processing of coal with one, at least, the ultra-high frequency radio (mikrovolnovaya system) 148, used to process coal. Microwave system 148 electromagnetic energy may be in the form of a magnetron, klystron, gyrotron, and the like. Microwave device 148 may introduce microwave energy in the coal to heat the products and output products from coal. Because when heated by-products are heated in the coal, the coal can also be heated. Removal of by-products can occur when a substance changes its solid phase to liquid, liquid to gas, solid to gas, or when there is a change in the other phases, which can lead to the conclusion of by-products from coal.

In conveyor 130, which may be more than one microwave system 148, the microwave system 148 may be in a parallel orientation, consistent orientation, or a combination of serial and parallel orientations for the transportation system.

As will be discussed in more detail below, the microwave system 148 may be in a parallel orientation, in which more than one microwave system 148 United always for simple education station microwave processing systems 148. In simple station may use several small microwave systems 148, there are different frequencies that can be used by prostoy station, there are various power that can be used in different stations, different workflows used in a simple station, and the like.

The microwave system 148 can be installed in series, where there may be more than one microwave system at station 148, installed along the conveyor system 130. Any of the sequences of microwave devices stations 148 may be individual microwave device 148 or may be a group of parallel microwave devices 148. The sequence of stations, microwave devices 148 may allow the coal processing independently in different successive stations, microwave devices along the conveyor system 130. For example, in the first station of the microwave system 148 may expect the removal of the coal water, moisture, and it can take some power, frequency and duty cycle. In the second station of the microwave system 148 may expect the removal of the coal sulfur, which may require a different power, frequency and duty cycle.

Using the sequence of microwave systems, you can also have other processing station between the microwave device 148, such as the station waiting for the full output of by-products, systems station removal Pabon is x 150 products, system sensor 142 for registration of selected by-products or the like.

The sequence of stations, microwave devices 148 can promote the secretion of various by-products that must be identified and removed at various stages of operation of the conveyor system 130. It makes it easier to keep separated remove by-products and to collect their respective removal system 150. It may also cause mapping one microwave system 148 for step-by-step process or step-by-step process leads to the use of special microwave system 148 to perform the private phase of the process or task step-by-step procedures. Thus, for example, the microwave device 148 are activated only for such a step-by-step procedure that must be performed. In this example, if step-by-step procedure does not require the implementation of appropriate microwave device 148 does not require activation; if step-by-step procedure requires repetition, corresponding to a microwave device 148 can be reactivated, for example, to remove by-products, which were not completely removed after the first activation.

In the instance of an implementation of the invention, the control microwave system 148 includes a series of manageable stages, such as cityfone, the state management procedures for the handling of coal, adjusting operating parameters, and the application of new operating parameters, at least one microwave system 148. As will be described hereinafter, control, regulation and procedure feedback to ensure operating parameters of the microwave system 148 may be applicable to one or more microwave systems, mainly, at the same time.

At least one of the microwave systems 148 may be controlled by the controller 144. In implementations of the invention, the controller 144 may provide operating parameters that control the microwave frequency, microwave power, microwave duty cycle (e.g., continuous or pulsed). The controller 144 can only get the initial settings from the installation of generation parameters 128. Control microwave system 148 may occur in real time, for example, using the operating parameters that were specified on the microwave system 148, using sensors 142, outstanding value operations process, by setting control 134 receiving and regulating the operating parameters, using feedback of operating parameters input to the controller 144, and then, using device management working cycle, in which case the need is and should be repeated.

The controller 144 may provide the operating parameters of one or more of the microwave systems 148. The microwave system 148 may respond to the settings of the power, frequency and duty cycle controlled by the controller 144, while coal processing in accordance with commands from the controller, coming to a private station.

Microwave systems can require a significant amount of power to handle coal. For some implementations of the invention of the microwave systems 148 installation processing of solid fuel 132, the required microwave power may be at least 15 kW at a frequency of 928 MHz or below; in other implementations of the invention the desired microwave power may be at least 75 kW at a frequency of 902 MHz. The power supply for the microwave system 148 may be summed input high voltage passed by the installation 182. Such a device 182 may be able to raise or lower the voltage of the voltage from source to meet the requirements of the microwave system 148. In implementations of the invention of the microwave system 148 may have more than one microwave generator. Input supply system 180 may provide a connection to the input high voltage PA input set 182 for the required voltages. If the setting processing of solid fuel 132 is installed in the installation of electricity generation 204, input power supply 180 may be obtained directly from the power plant 204 electricity production. In other implementations of the invention, the input supply system 180 may be obtained from the local energy system.

As here indicated, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may use magnetrons 700 for generating microwave energy for processing of solid fuels (e.g. coal). 7 shows a magnetron, which can be used as part of the microwave system 148 installation processing of solid fuel 132. In implementations of the invention, the magnetron 700 may be in the form of a vacuum tube high power, which generates coherent microwaves. The magnetron 700, which generates a large energy output may consist of a filament, which acts as a cathode 714, preserving the high negative potential with powerful source of high voltage direct current (DC) 802. The cathode can be structurally made inside Central vacuum, lobed circular chamber. External equity part of the chamber can affect the anode 710 so that it begins to attract the electrons arising from the emission of the cathode. The magnetic field may be formed by a magnet or electromagnet and are oriented so that the electron emission and the cathode 714 occurs on the outer spiral circular path. Lobed holes are open along their length and the results are combined with the combining hole region 712. Because electrons are gliding, skimming these holes, they can build a high resonant frequency in uniting the hole 712, which in turn may cause the Association of the electrons in the group. Part of this area can be removed using a short antenna 702, which is connected to the waveguide. The waveguide can directly send the extracted radio frequency energy by the magnetron to solid fuel heating and processing it as described here in another place. Alternatively, the energy from the magnetron may be directed to solid fuel antenna without the use of a waveguide.

On Fig shows how to set the high voltage to the magnetron 700. Installation of high voltage DC 802 connected through conclusions 718 magnetron 700, providing a large output of energy for the processing of solid fuel, may have a high DC voltage values such as 5000, 10000, 20000, 50000 and such. In implementations of the invention a typical high voltage is 20000 to 30,000 V (DC). This value of the high voltage DC 802 may be derived from electrical power plants, the voltage of which is presented in the form of a single-phase or multiphase voltage is Oia alternating current (AC) outlet 180, which is converted to high voltage DC 802 through a high-voltage input set 182. Electric power plant, power voltage alternating current (AC) which is supplied to the system 180 may be working state installation or, for example, private working installation. Voltages AC electrical system 180, provide electric power plant, can be 120 V, 240 V, 480 V, 1000 V, 14600, 25,000 In or similar. In implementations of the invention a typical voltage used at the facility, may be 160 kV (AC) and may typically be three-phase. Next, you need to convert the value of alternating voltage outlet 180 in high voltage DC 802 used by the magnetron, and some lost electrical power may result from electrical inconsistent high input voltage power transmission installation 182. It is desirable to reduce these electrical power loss associated with the high voltage input transmission installation 182 to minimize working installation costs associated with the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In the configuration of the high voltage input transmission installation 182 can be used a number of implementations of the invention.

Figure 9 shows transformerless you oquality the input set transmission 900 with one implementation of the invention input high voltage installation transmission 182. Transformerless high voltage input set transmission 900 can convert high voltage AC electric network 180 (in implementations it may be 14600 AC) directly to the high voltage DC 802 needed for operation of the magnetron 700 (in implementations, this value may be 20000 DC). Direct convert high voltage AC mains 180 in high DC voltage setup DC 802 can avoid some of the steps that can lead to higher efficiency of the electric grid, and reduce, therefore, the cost of the operation processing of solid fuel 132. In implementations of the invention the exception of the stages may include a procedure for low voltage electrical installation high voltage AC 180 at low AC voltage using a transformer. Then using a rectifier receive low DC voltage, and then low voltage DC again, using the extension convert voltage into high voltage DC 802A required by the magnetron. In order to avoid these intermediate stages inside the high voltage input set transmission 182, both efficiency and reliability the device can be improved, as can be decreased capital investment and maintenance cost.

In the first phase transformerless high voltage input set transmission 900 receives the high power voltage AC installation 180, which is supplied through the high-speed high-current circuit breaker 902, sometimes referred to as a breaker. Open circuit occurs automatically electric switch when you want to protect an electrical circuit from the accident caused her by overload or short circuit. For each phase of the input high-voltage power AC voltage coming from the power unit 180, there is one high-speed high-current circuit breaker 902. Performance, silnotochnogo circuit breaker 902 may be sufficient for inclusion chain after the short-circuit conditions inside transformerless high voltage input set transmission 900 for protecting electrical power distribution devices. High performance, silnotochnogo tearing device can provide electrical insulation and protection of electrical distribution, which also can be equipped with other components such as the transformer 1002. Used is of high-speed, high current breaker device 902 instead of the transformer 1002 may lead to a significant increase in efficiency compared to the transformer 1002, with the electric power loss caused by the inefficiency and lack of high-speed, high-current circuit breaker. High-speed, high-current circuit breaker 902 may also serve in the system of protection of magnetrons 700. An explosion or the release of stress can lead to failure of the magnetrons 700. This may be the reason for the decrease of the microwave power supplied to the solid fuel and possible malfunction of the magnetrons.

The second phase transformerless high voltage input set transmission 900 is to obtain output high voltage AC 910 through high-speed, high-current circuit breaker and the voltage applied to the cascade rectifier 904, where it is converted to high voltage DC 802. The rectifier 904 is an electrical device incorporating one or more semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors, SCRs (silicon controlled diodes), IGBTs (bipolar transistors with insulated gate) and the like, designed to convert AC voltage to DC. Ihad very simple rectifier 904 may be characterized as a half wave of alternating current, which further filtered DC. Practically, rectifiers 904 may be a half wave, full wave, single phase bridge, three phase trichinosis, three-phase sectionalism and things like that, when a combination of different filter elements reduce the residual ripple AC. The resulting output high voltage DC 802 rectifier 904 may also be adjustable, for example, by changing the ignition angle of the silicon controlled diode. This high voltage output DC 802 can be configured to theoretical maximum peak value of the input power of the AC voltage on lines 180. As an example, the input power value of the AC voltage on lines 180, equal 14600, can theoretically produce a DC voltage corresponding to the desired voltage 20000 Century If DC 802 meets the requirements input high voltage DC A for filing a magnetron 700, it may not be necessary in the final conversion DC-to-DC cascade Converter 908, as shown by the dotted line in Figure 9. After conversion, DC-to-DC, converters 908 can have an efficiency of 80%, 85%, 95%, and such, by removing the d the I required to have in future efficiency gains for the handling of solid fuels 132.

The third stage, if it is needed, is transformerless high voltage input set transmission 900 converters 908 conversion DC-to-DC. In this implementation, it is possible, there is still a need to transform converters 908 DC-to-DC between the cascade rectifier 904 and magnetron 700, if the high voltage output DC 802 from the rectifier has a high enough value to meet the requirements of high voltage DC A inputs magnetron 700. Converter DC-to-DC is a Converter, which converts one DC voltage to another. Usually, the conversion DC-to-DC represents the conversion by application of DC voltage across the inductor or transformer with a period of time, for example, defined by the frequency range from 100 kHz to 5 MHz, associated with the current passage and the conservation of magnetic energy. Then this voltage can be switched off when this stored energy is transferable to the output control voltage. By adjusting the off time, the output voltage can be adjusted as required current varies. In this implementation, the need for Converter postmenopause in constant depends on the upper level of the applied high voltage power AC voltage on lines 180. For example, if voltage power installations, equal 12740 AC voltage on lines 180 distribution of the power voltage, the rectifier 904 can provide the maximum value of the DC voltage 802 no more than 18000 DC. If the high voltage DC 802A required for magnetron is 20000 DC, in this case, the cascade Converter 908 conversion DC-to-DC requires a higher voltage DC 802A to ensure the requirements of the magnetron 700.

Add high-speed, high-current circuit breaker in the transformer-less installation of 900 power Converter may also protect energy electrical devices from defects nonelectric origin inside the unit, treatment of the solid fuel 132. Outside electrical voltage drop associated with the failure of equipment, magnetron 700 may form an arc that is associated with the collapse of the magnetic field inside the magnetron 700. This condition arc can cause a large peak current from an electric power plant. In implementations of the invention high-speed, high-current circuit breaker can protect the electric power plant from such a high current surges. The above example demonstrates the condition, to the which may be ahead of the magnetron 700 off the arc when excessive reflected power back into the magnetron 700. This can be a typical case of backward reflection energy in the magnetron 700 during operation, and to protect the magnetron from 700 faults associated with this reflected power is used magnetron circulator 700 (insulator). However, in case of failure of the circulator in the magnetron 700, the formation of the arc. However, even if the system was designed for a valid reflection of power, malfunction inside it could cause even greater surge current associated with switching arc magnetron 700. This is only one example of a condition that could lead to high values of the differential current from the electrical power plant. If any condition of high current, which remains more than double the period of a frequency of 60 Hz, the energy distribution, the supply unit can cause a malfunction, which could potentially be a cause of back off breakers through distribution and transmission devices, all power plants, has long been capable to generate power. Gradual changes in the product produced by the installation processing of solid fuel 132, can cause large reflections and to cause the arc. Another problem may be the result of an abrupt change of the current is clearly a technological origin. These and other conditions damage the input voltage to current can be eliminated by the availability of high-speed, high-current circuit breaker. Transformerless translational input high voltage installations 900 can provide the greatest efficiency of electric power and protection against faults caused by the elimination or reduction of failure inside the unit 182 translational input voltage.

Figure 10 presents the installation of the high voltage input transmission with transformer 1000, which is one implementation of the invention, the transmission input high voltage installation 182. This configuration of the power conversion corresponds to the provision of high voltage direct current magnetron in three stages. At the first stage high power AC voltage on lines 180 transformed into low voltage AC 910 using the transformer 1002. Transformer 1002 may be an electrical device that transfers energy from one electrical circuit to another by means of the magnetic circuit. Transformer 1002 contains two or more pairs of the windings of the wire and may have a magnetic core to concentrate the magnetic flux. Figure 10 presents the input power of the AC voltage on lines 180 supplied to the first coil, called the primary, which creates a time varying magnetic flux in the core that inducere the AC voltage 910 on the other coil, called secondary. Transformers 1002 are used to convert between a voltage for changing the wave resistance and to provide electrical isolation between circuits. For example, the input high power voltage AC lines 180 figure 10 can be set 14600 AC, and reduced output voltage AC 910 may be set to 480 VAC. In addition, these AC voltage are different from each other and can be isolated from one another. Transformer 1002 may be single-phase transformer may be implemented in many single-phase transformers, in the form of an integrated installation of transformers, in the form of a multiphase transformer or the like. In addition, the transformer can be powered by electricity from a power plant. The transformer can have electric power, ineffective related to the conversion from one voltage to the next, and this failure may be related to voltage and current at the input and output of the transformer 1002.

The second stage of the transmission input high voltage installation configuration with transformer 1000, low voltage AC A passes through the rectifier 904 to obtain equivalent low voltage DC 802. As an example, when the input is Eremenko voltage AC 910 value 480 can, in theory, to produce an output DC voltage DC 802 not less 677 Century Voltage equal to 677 In may be insufficient to obtain a high voltage DC 104 required for the magnetron. In this structure, you may need a third cascade Converter 908, which converts DC voltage to DC, where low voltage DC 802 from a rectifier 904 is installed above the required high voltage DC 802A, or 20,000 In constant voltage when using conversion DC-to-DC Converter 908.

Input passed to the installation of high voltage in the implementation with transformer 1000 can bring the benefits of a standard three-phase voltage, low voltage, number of transformed voltage available from the power plant. One example of such a device is a three-phase four-wire 480/277 transformer, which typically supplies power voltage large buildings and commercial centers. Voltage 480 is used to start the engines, while 277 used in fluorescent lighting installations. To obtain 120 V may require the appropriate conclusion that can be powered from line 480 C. Other examples of standard three-phase voltage can use voltage 575-600 In, rather than the 480, which may be reduced if necessary, the use of the third stage 908 env is tera, transforming DC power to DC power. These examples are not restrictive, and can be considered other configurations, providing qualified level in the process. The use of standard transformer device can eliminate the need to have special equipment from power plants and can, thus, reduce the initial cost of such implementations. However, reduced working capacity, associated with the transformation of the alternating voltage in low, and then converting the DC voltage again in constant can be undesirable procedures, as they may increase the operating cost of the installation processing of solid fuel.

Figure 11 shows transformerless high voltage input set transmission with inductor 1100, representing the change discussed previously installed transformation capacity 900 and represents one implementation of the invention high voltage input translational installation 182. This implementation of the invention similar to the transformerless input set transmission 900 that there is no transformer 1002, but it is faster than fed high power AC voltage to install 180 through bistromath the store, high-current circuit breaker, protecting the high power voltage AC installation 180, feeding directly rectifier 904. As was the case transformerless power unit 900, the output of the high voltage DC rectifier 802 904 may be sufficient to exclude Converter 908 conversion DC-to-DC. The intention is to have high-speed, high-current circuit breaker 902 in transformerless high voltage input set transmission 900 was to provide protection of the electrical power supply device, in case of short circuit inside the unit, treatment of the solid fuel 132. High-speed, high-current circuit breaker 902 can quickly react to trip the circuit when power electrical installation works. Performance is necessary because there is no isolation transformer. Transformerless high voltage input set transmission with inductor 1100 protects components from short circuits, AC, since high-current inductor 1102 is connected in series with the magnetron. The inductor 1102 slows down the response time to short circuit, providing standard energy installation abastract the guide device interrupts the circuit, the response time which is sufficient to open and to protect the electric power supply device installation. The inductor under conditions of constant current, does not affect the circuit and performs the function of a virtual short circuit in the circuit. But if inside the unit, treatment of the solid fuel 132 occurs a short circuit, the response of the inductor will slow down the response of the current through the introduction of the delay on the effect of a short circuit. This delay can give, therefore, sufficient time to work a standard breaker device 902, the requirements for performance which can be avoided because it is not required.

On Fig shown high voltage input set transmission of high voltage DC constant current transformer 1200 with one implementation of the high-voltage input set transmission 182. This configuration allows the conversion of the power voltage, providing a high voltage DC 802 on the magnetron, is performed in two stages. At the first stage high-voltage power voltage AC installation 180 can be transformed in a direction more or less, as required, using a transformer 1002. Input-output voltages can be determined using the current input C the new high voltage AC installation 180 and the desired output of high voltage DC 802, used by magnetron 700. In the second phase high voltage AC 910 output transformer 1002 passes through the cascade rectifier 904. The rectifier 904 converts the input high voltage AC 910 in high voltage DC 802, which is required for the magnetron 700. The voltage level of the transformer 1002 and adjustable output rectifier 904 can be both selected based on the input, high-voltage power voltage AC installation 180 and the required values of the high-voltage output voltage DC 802 input to the magnetron 700. For example, the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may be installed in the geographical region where it can be accessible power plant power high voltage AC installation 180 power supply voltage 80000 Century If the magnetron 700 required voltage DC 802 DC equal to 20000, high voltage DC 910 input to the rectifier 904 may be selected based on the desired voltage level and to provide the lowest output ripple or the greatest efficiency for rectifier 904. Selected high voltage input DC 910 may be, for example, 16000 C. In this case, the ratio representing the ratio of the number of turns of the primary winding to the secondary DL the transformer 1002, may be 5:1. AC voltage 80,000 In power plant AC 180 can be reduced by installing AC910 to the value V AC. The value of 16000 AC high-voltage installation AC910 can then be converted into a high DC voltage DC rectifier 802 904 and submitted to the magnetron 700 installation of fuel treatment 132. This implementation can lead to high efficiency associated with an input voltage that is transmitted to install 182, which retains a high voltage in all cases, it is still defect caused by transformer 1002. There were a few illustrative examples of implementations of the invention, but only one related to this area could assess changes, and such changes are intended to be reflected in the present invention.

On Fig shown high-voltage input unit for transmission with isolation transformer, which is one implementation of the high-voltage input unit for transmission 182. This configuration of the power conversion for high voltage DC A on the magnetron 700 uses a transformer 1002 for electrical isolation input high voltage transmitted installing 182 from high energy is Kourtney power plant AC 180 of the power system. In this configuration, the transformer 1002 may be used only as an electric insulator and does not perform the function of exchange of stresses. High voltage power input AC line 180 is connected to the transformer 1002, the output of which is the same voltage as the output of high voltage transformer AC A. High voltage AC 910, still remaining in the transformer 1002, the replace function level voltage for a high voltage DC 802A required by magnetron 700, first may be supplemented by the Converter 908, which converts DC voltage constant. High voltage AC 910 from transformer output is fed to the rectifier 904, in which the high voltage AC 910 is converted to high voltage DC 802. In the result of rectifying the voltage level of high voltage DC 802 may be somewhat higher than the high voltage AC 910 to the input of the rectifier, but may be limited to a small higher interest. If the high voltage DC 802 corresponds to the high voltage DC A required for magnetron 700, the Converter 908 conversion DC-to-DC can act as an element of the high voltage on the input set 182 for transmission, which provides more function for the received voltage. In implementations of the invention, such a configuration may provide a path for high voltage on the input set 182 for transmission of high voltage DC 802A to the magnetron 700 with electrical isolation from power plants high power AC voltage on lines 180. In this configuration can be implemented reduction in efficiency caused by the presence of the transformer.

In implementations of the invention, the power required for handling solid fuel 132 may be high, and may require a high line voltage, for example, 160 kV, the power transmitted to line voltage. The required power can be quite high in order to verify the concept and construction of power substations, located on the side of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. Such a powerful substation may be only designed for handling solid fuel 132 and essentially can lead to the selection of high voltage that best meet the required voltages of the magnetrons. In this case, the requirement for the Converter 908, which converts DC voltage into a permanent one can be omitted.

Thus, by-products can be separated from coal using microwave systems 148 applied power, the frequency and duty cycle to private stations of the processing of coal. To determine the level of the deleted products, fully remote products, products released into the environment, the current state of the output of the microwave system 148, and the like can be used in the sensor system. The sensors 142 may include sensors of water vapor, ash, sulphur, volatile components, and other substances derived from coal. In addition, the sensors 142 may include sensors of microwave energy, the microwave frequency, gas environment, the temperature of the coal, the temperature of the camera, the speed of conveyor systems, inert gas, and others. The sensors can be combined together or may be located along the conveyor system 130 in accordance with the order, as required by the processing of coal. For the same measurement values can be used several sensors. For example, the moisture sensor by water, can be installed in the microwave system 148 station, and another moisture sensor caused by water, can be installed after the microwave station 148. In this example, the construction of the sensors can cause the sensor number of the remote water vapor in the microwave station 148 and the amount of residual water vapor removed from the coal remaining in the microwave the station 148. With this arrangement, the first sensor may be used to determine how a given first level corresponds to the power, frequency and the duty cycle, and the second sensor may determine whether the reserved microwave system 148 processing to adequately perform the removal of water from coal. Similar methods can be applied to any other system sensors sensors 142.

The read sensor may be receiving the parameters from the installation of control 140, which may have a front-end sensor for each type of sensors used by the system sensors 142. Setting control parameters 140 may use an analog signal to feed an analog-to-digital Converter (ADC)that converts the read analog value into a digital form. After receiving the sensor data, setting control parameters 140 may transmit the read sensor value on both devices, the controller 144 and the installation control 134. The controller 144 may use the read sensor to display the current process data processing of coal, presented on the user interface where the user can monitor the incoming process data and manually bring to an end not implemented appropriate operating parameters.

In the instance of an implementation of the invention set the URC control 134 may receive the current process data and to compare then with the required process parameters of coal to determine how to install processing of coal produces coal, conforming to the specification 122. Install control 134 may include at least two sets of processing parameters of coal the main parameters that can be represented by setting generation options 128, and the current values of the data processing procedures coal issued by the control device parameters 140. Install control 134 may compare the desired values of the current settings to determine how the installation processing of coal produces coal, conforming to the specification 122. Setting parameter generation 128 can also provide installation management 134 tolerances, which must be supported by the processing of coal to produce coal desired characteristics 122. Install control 134 may use a set of algorithms to determine whether to adjust any work setting. Algorithms can compare the data of the current sensor 142, which is based on the operating parameters, and a deviation in operating parameters, to determine any adjustments in operating parameters.

In addition, the installation control 134 may obtain finally the processed data from the installation feedback 174, which may contain data o is-breaking parameters of coal 172 installation and setup test 170. The algorithm operation control 134 may use the data collected from the installation feedback 174, together with the data of the current process, obtained from the sensors 142 to regulate the operating parameters of the processing of coal.

The control unit 134 may be able to adjust one or all of the operating parameters conveyer unit 130 in real time.

After installation management 134 adjusts the operating parameters, installation management 134 can save the adjusted operating parameters as new operating parameters and then transfer the new operating parameters to the controller 144.

The controller 144 may determine at least one new parameter, obtained from the installation of control 134, and may transfer this new working parameter on different devices conveyor system 130, which may include microwave system 148.

Using the above process operating parameters, reads the current values of the process that interprets the current procedures governing the required values of the operating parameters and transmitting the adjusted operating parameters on the conveyer unit 130, some implementations of the invention can provide real-time feedback system, in which n is discontinuous mode can track changes of conditions within the procedure of processing of coal.

Knowledgeable person in this process could be understood that the feedback system can be applied to any systems and installations conveyor systems 130.

In the instance of a procedure of processing of coal by-products can be removed from coal in the form of gas or liquids. The removal system 150 may be responsible for removing products from the conveyor system 130; removal system 150 may remove by-products such as water, ash, sulfur, hydrocarbons, hydroxides of volatile substances and the like. The removal system 150 and the controller 144 may receive the sensor data from the sensors 142, so that the amount of by-products in the processing of coal could be less.

In the conveyor installation 130 can be used more than one removal system 150 for the removal of gases and/or liquids. For example, the removal system 150 may remove water vapor in the microwave system station 148 with other removal systems installed after microwave station 148, to collect the remnants of water vapor, which can continuously decrease after microwave system station 148. Or in another example, one system 150 may remove water vapor inside the other removal system 150, which may remove the ash, sulfur or other materials.

The controller 144 may provide the IC operating parameters for the removal system 150 to control the fan speed, pump speed and the like. The removal system 150 may use the feedback system, similar to the microwave system with feedback 148, as described earlier. In the case of a system with feedback sensors provide information to the device management settings 144 and the control unit 134 to provide real-time feedback on the output device 150 for effective removal of by-products.

The removal system 150 may collect as a result of processing of coal deleted gases and liquids from the conveyor system 130 and to transmit the collected by-products in the container installation 162. Container installation 162 may collect by-products from the conveyor system 130, at least one pressurized tank or container. Install control 134 may manage the container 162 installation to determine the level of by-products and can provide information to the user interface that displays information from a computing device having access to the installation processing of solid fuel 132. Install control 134 may also determine when the container installation 162 sufficiently filled to the contents of the tank or container can be transferred to the treatment plant 160.

Setting processing 160 may be the answer to the public for the separation of the various assembled side fractions, which can exist inside a container 162 installation in tanks and containers. In carrying out the invention in the tank or container container plants can be collected more than one by-product during the processing of coal. For example, the ash can be removed simultaneously with water and grey during the procedure the microwave system 148, and thus the collected by-product is mixed with water and/or gray.

Setting processing 160 may receive a by-product from the container installation 162 to its division into simple components. Installation 160 may use a variety of filtering and separating into its component parts procedures, which may include the deposition process, occulation, centrifigation, filtering, distillation, chromatography, electrophoresis, extraction, removing the liquid from the liquid, precipitation, fractional freezing, sieving, winnowing, and the like.

Install control 134 may control the processing installation 160 for its proper operation and to separate. Setting processing 160 may have its own sensors for reading data for installation management 134, or the treatment plant 160 may use a system of sensors 142 to control processing.

As soon as the mouth of the transportation processing 160 divided by-products of individual components, they can be transferred to the installation location for removal from the installation processing of solid fuel 132. The system control unit 132 may transmit to install the component placement information about the levels to determine when the components could be placed. The system control unit 134 may provide information obtained from the installation of occupancy issued on the user interface inside the unit, treatment of the solid fuel 132. Derived from the installation host 158 products may be harmless (for example, water and water vapor)may be similar to the soil (e.g., ash)can be selling products or commercial products, subordinates operative condition. In the above implementation of the by-products are going to install occupancy 158 and can be used on other plants (e.g., sulfur).

After the processing of coal on the conveyor 130 installation has ended, may be initiated by the cooling procedure of coal at the facility 164, where it can be controlled cooling of the coal temperature processing to the ambient temperature. Like the conveyor 130 installation, installation of cooling 164 may use atmospheric administration, transport system, sensors, and similar devices to control cooling the m coal. Cooling of the coal may be controlled, for example, as a preventive measure re-absorption of moisture and/or as a preventative measure other chemical reactions that may occur during the cooling procedure. To maintain systems, cooling systems, as well as parameters such as the speed of transportation, the atmosphere, the cooling air flow and the like, may be used by the controller 144. Install cooling 164 may use the same previously described systems with feedback, working in real time, used conveyor 130 to control the operating parameters.

With the installation exit 168 can be obtained completely processed coal from cooling systems 164 and conveyor system 130. The installation exit 168 may have an input section, a transit section and section adaptation, which can receive and control the flow and volume of coal, which may have come from the installation processing of solid fuel 132. Finally the treated coal can deal with the installation process of solid fuel 132 fuel coal 200 installation, installation, conversion of coal 210, installation products 212, installation loading 214, installation storage 218, and others. The installation exit 168 can serve as a suction device such as a belt conveyor 300, auger or similar device, which can nourish the installation processing of coal at the end of his placement from the installation processing of solid fuel 132.

On the basis of the operating parameters received from the controller 144, the output product installation 168 may determine the volume of the final processing of coal conveyor system 130. Output setup 168 may be able to change the rate of the output of the installation, based on the received parameters from the controller 144.

In addition, the output product installation 168 can provide test samples on the unit test 170 to verify the final processing of coal. The choice of coal samples may occur in automatic mode or in manual mode; the selected coal can be obtained for a predetermined time, can be chosen randomly selected statistically or the like.

Test installation of coal 170 can check the characteristics of the final treated coal to compare them with the desired characteristics of coal 122, as a final check, the quality of the processed coal. The test setup can be placed in the installation processing of solid fuel 132, in place installation of removal of by-products or mo is et to be standard commercial laboratory testing of coal. Figure 1 shows a testing device that is included in the installation processing of solid fuels. Test final treated coal can provide the characteristics of the coal, which may include percent moisture, percent ash, percent volatiles, fixed percentage of carbon, BTU/Ib BTU/Ib M-A Free, sulfur species, the index of the grinding characteristics of the mine (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting point of the ash, the analysis of the mineral composition of the ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric constant and the like. Finally the treated coal may be tested in accordance with the test standards such as ASTM standard D388 (Classification of grades of Coal), ASTM Standards D 2013 (the Method of preparing coal samples for analysis), ASTM Standards D 3180 (Practical standard for the calculation of coal, analysis of coke on the basis of certain data in different databases), US Geological Survey Bulletin 1823 (Methods for sampling and inorganic analysis of coal) and the like.

Once identified, the final characteristics of the treated coal installing, testing, 170, characteristics can be passed to set the output parameters of coal 172 and/or can be applied with shipped a batch of finished coal. Applied test characteristics shipped to party coal can afford set the am, using charcoal to know the characteristics of the coal and to adjust the characteristics of the used coal in accordance with the characteristics of the final treated coal.

Similar to the installation of the required characteristics of coal 122, the output setting parameters 172 may store the data characteristics of the final treated coal. Set the output parameters of coal 172 may be in the form of a personal computer or a specialized computer for storing and tracking characteristics of the coal. The computer device may be a desktop computer, server, web server, small portable computer, device, CD-ROM, digital video disc, hardware, system management, or similar devices. All computer devices can be placed one behind the other or, if you exceed the number of computing devices of a certain value, can be distributed to remote from each other the distance. Computing devices can be connected via LAN, WAN, Internet, intranet, P2P or other new types of interfaces, using wired communication or wireless communication technology.

Set the output parameters of coal 172 may include data collection, which can be a database, relational database, XML, RSS, ASCII file, the popular the file, text file or the like. In the above implementation set the output parameters of coal 172 may be a search engine to locate the data required characteristics of coal.

There are many output records parameters of coal stored in the set the output parameters of coal 172, based on the number of test samples obtained at the output of 168 installation and setup test 170.

Together with different coal properties, write data received from the testing setup 170, setting the output settings, coal 172 may store the received data and/or transmit the received data characteristics of the coal on the installation feedback 174. Set the output parameters of coal 172 can transmit only new data characteristics of the coal, and to transfer all the data records to identify coal, transmission of statistical data identified coal or the like. Set the output parameters of coal 172 can pass any combination of data records on the installation feedback 174.

Installation feedback 174 may receive input data parameters from setting the output settings, coal 172. Installation feedback 174 may be in the form of a personal computer or a specialized computer for storing and tracking characteristics of the coal. The computer is the first device may be a desktop computer, server, web server, small portable computer, device, CD-ROM, digital video disc, hardware, system control or the like. All computer devices can be placed one behind the other or, if you exceed the number of computing devices of a certain value, can be distributed to remote from each other the distance. Computing devices can be connected via LAN, WAN, Internet, intranet, P2P or other new types of interfaces, using wired communication or wireless communication technology.

Installation 174 feedback may be requested output parameters of coal 172 on the provision of data for identification of coal, which is processed in the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In implementations of the invention, the installation 174 feedback may be requested output parameters 172 periodically, with the installation of the interim period, or when data is required by the installation control 134, or when setting the output parameters of coal 172 sends a new record, and the like.

Installation feedback 174 can only get new data record characteristics of the coal, to get all the data from the number of data records to identify coal (for example, multiple test results), to obtain ednie value of all data records to identify coal, to obtain statistical data for identification of coal or the like. Installation feedback 174 can have algorithms to the collected along the final machining characteristics of coal, to guide them in the control unit 134. Installation feedback 174 can supply to the control unit 134 last data record characteristics, all the data records to identify coal (for example, multiple test results), the mean values of all data records to identify coal, statistical data of the identified coal or the like.

Set the output parameters 172 may send coal characteristics on installation pricing/business 178. Installation pricing/business 178 may determine the price and the cost of processed coal from its receipt in raw form to the final processing. Installation assessment of pricing/business 178 can find obtained, thus, the data of coal from the installation data of the coal sample 120; this setting can store cost of produced coal (for example, cost/ton of coal). Installation pricing/business 178 can receive data from setting the output settings, coal 172, which may contain data related to the cost of handling coal. Installation pricing/business 178 can apply the TS software, which can determine the final price of processed coal, based on cost data obtained and calculated on the basis of the setup information data of the coal sample 120 and setting the output settings, coal 172.

As shown in figure 2, some aspects of the use of coal associated with the installation processing of solid fuel 132. As described above, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may issue a high-quality coal for the supply of coal, it is the most convenient, various consumers. In implementations of the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may include setting the output 168 through which the treated coal in accordance with the described herein systems and methods can be transferred. In implementations of the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may include installation testing 170, detailed description of which was given above. As described earlier, the test results of coal in the installation test 170 can be transmitted to install the intake, as shown in figure 2, that is, such an installation may have more benefits compared to the private methods of processing of coal, produced in accordance with the described here are devices and methods.

Figure 2 shows an example of plants that could use coal, the process is tively described here are devices and methods including, but without limitation, fuel coal 200 installation and setup storage 202 coal for coal fuel, the installation of the conversion of coal 210, installation products 212, the installation of coal handling 214 and installation of coal's storage 218 for transit shipment. In implementations of the invention, the coal is shipped or transported from the installation of the output 168 to install to use coal. From this it follows that the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may be located in the immediate vicinity of the installation using coal or both units can move one against another.

Referring to Figure 2, coal treated in accordance with the described here are devices and methods that can be accommodated in the installation of coal fuel 200. Coal 200 leads to the burning of coal at high temperatures in the presence of oxygen to produce light and heat. Before the coal starts to burn, the coal must be heated to the ignition temperature. The ignition temperature of coal such as fixed for the contained carbon. The ignition temperature of the flying formations of coal is higher than the ignition temperature of the fixed therein carbon. Gaseous products thus occur during the burning of coal. When it starts burning, the heat you who eleave due to oxidation of the combustible carbon, can also hold a high temperature sufficient to maintain combustion. Coal, which must be used in fuel coal installing 200, can be transported for installation directly for its use, or it may be stored in the setting storage 202 associated with fuel coal installing 200.

As shown in figure 2, install the burning 200 can be used to produce power 204. System for electricity production include systems with a fixed fuel layer 220, the system sprayed coal 222, a system with a fluidized bed of fuel 224 and systems combined fuel 228, which use renewable energy sources in combination with coal fuel.

In implementations of the invention system with a fixed fuel layer 220 can be used with coal treated in accordance with the described here are devices and methods. System with a fixed fuel layer 220 can be used as a fuel lump coal with a grain size pieces 1-5 refer To systems with a fixed layer of combustible coal before entering the furnace is heated, and thus had come from the moisture and volatile materials. As soon as the coal enters the area in which it can be ignited, the temperature in the coal layer increases. There are a number of different the types of systems with a fixed fuel layer 220, including static grates, furnaces with lower fuel supply chain grate moving grate system and fuel atomization. Chain grates and moving gratings have similar characteristics. The lumps come on roaming or chain grate, while air is supplied through the grate and through the bed of coal lying on it. In systems of fuel atomization, for uniform distribution of the fuel high-speed rotor grinds the coal inside the furnace above the moving grate. Fuel cells are usually characterized by the flame temperature lying in the range between 1200-1300°C and peaceful, long retention time of the fuel.

Fuel system with a fixed layer 220 is relatively rough, however, the carbon may suspend odnokile, nitrous oxide (NOx") and volatile substances during the combustion process. Chemical fuel and temperature can vary, mainly fuel along the grate.

The allocation of SO2will depend on the sulphur content in the fuel and coal. The remains of the ash can have a high carbon content (4-5%) due to the relative inefficiency of fuel, as well as the limited access of oxygen to the carbon contained in the coal. WMS is about to be on the same level of skilled craftsman, that giving the coal special properties contributes to its predominant use in systems with a fixed layer 220. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the methods and devices described herein may be more designed for use as fuel in the system with a fixed coal layer 220.

In implementations of the invention the powdered coal ("RCC") 222 can be used as fuel 200 used for electricity generation 204. As indicated in figure 2, RCC 222 can be used together with the processed coal in accordance with the here described methods and devices. For RCC coal can be crushed (sprayed) into small powder. To obtain fuel pulverised coal is blown part of the air inside the boiler through a series of fuel injectors. Air can also be added for the second time or third time. Worker nodes are closed by the atmospheric pressure. The working temperature of the fuel is in the range 1300-1700°C and depends on the category of coal. For bituminous coal, the fuel temperature is in the range of 1500-1700°C. For lower rank coal-order temperature is 1300-1600°C. the particle Size of the coal used in the process of spraying, is of the order of 10-100 microns. The retention time of the particles is typically 1-5 second is, and the size of the particles should be such that they are completely burned during this time. The steam generated by this procedure may be dried by the steam generator and turbine to produce power 204. The powdered coal fuel combustion chamber 222 can be used together with parietal flame or tangential component of combustion. The results of the near-wall combustion climb the walls of the combustion chamber, while the tangential components of combustion rise in the corner, along with the flame, heading toward the center of the boiler, forming, thus, a swirling motion of the gases during combustion, resulting in air and fuel are mixed more efficiently. Boilers can end either with a wet bottom or dry bottom, depending on the dropdown at the bottom of the ash in the form of molten slag or dry solid component. Mainly RCC 222 produces a small, thin layer of ash. Usually RCC 222 can produce 65-85% fine ash with ash content in the form of coarse fractions (on a dry bottom boiler or boiler slag (wet bottom boilers).

In implementations of the invention boilers RCC 222 as fuel use intracity coal, which can be used in constructions with the lower fuel supply, where the mixture of coal and air is sent down on the cone, forming the basis of the boiler. This design is Oia leads to a prolonged retention time, that ensures more complete combustion of carbon. In another design provided by the cell is burning, contributing to the formation of two or three circular treatments burning, combined within a simple, vertical installation, which produces a compact, intense flame. High flame temperature, the resulting combustion may be due to the formation of a large number of NOxbut, despite this, the use of such a design is less preferred.

In implementations of the invention boiler fuel cyclone can be used for coal with a low melting point ash, which would be difficult to use with RCA 222. The cyclone furnace has a combustion chamber mounted in the side of the wedge holder of the boiler. The first stream of air carries the fuel in the form of fine particles of coal in the fuel chamber, while the second air stream tangentially pumps air into the cyclone, creating a solid funnel through which penetrate the larger particles of coal on the walls of the fuel chamber. The third stream of air is delivered directly into the Central funnel of the cyclone to control Central vacuum and location of the fuel inside the combustion chamber. Large particles of coal are captured in the hot layer, which covers the inner surface of the cyclone, and then are recirculated for more the complete combustion. Small particles of combustion pass into the center of the funnel. This system facilitates intense heat buildup inside the fuel combustion chamber, and thus, the coal burns at extremely high temperatures. Fuel gases, residues amplepuis substances and fine ash pass into the combustion chamber of the boiler for a more complete combustion of the fuel. Hot ash falls due to its own weight to the bottom of the chamber for subsequent removal.

In boiler cyclone 80-90% ash remains at the bottom of the boiler in the form of hot slag, and the lower part of the small ash is removed after passing through the hot section of the boiler. These boilers operate at high temperatures (from 1650 to 2000°C) and use a low atmospheric pressure. High temperature, resulting in the formation of large amount of NOxa great disadvantage of the use of a boiler of this type. Boiler cyclone combustion may use coal with some fundamental characteristics: volatile substances must be more than 15% (dry basis), ash content should be in the range of 6-25% for bituminous coal or 4-25% for sub-bituminous coal, and the humidity should be less than 20% for bituminous coal and 30% for sub-bituminous coal. Ash should have a specific viscosity characteristics of the slag; ash slag forming in the course of p is ocess, has a particularly large effect on the operation of this type of boilers. In the boiler of this type can burn fuel with high humidity, but you need to change the structure.

You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use in the RCC system 222. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the methods and devices described herein may be more designed for use as fuel in the RCC system 222.

RCA can be used in combination with subcritical and supercritical cycles of vaporization. Supercritical cycle of evaporation that occurs in the vicinity of the critical temperature (374°F) and critical pressure (22,1 MPa), where cease to exist gaseous and liquid phases of water. Subcritical systems typically achieve thermal efficiency 33-34%. Supercritical systems can achieve efficiency by 3-5 percent higher subcritical system.

You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that thermal coefficient of coal fuel 200 leads to low cost of electricity produced 204, because it requires a low-grade fuel. Increased the gross efficiency of fuel coal is also reduced when using other selected during the combustion of the fuel components, like SO2and NOx. In other words, small installation combustion using in the form of combustible material low-grade coal can have a thermal efficiency of not less than 30%. For larger installations with subcritical boylernymi systems, in which the fire is burning high quality coal, thermal efficiency can be 35-36%. Thermal efficiency in facilities using subcritical system of vaporization, can reach values of 43-45%. The maximum achieved by the efficiency with low sorting of coal and low brand coal may be lower than what could be achieved at a high sorting of coal and high Marche coal. For example, the maximum value of the efficiencies expected in a new installation, the combustion of brown coal (available, for example, in Europe), may be about 42%, while the equivalent setup working on a new bituminous coal can reach approximately 45% of the maximum thermal efficiency. System supercritical units of vaporization using bituminous coal and other optimal structural materials, can produce a net thermal efficiency equal to 45-47%. From this it follows that the coal, obrabotan is in accordance with the methods and devices described herein, can be advantageously designed to optimize thermal efficiency.

In implementations of the invention fluidized bed of fuel ("FBC") system 224 may be used in conjunction with coal treated in accordance with the here described methods and devices. The FBC system 224 operates on the principle of fluidized coal, i.e. the condition in which solid components are freely floating, like a fluid environment. As the gas passes up through the layer of solid particles, the gas flow produces forces that tend to separate particles from one another. In the FBC system 224 coal burns hot nonflammable layer, because the coal particles suspended upward flow of the fluidized gas. Coal in FBC system 224 may be mixed with the same sorbent, as limestone, and mixed components can be fluidized during the combustion process, resulting in more complete combustion of the fuel and the output gases of sulfur. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use in the FBC system 224. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the methods and devices described herein may be particularly designed for use as fuel in the FBC system 224. Example d is Lisesi systems FBC 224 described in more detail below.

For electricity generation system 204 224 are used mainly with subcritical steam turbines. The FBC system 224 can be bubbling or circulating. Sealed system FBC 224, presented at the early stages of development, used mainly boiling layers and could produce electricity in a combined cycle with gas and steam turbine. As for the coarse particles of coal, they can be used with a size approximately equal to 3 mm FBC 224 at atmospheric pressure can be used with a high content of coal ash and/or coal with varying characteristics. Fuel is loaded at a temperature of between 800-900°C, mainly below the threshold for formation of NOxbecause these systems operate at low values of the allocation of NOxcompared to systems PCC 222.

Boiling layers have low fluidizers performance, so they are retained in the layer at a depth of about 1 mm, with identifiable surface. As particles of coal cease to burn and become small, they eventually are released together with the gases of coal in the remote distance, as well as fly ash. Circulating layers will use the highest fluidizers speed, because these coal particles suspended in the flue gases pass through the main that is cast camera in a cyclone. Particles of large size are extracted from the gases and again get stuck inside the combustion chamber. Individual particles can dwell between 10-50 periods, depending on their fuel characteristics. Fuel conditions are relatively uniform throughout the combustion chamber, and it has a large number of mixed particles. Even though the particulate coal is distributed throughout the installation, the density of the layer in the lower part of the furnace requires the mixing of fuel in the combustion process. For the layer of burning bituminous coal, carbon content in the layer is approximately 1% with the remainder forming the ash and other minerals.

Circulating FBC system 224 can be designed for a specific type of coal. In implementations of the invention, these systems are especially applicable to low-grade coal with high ash content, which is difficult to definitively spray and which may be variable fuel characteristics. In implementations of the invention, such systems are also used for burning coal with other fuels, such as biomass or industrial waste, in combination with the fuel system 228. Once constructed installing FBC 224 can operate with higher efficiency along with the fuel for which it was intended. There are various ways of its application is. Thermal efficiency for circulating FBC system 224, usually somewhat less than for equivalent systems of RCC. When using low-grade coal with variable characteristics of low thermal efficiency could be even lower.

Installing FBC 224 in a sealed system can be used for working with low-grade coal and, as a consequence, with variable fuel characteristics. In a sealed system of fuel Luggage and all cyclone gases together with coal and enter the sorbent is placed under pressure in a container, inside the system through the boundary pressure and across the border pressure derived ash. When the coal plant works, coal and limestone can be mixed within the system together with 25% water, like pasta. The system can work under pressure of 1-1,5 MPa, the fuel temperature in the range of between 800-900°C. the Fuel heats the steam, like the corresponding boiler, and can also produce hot gas for controlling a gas turbine. Sealed units are designed to have a thermal efficiency of not less than 40%, with lower emissions. Future sealed power production systems can be improved so that they could have a thermal coefficient field is nogo actions more than 50%.

As shown in figure 2, the coal fuel 200 may be used in metallurgy 208, such as the smelting of iron and steel. In some implementations of the invention bituminous coal with certain properties can be used for smelting without preliminary preparations. As an example of such coal with such as melting, in combination with other factors including high content of fixed carbon, low ash content (<5%), low sulphur content and low content of calcite (CaCO3), can be used in metallurgy 208. Coal, having the quality required for use in metallurgy 208 may be 15-50% greater than the cost of coal used for electricity generation 204. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use in the metallurgical system 208. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the methods and devices described herein may be more designed for use as fuel in the steel system 208.

With reference to Figure 2 coal treated in accordance with the here described methods and devices may be used in Upsizing 210. As shown in figure 2, is set to transform coal 210 can convert the complex hydrocarbon coal in other products, used, for example, in systems gasification 230, the production of synthesis gas and converting 234, coke production and net carbon 238 and production of hydrocarbon 240. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use in the conversion of coal 210. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the here described methods and devices may be more designed for use as fuel in the plant conversion of coal 210.

In implementations of the invention, the coal treated in accordance with the here described methods and devices may be used for gasification 230. Gasification 230 involves the conversion of coal into fuel gas, volatile substances, bupivacaine substances and residual minerals (ash/slag). The gas supply system 230 converts the hydrocarbon fuel, coal, gas components by applying heat under pressure, usually in the presence of steam. The device that provides this process is called a gasifier. Gasification 230 differs from the combustion of fuel, because it passes with limited access of air or active oxygen. Thus, only a small portion of the fuel burns completely. Topl is in, which burns, promotes the formation of heat for the rest of the gasification process 230.

During gasification 230 large part of the raw carbon (such as coal) chemically reacts with many other substances, forming a total of "synthetic gas". Synthetic gas is primarily hydrogen, adeolis carbon and other gaseous constituents. Components of the synthetic gas AC, however, they are based on the supply of installation and used the gasification conditions. Mineral residues in raw materials for the industry is not gasified, like carbon materials, so they can be separated and removed. Contaminated sulfur in coal can form sulfuric hydrogen from which can be obtained sulfur or sulfuric oxide. Because the gasification takes place in conditions with recovery, NOxusually not formed and instead formed ammonia. If during gasification 230 instead of the air is oxygen, the concentration of the gas stream is carbon dioxide, which can be isolated or which may be adopted preventive measures in order not to pollute the atmosphere.

Gasification 230 may be able to use coal, which may differ from that used in the fuel units 200, then eats the coal with high sulfur and high ash content. Ash, typical for coal used in gasification, is detrimental to the efficiency of the process, because they both cause damage, contributing to the formation of slag and creating difficulties in the disposal of solid fuel within the cooling system of synthetic gas or installation of heat exchange. At low temperatures, such as formed in the fixed layer and gas-fluidized layer, the formation of the resin can cause problems. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use in the installation of gasification 230. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the methods and devices described herein may be more designed for use as fuel in the plant gasification 230.

In implementations of the invention may be available three types of gasification systems: a fixed layer, a fluidized bed and a portable flow. Installation fixed layer, as an exception, used for electricity production, use lump charcoal. Fluidized bed size used coal is 3-6 mm Installation portable flow using pulverised coal. Install portable threads are running at a higher temperature (approximately 1600°is), than install fluidized bed (about 900°C). In implementations of the invention, gasifiers can operate at atmospheric pressure or can be sealed. When sealing the gasification of the coal feedstock can be introduced through the barrier pressure. To accommodate coal can be used in the system bulky and expensive closing of the hopper, or the coal may be as slurry water-based. Then, the flows of by-products rethermalized to remove them through the barrier pressure. For production of synthetic gas heat exchange and gas purification internally also sealed.

Although it is clear that the installation of gasification 230 may not use combustion, however, in some implementations of the invention installed 230 can be used to produce electricity. For example, the installation of gasification 230, which produces electricity, can use the full combined cycle gasification systems 232 ("IGCC"). In the IGCC system 232 syngas produced during gasification can be cleaned from contaminants (sulfur, hydrogen, ammonia, granular substances and the like) and can burn for controlling a gas turbine. In the IGCC system 232 gases from the gasification installation can also be done in the form of heat exchange of the water to generate sverhierarha pair, which drives a steam turbine. As in the IGCC system 232 uses a combination of the two turbines (fuel gas turbine and steam turbine), this system is called "combined cycle". Usually most of the power (60-70%) in this system comes from the gas turbine. The IGCC system 232 produces electricity with a higher energy conversion efficiency than fuel coal system. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use in the installation of IGCC 232. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the methods and devices described herein may be more designed for use in the installation of IGCC 232.

In implementations of the invention, the coal is processed in accordance with the here described methods and devices may be used for the production of synthetic gas 234 or to transform it in various other products. For example, components such as adeolis carbon and hydrogen, can be used to produce a wide range of liquid or gaseous fuels or chemicals, using conventional procedures, practiced in this process. Another example might be produced during gasifica the AI hydrogen, which can be used as fuel for fuel cells, or, potentially, for the hydrogen turbine, or hybrid fuel systems, including fuel cells and hydrogen turbine. Hydrogen, which is separated from the gas stream, can also be used as raw material for the cleaning industry that uses hydrogen for production of oil products deeper processing.

Synthetic gas 234 can also be converted into various hydrocarbons, which can be used as fuel or for further processing. Synthetic gas 234 may be condensed in light hydrocarbons, used, for example, in the catalysts of the Fischer-Tropsch process. Light hydrocarbons can then be converted into gasoline or diesel fuel. Synthetic gas 234 can also be converted to methanol, which can be used as fuel or fuel additives or serve as the basis for the production of gasoline. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use in the production of synthesis gas or Upsizing 234. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the methods and devices described herein may be more the degree is intended for use in the production of synthesis gas or Upsizing 234.

In implementations of the invention, the coal treated in accordance with the described here are methods and devices that can be converted to coke and refined carbon. Cox 238 is a solid carbon residue obtained from coal from which the volatile components removed by baking them in the oven at a high temperature (higher than 1000°C). At this temperature the fixed carbon and residual ash are melted together. Industrial raw material for the formation of coke is usually a bituminous coal with low ash and sulfur. Coke can be used as fuel during, for example, the smelting of iron in blast furnaces. During such processes the coke can also be used as a restorative additive. When converting coal into coke can also be side products such as coal tar, ammonia, light oil and coal gas. Because of the volatile components of coal for coke production 238 are removed, it is desirable that the coke used as fuel in furnaces where combustion conditions differ from the conditions of combustion of the coal. For example, coke as smokeless or emit a small amount of smoke fuel can burn in conditions when using bituminous coal can cause a large amount of discharge.

It is desirable that the coal replied to some strict to the iterim, which include the moisture content, ash content, sulfur content, volatile solids, resin and plastic, before it can be used as coking coal. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use in installing 238 coke production. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the here described methods and devices may be more designed for use in the production of coke 238.

In implementations of the invention pure amorphous carbon can be obtained by heating coal to a temperature approximately equal 650-980°C, with limited access of ambient air, resulting in cannot complete combustion of fuel. Amorphous carbon 238 is graphite, the allotropic form of carbon that consists of microscopic crystals of carbon. Thus obtained amorphous carbon 238 finds wide application in industry. For example, graphite can be used in electrochemical components, activated carbon is used for water and air purification, and black carbon can be used to reinforce tires of cars. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties with osobiste its predominant use in installing 238 production of purified carbon. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the here described methods and devices may be more designed for use in the production of refined carbon 238.

In implementations of the invention, the main process of coke production 238 can be used for the production of hydrocarbon 240 containing mixed gas, which can be used as fuel ("city gas"). City gas may contain, for example, about 51% hydrogen, 15% odnoosnogo carbon, 21% methane, 10% carbon dioxide and nitrogen and about 3% of other alkanes. For the production of methane used for other processes, such as process Lurgi and synthesis Sabatier, allowing the use of coal of low quality.

In implementations of the invention, the coal is processed in accordance with the described here are methods and devices that can be converted into hydrocarbon products. For example, liquefaction converts coal into products 240 carbon fluid, which can be used as fuel. The process of coal liquefaction can be direct or indirect. Any process that converts coal into hydrocarbon fuel 240 may add a hydrogen to hydrocarbon contained in the coal. There are four ways liquefaction: (1) pyrolysis and hydrocarbonate, where the coal is heated in the absence of who the ear or in the presence of hydrogen; (2)removing the solvent, where the hydrocarbons of coal selectively removed from the coal mass and added hydrogen; (3) catalysis of liquefaction, where the catalyst performs the hydrogenation of carbon coal; and (4) indirect liquefaction, where odnookonny carbon and hydrogen are combined in the presence of a catalyst. As an example, the processes of Fischer-Tropsch represent the catalysis of a chemical reaction in which odnookonny carbon and hydrogen are converted into various forms of liquid hydrocarbons 240. Substances formed as a result of this process, include synthetic oil used as a replacement for oil or fuel.

In another example, the low temperature carbonization can be used for the production of coal liquids 240. In this process, coking coal 238 occurs at a temperature between 450 and 700°C (compare with temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000°C for metallurgical coke). These temperatures optimize the production of coal tar, more rich in light hydrocarbons 240 than conventional coal tar. Then the coal tar will be converted into fuel.

You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use in education 240 products of hydrocarbons. From this it follows that the coal treated with the under described here are methods and devices may be more designed for use in the production of hydrocarbons 240.

With reference to Figure 2, the coal treated in accordance with the here described methods and devices may be used in the installation of by-products 210. As shown in figure 2, the installation of the by-products of coal 210 may convert the coal by-products coal fuel 242 and by-products of the distillation of coal 244.

In implementations of the invention can be obtained by a variety of by-products of coal 242. As an example, the side of the fuel products coal 242 may include hydrocarbons, ash, sulfur, carbon dioxide, water, or the like. Subsequent processing of these by-products can be brought to an end with the economic benefits. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use for the manufacture economically advantageous side of the fuel products. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the here described methods and devices may be more designed for use in the production of a useful side of the fuel products.

In the example of volatile substance by-product 242 fuel coal. Volatile substances is and represent such products, with the exception of moisture during heating may enter the gas or vapor. For coal, the percentage of volatile matter is determined when it is first heated to a temperature of 105°C, at which moisture is removed, then the heating of the coal to 950°C and measuring the residual weight. Volatile substances may include mixed short and long chain hydrocarbons plus other gases, including sulfur. Volatile substance, therefore, may consist of mixed gases, organic compounds having low boiling points, which are condensed by cooling in oil and resin. The content of volatile matter in the coal increases with a decrease in the quality of coal. In addition, coals with high content of volatile substances have a high reactivity during combustion and are easily ignited.

As another example, coal ash is a byproduct 242 fuel coal. Coal ash comprises fly ash (waste that is received from smokestacks) and bottom ash (boiler and fuel cells). Coarse particles (ash and/or boiler slag), is deposited on the bottom of the combustion chamber, and the fine fraction (fly ash) pass through the chimney, restored and reused. The concentration of coal ash can contain many trace elements and heavy metals, including Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn. Obtained, thus polepole combustion of coal can be used as an additive to cement products, as a replacement the soil at the excavation in civil engineering projects, as the ground of high quality and as a component of other products, including paints, plastics, coatings and adhesives.

As another example, sulfur is a byproduct 242 fuel coal. Sulfur in coal can be released during combustion as the oxide of sulfur or can be obtained in the coal ash due to the reaction with the basic oxides contained in the impurity minerals (a process known as self-preservation sulfur). The greatest significance of the basic oxide for self-preservation sulfur CaO has formed in the decomposition of CaCO3and combustion of calcium containing organic group. Burning coal is the execution of two sequential steps: the removal of volatiles and combustion opplevelse fuel. During the removal of the volatiles combustion of sulfur is converted to SO2. During the combustion opplevelse fuel at the same time the process of education SO2, sulfitation and decomposition CaSO4.

In implementations of the invention can be obtained from the various products of the distillation of coal 244. Destructive components distillation 244 coal are coal tar and coal gas in the appendices to metallurgical coke. The use of metallurgical coke and coal gas were discussed earlier as products change is adowanie coal. Coal tar, a third by-product, has numerous examples of commercial purposes. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its predominant use for the manufacture economically beneficial by-products of distillation 244. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the here described methods and devices may be more designed for use in the production of useful by-products distillation 244.

As a by-product of the distillation of coal 244 may serve as coal tar. Coal tar is a mixed compound of hydrocarbon substances. Most of these volatile components, with the smell of hydrocarbons of different composition, derived from the simplest of volatile substances (gasoline) and converted into a non-volatile substance with a complex structure and high molecular weight. Hydrocarbons in coal tar widely represented petrol-based, naphthalene basis, or anthracene basis, or phenantrene. There may be different amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons, paraffins or olefins. In addition, coal tar contains a small number of simple phenols, such as carbolic acid, kumaran. May be the also found components, sulfur and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. A large part of the nitrogen compounds in coal tar based on the properties and conformance to the family of pyridine and quinoline, for example aniline.

In implementations of the invention coal tar can be used for fractional distillation to obtain the amount of useful organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, xylan, naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene. Such substances may have the title of crude coal tar. They leave the basis for a synthesis of a number of products, such as dyes, medicines, spices, perfumes, synthetic rubber, paints, condoms and explosives. After fractional distillation of crude coal tar residues of resin are removed. This substance can be used for the manufacture of roofing, paving of streets, as an insulating and waterproof material.

In implementations of the invention coal tar can also be used in its original state without the application of fractional distillation. For example, before it can be used, the resin can be heated to some extent for outlet of volatile substances. Coal tar in its original state can be used as a paint-like material, resistant to weathering, or as a protective coating against corrosion. Coal tar can also be used is as a roofing material. Coal tar can be burned as fuel, although in this case there are harmful gases. During combustion of coal-tar produce large quantities of soot, called lampblack. If soot to collect, it can be used for the production of carbon for electrochemical industry, printers, dye, etc.

With reference to Figure 2, the coal treated in accordance with the here described methods and devices may be transported to the installation of 214 shipment or installation of storage 218. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties contributes to its safe and effective transportation and storage. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the described here are methods and devices can mainly be designed for ease of shipment and storage.

In implementations of the invention, the coal can be transported from its place of production to place of use. Transportation of coal can be carried out in the installation of shipment 214. Before it is transported, the coal can be cleaned, sorted and/or broken to the desired size. In some cases, installation of electricity production can be placed in side or inside of the mine, which produces coal for installation. For these who plants the coal can be fed by a conveyor or similar means. However, in most cases, installation of electricity production or other plants that use coal, placed at some distance. The main method of transporting coal from mines to remote units is the railroad. Can also be used barges and other watercraft. Feasible transportation on highways by trucks, but it can be inefficient in cost, especially over a distance of fifty miles. Suspended powdered coal slurry coal is transported by pipelines. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal the special properties facilitates the transportation of coal in the installation of loading 214. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the described here are methods and devices can be especially designed to facilitate its transportation.

In implementations of the invention, the coal may be stored in storage at another location, where it will be used, or at a remote location from which it can be moved to the place of operation. In implementations of the invention, such as coal fuel 200 installation and other installations on the use of coal, the coal can be stored on site. As an example, for installations producing electricity 20 coal should be kept to 10% or more of annual needs. However, excessive quantities of coal can lead to difficulties associated with spontaneous ignition, loss of volatile materials, and the loss of calorific value. Intracity coal may pose less risk than other brands of coal. Anthracite, for example, may not be subject to spontaneous combustion, and therefore can be stored in unlimited quantities for coal batteries. On the contrary, bituminous coal can spontaneously ignite if it is located in a very large batteries and can be quite disintegrated.

In stored coal there are two types of changes. Inorganic materials, such as pyrite can be oxidized, and organic materials in the coal can be oxidized. When inorganic materials are oxidized, the volume and/or weight of coal can be increased and the coal can disintegrants. If oxidized coal itself a substance that changes cannot be evaluated immediately. Oxidation of organic material in the coal involves the oxidation of carbon and hydrogen, the absorption of oxygen unsaturated compounds hydrocarbons and leads to changes that may cause loss of calorific value of coal. These changes can cause spontaneous combustion. You will be able to understand at the level of the skilled artisan that making coal special its the STV minimizes destructive changes that may appear in stored coal and installing storage 218. From this it follows that the coal treated in accordance with the described here are methods and devices can mainly be intended to preserve its characteristics in the setting storage 218.

Now present a more detailed description that is presented to the individual components of the installation processing of solid fuel, such as input, output, and related methods and systems.

Coal is formed from substances of vegetable origin, which decomposes without access of air under the influence of humidity, high pressure and high temperature. There are two stages of formation of coal. The first stage of biological, when the cellulose is converted into peat. The second stage of physico-chemical, when the peat turns into coal. The geological processes that formed the coal, called plebicula. As uglification progresses, the chemical formation of coal gradually changing components with a higher carbon content and lower content of hydrogen that can be found in the structures of the aromatic rings.

Coal rank or grade of coal indicate the level of attainment of coalification. Brand coal, arranged in order from highest to lowest, include anthracite, bituminous Hugo is ü, sub-bituminous coal and brown coal/lignite. With the increase in the level of coalification, the percentage of volatile substances is reduced and the calorific value increases. Thus, the high-grade coals contain less volatile substances and have a higher calorific value. Usually also increase brand coal contains less moisture, less oxygen and more fixed carbon, sulphur and more ash. The term "brand" distinguishes between two kinds of coal ash content and sulphur.

All coals contain minerals. These minerals are inorganic substances found in coal. Educated mineral that is integrated directly into the composition of the coal is called inclusive mineral. Educated mineral that is extracted from the matrix structure of the coal, called excluded mineral. Excluded mineral can be distributed among the coal particles, or may accidentally be present in coal, because mine setup used for filling liquid from adjacent mineral layers. Inorganic material in coal brings the ashes in combustion or transformation.

Unbound carbon coal is called with a fixed carbon. A total number of carbon unites with the hydrogen, so this connection is burning as hydrocarbons. It is together with other gas is mi, which are formed by heating coal in the coal forms a volatile substance. Fixed carbon and volatile components to form a fuel. The oxygen and nitrogen contained in the volatile substances are part of the fuel, by which is meant the amount of coal free of moisture and ash. In addition to the coal contains moisture and different minerals, which form ash. The ash contained in the coal USA, may vary approximately in the range from 3 to 30%. Humidity can vary from 0.75 to 45% of the total weight of the coal.

A large amount of ash in the coal is undesirable because it reduces the calorific value of coal and communicates with the fuel, polluting the air that is taken in the oven. If the coal has a high sulfur content, it can connect with ash, forming a fusible slag, which subsequently interferes with the efficient combustion in the furnace. Moisture in coal may cause difficulties during the combustion, because it absorbs heat when it turns into steam, reducing, thus, the temperature of the furnace.

Despite discussing the technologies applied to illustrate the proposals for the use of coal in one of the fuel installation, it is clear that they can be applied in combination to other facilities using coal, such as biomass or waste Pro is islenet, using methods similar to conventional for this type of technology.

There are two basic methods of mining coal 102: surface mining and underground mining. Methods of surface mining may include the area of mining, contour mining and open pit mining.

The area of a coal mine can be covered with non-material, called overburden layer and the Stripping layer may be removed prior to the extraction of coal. Surface mine development can be found on a flat site, the contour of the field can match the seam along the hills or mountains, and the development of the field can be opened when thick coal seam, slit constituting a hundred feet. The equipment used in surface mines may include dragline excavators, excavators, bulldozers, front loaders, bucket wheel excavators and trucks.

When extracting coal from underground coal mines 102 there are three basic ways: chamber-and-pillar, long faces, standard subversive work. Chamber-and-pillar method is continuous blasting of coal electric machine and the Shuttle to transport coal on a conveyor installation for its removal. After a certain distance are the ceiling and the process repeats. Long shaft faces robovie machine is moved through the long continuous faces of coal, which is shipped on a conveyor installation. The overlay may be made of steel beams, which are part of the long walls electric machines. When using the standard way Subversion works and shipping coal, using explosive installations possible undermining of coal and its subsequent removal using standard equipment (for example, conveyor installation, rails, tractor).

Coal mine 102 may contain more than one coal seam, which may be in the form of a continuous line of coal. Coal mine 102 may contain a wide variety of standard coal with known characteristics 110 inside a coal mine and/or coal seam. Some coal from the model number can contain peat, brown coal, lignite, subbituminous coal, bituminous coal or intracity coal. Coal mine 102 may verify the characteristics 110 of coal in the mines and/or reservoir. Proven features 110 can be random, periodic, continuous, or the like. Characterization of coal 110 coal mine can check the coal at a remote distance, or it is possible to send samples of coal for external installation verification. The working field development can be tracked mine, to classify types of coal contained therein, to determine where and what aka the type of coal is in the mine. Different types of coal can have a standard classification 110 on the water content, minerals and materials such as sulfur, ash, metals, and the like. The percentage moisture content and other materials inside the type of coal can affect combustion characteristics and calorific value of coal (BTU/lb). The operator of a coal mine 102 may choose coal mine from the list, in order to maintain the structure of the type of coal for delivery to the customer, that is, the mine in which the coal is best aligned with the market to ensure supply of coal, with the greatest demand on the market or consumers. In implementations of the invention coal with less humidity, such as bituminous coal and anthracite, can provide better combustion and calorific value.

In carrying out the invention the installation of the development of coal deposits 102 may include installation of storage sizing coal 104 and installation of shipment 108 to move the mined coal.

Installation dimensional carbon can be used to convert raw coal into the coal of a certain shape and size required. The size of the coal can be specified by setting located on the surface of the mine by spraying, grinding, use of ball mills, mills or similar devices. The coal is fed to the coal conveyor is installed, determine the size of the mines, using trucks or the like. Setting the size of the coal can be a continuous process of coal consumption, or can be used to process batch production of a given amount of coal.

Installing the storage 104 may be used for temporary storage of raw coal or coal with specified size before it is shipped to the consumer. Installing storage 104 may further comprise the installation of a sort, where the raw coal or resequenced coal of a given size can be further classified according to the size of the coal. Installing the storage 104 may be implemented in the form of buildings, sheds, railcars, open spaces or the like.

Installing the storage 104 may be associated with the installation of shipment 108 that defines a method of transporting coal. Installation of shipment 108 can use rails, truck or similar mechanisms for delivery of coal from a coal mine to consumers. The loading device 108 may use the conveyor belt 300, trucks, loaders, or similar mechanisms, individually one or the other, or in combination, to deliver the coal in accordance with the method of transportation. Depending on the volume of coal in the mine, the installation of loading 108 may be continuous slave is operating or truck can ship coal in start-stop mode upon request.

Installation of coal's storage 112 may be a mediator for the most remote source of the coal and may purchase, store, and perform intermediate operations with various types of coal for different consumers. As the source storage coal may be setting 112, coal mine 102 or any other installation storage of coal. Installing the storage of coal 112 may receive and store many types of coal from many local sources of coal, from which his removal. In carrying out the invention the installation of the storage 112 may store the coal in accordance with its type. Types of coal may include, but this is not a limitation, peat, brown coal, lignite, subbituminous coal, bituminous coal and intracity coal. Installing storage of coal may include the installation of storage 114, installation loading 118 or other installations for processing, sorting, storage and shipment of coal. In carrying out the invention the installation of coal's storage 112 may sell coal or to speculate coal exported from the local coal mines for resale.

Installing storage 112 may receive coal from local sources of export coal; coal types and characteristics 110 can be provided by a source of coal. Installing the storage of coal 112 may also improve more Hugo the ü, testing any of the two tested characteristics obtained or subsequently classifying coal; installation of coal's storage 112 may store the types of supply for different consumers of coal. Types of supply can be further classified by grades of coal in accordance with the characteristics of the coal 110. Installing storage 112 may have at the installation site testing of coal or can use standard coal, tested in the laboratory.

Installing storage 114 may be used to store coal from remotely located sources of coal before the coal is shipped to the consumer. Installing storage 114 may further comprise the installation of a sort, where the coal can be further classified according to the size of the coal and its characteristics 110. Additional installation sorting can also set the size of the coal by spraying, grinding, use of ball mills, mills or similar devices. Installing storage 114 may be implemented in the form of buildings, sheds, railcars, open spaces or the like.

Installing storage 114 may be associated with the installation of shipment 118 that defines a method of transporting coal. Installation of shipment 118 can use the railway, trucks or similar mechanisms is s for delivery of coal from the installation of storage 114 consumers of coal. The device shipment 118 may use the conveyor belt 300, trucks, loaders, or similar mechanisms, individually one or the other, or in combination, to deliver the coal in accordance with the method of transportation. Depending on the installation, storage 112, the installation of shipment 118 may be continuous work truck or can ship coal in start-stop mode upon request.

For data classification coal data 110 of the coal sample 120 can be a cell of the storage device. The data of the coal sample 120 can be presented in the form of a database, a relational database table, text file, XML file, RSS feed, uniform file or similar submission of information that can retain the characteristics 110 of coal. Data can be stored on a computer device that may include a server, a web server, a desktop computer, a small computer, a laptop computer, PDA, flash memory or the like. If the characteristics of the coal supplied to human-readable printed sheet of paper, these characteristics can be entered in the format corresponding to the sample data on the computer device. In carrying out the invention, the data characteristics of the coal (110, obtained from coal mine 102 or from the unit storage 112 may be sent by e-mail, FTP, is connected to the Internet, WAN, LAN, P2P, or the like. The data of the coal sample 120 may be approved on a coal mine 102, installing storage 112, installation, reception and the like. The data of the coal sample 120 can be accessed through a network, which may include the Internet.

The data of the coal sample 120 may include sending the name of the coal mine, the title of the installation, storage, end-consumer of coal, the required properties of coal, perhaps finally the data obtained, the characteristics of the coal (e.g., humidity)used the installation testing of coal, date of testing coal, checking how the resulting dry coal, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, validation, installation, testing, date of testing and the like. In implementations of the invention may be at least one test data characteristics of the coal and test data for the coal sample.

In carrying out the invention, the stored data of the coal sample 120 can be obtained by standard laboratory, such as Standard Laboratories of South Charleston, West Virginia, USA. Standard laboratory may represent characteristics, which may include the percentage of moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, BTU/lb, BTU/lb M-A Free education sulphur grinding characteristics (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting temperature of the ash analysis the minerals ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric properties and the like. In carrying out the invention a standard laboratory can test the coal, as received, and dried. In the implementation of the invention, the testing of the obtained carbon can be in the form of raw coal received without any treatment. In carrying out the invention the testing of the dried coal subject to the coal after removal of residual moisture. Standard laboratory can classify coal for compliance with standards such as ASTM standard D388 (Classification of grades of Coal), ASTM Standards D 2013 (the Method of preparing coal samples for analysis), ASTM Standards D 3180 (Practical standard for the calculation of coal, analysis of coke on the basis of certain data in different databases), US Geological Survey Bulletin 1823 (Methods for sampling and inorganic analysis of coal) and the like.

In implementations of the invention may be at least one record of data stored in a data sample of coal for each of dispatched consignment of coal. Can more than one data record, if the coal was subject to random or periodic testing during the development of the field, storing coal or loading process. In carrying out the invention each test performed during the loading of coal may have characteristics of coal stored in a data sample of coal and 120. Test features the key coal can be improved in the requirements of the coal mine 102, installing storage 112, installing, obtaining, and the like.

The required characteristics of coal 122 can be a database of the combustion characteristics of the treated coal that is required by some operating systems. The desired characteristics of coal 122 can be a database, a relational database table, text file, XML file, RSS, uniform file or similar format that can store the required characteristics of coal for installations that use a particular coal. Data required characteristics of coal 122 may be stored on a computer device that may include a server, a web server, a desktop computer, a small computer, a laptop computer, PDA, flash memory or the like.

In implementations of the invention may be at least one data required characteristics of coal 122 for installation use special coal. There may be coal data required characteristics 122 for each type of coal, received or stored by the setting processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may receive or store many types of coal, which may include peat, brown coal, lignite, subbituminous coal, bituminous coal and intracity coal. Each type of coal may differ from the desired characteristics 122 for operating the setting from the La, and the required characteristics of coal 122 can be based on the ability to change the received or stored characteristics of the coal 110. In implementations of the invention obtained or stored characteristics of the coal can be stored in the data 120 of the coal sample.

The required characteristics of coal 122 may be based on the capabilities of the system parameters setup processing of solid fuel 132, such as the system for determining the heat capacity of the system determine the size of the coal, the system will determine the type of process in the chamber, the conveyor system set the size of the conveyor system of floating coal grade, electromagnetic frequency, electromagnetic power, the duration of the electromagnetic power, the depth of penetration power in the coal and the like. These typical values and parameters may change depending on the input characteristics of the coal. In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 can know what type of coal can be worked by the installation of coal use and what parameters can be selected from the coal desired characteristics 122 for the production of processed coal, intended for installation of coal.

In carrying out the invention the installation of coal to ensure efficiency or environmental requirements may need the change in some operating parameters, such as BTU/lb, sulphur content, ash, metals, and the like. The required characteristics of coal 122 can be based on these parameters; controlling these parameters can guarantee the installation of coal combustion coal with the required allocations.

In carrying out the invention, the desired properties of coal 122 may serve as an indicator of the special qualities of the fuel coal, such as BTU/lb, moisture, sulfur, ash, and the like. In carrying out the invention the special qualities of combustible coal can only be limited by the treatment plants capable of measuring characteristics of the treated coal. For example, if the installation processing of solid fuel 132 only capable of measuring moisture and sulfur, the special indicator of the quality of the fuel coal can only contain indicators of moisture and sulphur.

Setting processing of solid fuel 132 (setup) can be used to change the grade of coal by removal of by-products, such as moisture, sulfur, ash, water, hydrogen, hydroxides, and other persons who may enter into the composition of the coal. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may use microwave energy and/or other means for removing by-products from coal. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may include multiple devices, mo the hive, installations, computer equipment and other equipment for loading/unloading, moving, processing of coal. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be of a modular design, can be extensible, can be movable, fixed, or the like.

In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be modular installation devices, modules, units, computer devices, and the like, intended for completion of individual devices that may be connected with one another with predefined requirements or without pre-defined requirements.

In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be expandable modular design for two processes: continuous flow and single. For continuous flow treatment setting solid fuel 132 can clear the entrance chamber, the processing chamber, the output of the camera and other cameras, to ensure the required volume for a private installation. For example, the installation of electricity production may require a larger volume of treated coal than metallurgical plant, and for this installation processing of solid fuel 132 can be extended to support the process of determining the required volume of coal. N. the continuous flow of coal can turn on the camera with the conveyor for moving coal through some processes. Camera and conveyor systems can also be expanded to issue the required volume per unit of time for installation.

In carrying out the invention the installation of solid fuel 132 may use a single process and a single processing chamber, the input materials, output, and the like can be extended for the amount of coal that is required for processing. The single treatment of coal may include an enclosed chamber that can handle some amount of coal in each cycle.

Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be mobile, able to move among multiple units or multiple sites within the installation. For example, a single entity may have multiple installations that may require treatment with coal and can have one setting processing of solid fuels for processing coal. The processing device solid fuel 132 may allocate a certain amount of time in each facility to ensure stocks of processed coal before it is sent to the next facility. In another example, the installation of storage 112 can have one setting processing of solid fuel 132, which moves between multiple plots inside the unit storage 112 for processing mn is the set of types of coal, which can be stored in the setting storage 112. In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 being moved, can also be made in the form of a modular design, allowing easy installation 132 on the field.

Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be made in the form of a fixed structure that is in some specialized installation. In the implementation of the invention for specialized installations may require the volume of coal required for the installation processing of solid fuel 132 to produce a continuous stream of processed coal. For example, the installation of electricity production may require ever-growing volume of coal, which may be a requirement specified by the setting processing of solid fuel 132.

In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 can work with a specialized setting, whether online or offline. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 can be online with a specialized installation to ensure a continuous process of formation of flow of the treated coal within plants that use coal. For example, the installation of electricity production can have solid fuel, obraboteno.takiva 132, which delivers it into the boilers to produce steam. Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be offline installation, manufacturing, coal, output, at least one stored location. For example, the installation of electricity can have the installation of solid fuel 132, secured by stocks of different coal types that it handles. The treated coal is then able to act only on the conveyor belt 300 power production systems that need it.

Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may include a variety of devices, modules, equipment, computing devices, and the like, such as setting generation options 128, installation taking fuel 128, installation management 134, installation of gas producing 152, installation antipatharia 154, installation export 158, installation of processing 160, container 162 installation, pipeline installation 130, installation of cooling 164, installation of distribution 168 and installation testing 170.

As set generation parameters 128 may use a computer device such as a server, web server, desktop computer, calculator, PDA, flash memory, and others. Install 128 generation parameters 128 may generate and provide the operating parameters of the installation clicks the processing of solid fuel 132 for processing the received or stored coal. The generation parameters setup 128 can provide calculation and storage of the operating parameters for the installation. In the implementation of the invention, the parameter generation installation 128 can use the data coming from two units, the data of the coal sample 120 and the desired characteristics 122 for generating operating parameters. In carrying out the invention, the data of the coal sample 120 and information required characteristics 122 may be accessible via LAN, WAN, R2R, CD, DVD, flash memory or similar device.

In carrying out the invention the coal to be processed by the installation of 132 may be identified by the operator of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In the implementation of the invention, the coal can be identified by type, number of single processes, the number of tests, the number of identifications or the like. Set generation parameters 128 may have access to the test information of coal stored in a data sample of coal 120 and data required characteristics of coal 122 to identify coal. In carrying out the invention set generation parameters that can find received or stored test data of coal from data 120 of the coal sample. In carrying out the invention set generation parameters 128 may find the required characteristics of the treated coal from the desired characteristics of the coal 122. In implementations of the invention may be IU the greater extent, one set of required characteristics of the processed coal for each received or stored test data of coal. If such sets may be more than one set of data to obtain test data of coal and the desired characteristics of the coal, set generation parameters can be used averaged data, the most recent data values, the first values of the data, the statistical value data or the like.

In carrying out the invention set generation parameters based on test information and the required characteristics of the treated coal can determine the initial parameters for running the operating parameters for the installation. Operating parameters can be used to obtain a set of parameters of various devices and equipment installation, processing of solid fuel 132 to obtain the desired characteristics of the coal. Setting generation options 128 defines the parameters that may include the conveyor speed, the volume of coal over a period of time, the microwave frequency, the microwave power, the surface temperature of the coal, the testimony of the main sensor, air flow, flow rate of inert gas, stamps of the incoming fuel, the brand delivered fuel, preheating temperature, the preheat time, the degree of chilled which I like. In carrying out the invention, all parameters that may be needed by the plant for processing of the required coal can be determined by setting the parameter generation.

In carrying out the invention the parameters of the microwave frequency can have multiple installations, which may include a single frequency, frequency phased array airborne early warning (that is, the transition from one frequency to another frequency), the frequency for a variety of microwave devices, continuous frequency, pulsing frequency, the pulsating frequency of the business cycle and the like.

In carrying out the invention the parameters of the microwave power can have multiple installations, which may include continuous power, pulse power, phased array airborne early warning capacity (for example, the transition from one power to the second), power for a variety of microwave devices and the like.

In carrying out the invention, depending on the type of coal and by-products, which are removed from the coal, the surface temperature of the coal can be adjustable. Set generation parameters 128 may determine the surface temperature of the coal, which can be controlled during the processing of coal. In carrying out the invention, different values of the surface temperature of the coal can be claimed at different times in the process of processing coal to remove by-products. For example the EP, one temperature may be necessary to remove moisture from coal, while the second temperature may be required to remove sulfur from coal. So setting generation options can determine the set of values of the surface temperature of the coal, the regulation of which must occur during the processing of coal. In carrying out the invention, various parameters of the surface temperature of the coal can be transferred to the installation of sensors that can be read range of temperatures up to 250°C. In the implementation of the invention, the coal may be heated to a certain value of the internal temperature and the surface temperature, because the heat by-products is due to the microwave energy microwave system 148.

Setting the reception coal 124 may receive coal, designed for handling solid fuel 132, from coal mine 102 or install storage 112, and installation of the storage 112 may be located at the same place as the setting processing of solid fuel 132, or installing storage 112 may be removed. Setting the reception coal 124 may include the installation of dust collection, installation determine the size of the coal and its brand, the input section, the transition section, section adaptation, and the like. In carrying out the invention the condition is the time of reception of coal can control the amount of coal, which goes to the conveyer unit 130 for processing. For example, setting the reception coal may be able to control the amount of coal passing through it, by closing or opening the hatch off speed of the input auger or similar action.

Coal can be fed to the installation of receiving coal 124 through a system of belt conveyor 300, trucks, front loader, rear loader and similar devices.

In carrying out the invention, the act of loading coal in the plant receiving coal 124 can lead to the formation of an inconsistent amount of carbon powder, which can be provided by setting powder collection. In carrying out the invention, the coal powder can be collected in containers and removed from the unit receiving coal.

Setting processing of solid fuel 132 can process coal more efficiently, if pipeline installation 130 receives the agreed size of the coal; the negotiated amount of coal can optimize microwave heating of coal. Setting the reception coal 124 can sort the incoming coal varieties, or magnitude in many of its dimensions. In implementations of the invention may be many conveyor systems for processing coal of various sizes. Coal can be sorted using the sorting grid, use what Finance doors with a different weight for areas of coal to another conveyer unit or the like.

In carrying out the invention, the setting reception coal 124 can move the coal from the input source on the conveyer unit 130 using multiple sessions, which may include an input section, a transit section, section adaptation, and the like. In carrying out the invention, the input section may receive the raw coal inside the unit receiving coal; this section can be large enough when the buffer is full of coal to eliminate the overflow stream of coal or running out of coal. In carrying out the invention transit section can be a channel or pipeline to move coal from the input section to section adaptation; this section may be tapered, so that they are correctly linked differing sizes of the inlet section and adaptation. In carrying out the invention section adaptation can move the coal from the transit section on the conveyer unit 130; the output of this section may be the same as the output conveyor installation.

In carrying out the invention, if the coal is sorted by grade or size, the sections can be more than one input section, transit or section adaptation.

The control unit 134 can control many devices, systems and sensors setup processing of solid fuel 132. The control unit 134 can receive and give information on Attiki, controllers, device processing, and the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation control during the procedure to regulate the processing of coal, based on the inputs received from various sensors and devices. For example, the control unit may receive information from the humidity sensor and the weight sensor to determine how correctly removes the moisture from the coal; operating parameter can be adjusted on the basis of this information.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may modify the operating parameters of the installation, in order to regulate the processing of coal in the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention changes the operating parameters can be implemented in other devices, which may include controller 144 conveyor installation, the installation processing 160, container 162 installation, installation feedback 174, installation antipatharia 154 or the like.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may include a computer device such as a server, web server, desktop computer, calculator, PDA, flash memory, and others. In carrying out the invention, the control unit 134 can communicate with other devices and sensors using LAN, WAN, R2R, CD, DVD, flash memory or similar device. In Rea is Itachi of the invention, the installation management may use an algorithm to determine the operations of the exchange operating parameters with the installation processing of solid fuel 132.

Installation 154 antifoggant can be a source of gases to prevent ignition of coal during the process. Because in order to remove by-products require heating of coal, coal processing can be heated to a temperature close to the temperature of ignition. For primary prevention of ignition of coal in its processing can be used inert gases, which create an inert gas atmosphere inside the chamber of the processing of coal. Inert gases include nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, krypton, xenon and radon. Nitrogen and argon can be the best common inert gases used as non-flammable atmospheric gas.

Inert gases can be supplied for the installation of 154 antipatharia through pipelines, automobiles, trucks, gas installations on site or similar methods. In carrying out the invention, if applied system of the vehicle tank, gas can be obtained by using car tank inside the plant storage tanks or vehicle can leave the trailer with the tank to use it as temporary storage of gas.

In carrying out the invention the inert gas from the installation of antipatharia 154 may be used in combination with atmospheric air or can be a single of the atmosphere is feroy in-camera processing of coal.

When the supply installation antipatharia 154 nitrogen, the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may be used at the place of installation 152, producing nitrogen, nitrogen generator, required for camera processing of coal. In the implementation of the invention, the nitrogen can be obtained by using a commercial installation process of absorption pressure (PSA). Installation sizes, producing gas, must be properly selected so that the gas generation occurred in the required amount of nitrogen for the handling of solid fuels 132.

Power network 180 may be a power electrical network connected to national grid, which can be used for power supply installation processing of solid fuel 132; requirements to the power supply installation processing of solid fuel 132 may include microwave system 148. The power network can be taken from the power grid, which is external to the installation, or can be taken from the interior of the power grid, if the plant is a plant for the production of electricity.

Install high voltage input 182 can provide it's own power network incrementally, providing your own power network voltage levels required by the installation processing of solid fuel 132. Install transfer input high n the voltage can get the power supply 180 very high voltage, necessary steps to reduce, using the installation 182. In carrying out the invention the installation of the transmission input high voltage 182 may include the required components and devices for step-by-step of providing a power voltage own power network voltage levels for setup processing of solid fuel 132. Install transfer input high voltage can be fed by a transmission line inside the unit, treatment of the solid fuel 132 for connection setup processing of solid fuel 132 to the power network 180.

Conveyor installation 130 can transport the coal through the system involved in processing coal to remove by-products; transportation of coal may be a continuous flow of coal. Conveyor installation 130 may receive the coal from the receiving device installation 124, transporting coal, at least one processing procedure and to supply the processed coal for the installation of cooling 164. In carrying out the invention a conveyor installation 130 may include the installation of transportation, such as the pipeline, many buckets of coal conveyors or other enclosing devices move coal, at least one procedure of the processing of coal. Installation transportation can be made of material which is used for keeping the value the deposits in the temperature of the treated coal, such as metal, high-temperature plastic or the like.

Conveyor installation 130 can contain many plants and systems, which may include the installation of preheating 138, control system parameters 140, a system of sensors 142, the removal system 150, the controller 144, microwave/radio system 148, and the like. All these separate installations and systems can be coordinated to handle coal during processing by use of the operating parameters, or set generation parameters, and/or control device 134. Conveyor installation 130 may be able to adjust the operating parameters during the machining process; regulation of operating parameters can be performed manually by an operator who manages the process, or automatically, in real-time using the controller 144.

In carrying out the invention a conveyor installation 130 may be placed in close proximity to transport and install; quality of accommodation may be considered Luggage. In carrying out the invention, the camera may contain funds that are involved in the processing of coal, gas equipment cameras, sensors, removal of by-products 150, containers, coal powder and the like. The camera can provide all input and output p is ocedure processing of coal, such as the gas flow into the environment, destruction of by-products, the removal of carbon powder, loading coal, coal shipments and the like.

In carrying out the invention, the installation transportation can have different speeds specified operating parameters. For example, the installation transportation can move at a slow speed, if you just loaded a large amount of coal or if it is low-grade coal (such as peat), which contains a large percentage of by-products. Installation transportation can move slowly, in order to provide more time for the microwave generators. Installation transportation can move with constant speed or may have a variable speed in various States of the process. For example, the installation transportation can move slowly near a microwave generators, but quickly between the microwave generators. Coal can be located on the installation transportation so that there was a space between the pieces of coal that can facilitate the movement of coal by the installation transportation coordinated through the stages of the procedure of processing of coal. For example, coal can be located at the same distance as microwave generators, which can lead to the fact that during the por which process coal may be located under each microwave generator.

In carrying out the invention the movement and speed of installation, transportation can be coordinated with the operation of the microwave generators. Depending on microwave generators installation transportation may have a higher or lower speed.

In carrying out the invention, the working installation transportation can be controlled operating parameters defined by the setting of 128 generation parameters, and tracking or fixed operating parameters of the control unit 134.

The controller 144 may be a computer device that can receive operating parameters from the installation of generation parameters 128 and a control unit 134 for processing coal. In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may include a computer device such as a server, web server, desktop computer, calculator, PDA, flash memory, and others. In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may communicate with other devices and sensors using LAN, WAN, R2R, CD, DVD, flash memory or similar device. In carrying out the invention the position of the controller 144 that communicates with the processing chamber coal, it does not matter; the controller can be installed at the inlet, outlet and elsewhere along the camera processing of coal. If the controller 144 is controlled or managed by the operator is rum, the controller can be installed in a location that allows the operator to monitor critical areas of processing of coal or sensors processing of coal.

In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may issue operating parameters, at least for the installation of transportation, control of air flow, inert gas, microwave frequency, microwave power, temperature, pre-heating and the like.

In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may control the frequency of at least one microwave system 148. Microwave system 148 may be controlled to give a simple frequency or pulse frequency. If the conveyor 130 installation has more than one microwave system 148, the controller 144 may issue operating parameters on more than one microwave installation 148; at different frequencies can operate more than one microwave installation.

In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may control the power, at least one microwave system 148. Microwave system 148 may be controlled to give a simple power or pulsating power. If the conveyor 130 installation has more than one microwave system 148, the controller 144 may issue operating parameters on more than one microwave installation 148;different capacity can work more than one microwave installation.

In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may control the processes in the environment conveyer unit 130, which may include air flow, the flow of inert gas, the flow of hydrogen, positive pressure, negative pressure, vacuum levels, and the like. The air flow in the conveyor installation 130 may include provision of dry air, inert gases, hydrogen and pressure changes to control the removal of gases from coal. In carrying out the invention, the dry air can be used to reduce the moisture of the coal conveyor installation. In carrying out the invention, the inert gas may be used to prevent spontaneous combustion of coal at high temperature coal; inert gases can also be used to prevent other oxidation processes. In carrying out the invention during the process of removal of sulfur may be used hydrogen. In carrying out the invention the pressure in the conveyor unit can be used to remove by-products such as gases which are thus distinguished from coal.

In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may be commercially available control computing machine, or the controller for the conveyor system 130 can be made to order. In carrying out the invention the controller who may receive operational status feedback from the systems and devices of the conveyor system 130. Feedback may include installation of flow, the current changing parameters, the percentage of filled containers and the like. The feedback loop can be available on the controller 144 or any computer device associated with the controller 144.

In carrying out the invention, the controller may be occasional clipping control that can allow the operator to switch to manually change the operating parameters of at least one of processing of coal. Manually change the operating parameters can be considered as an extreme case or as full manual control of the processing of coal.

In implementations of the invention, the processing time (full program, according to which the coal may be subject to microwave exposure) is usually from 5 seconds to 45 minutes, depending on the size and configuration of the conveyor system 130, the availability of the microwave system 148 and volume of coal to be processed. For small volumes requires little processing time.

Installing a pre-heater 138 may heat the coal before it is heated from a microwave system 148. Preheating can be used to remove excessive moisture from the coal. Remove excessive excessive moisture may be performed to facilitate the work of microwave systems is 148, which when you remove the inner products removes moisture that can lead to absorption of microwave energy.

In the implementation of the invention, the coal may be preheated through heat radiation, infrared radiation, or other similar ways that may use electricity, gas, oil or the like.

In carrying out the invention installing a pre-heater 138 may be inside the unit 130 or may be external to precede the conveyor 130 installation.

In carrying out the invention the pre-heating can use the ambient air, which can be used as dry air while removing moisture. The ambient air may pass through the installation pre-heated to facilitate drying of the coal.

In carrying out the invention installing a pre-heater 138 may have an installation of collection, collecting remote moisture.

Microwave/radio system (microwave system 148 may throw electromagnetic microwave energy to coal conveyor installation 130 to remove by-products. By-products can be water moisture, sulfur, ash, metals, water, hydrogen, hydroxides and the like. By-products can be removed from coal by heating n the side products, using microwave energy to a temperature at which the by-products are removed from the coal. Removal can occur when the phase of the working substance changes from solid to liquid, from liquid to gas, solid to gas, or other volatile phases, which can cause a by-product that is removed from the coal.

In carrying out the invention, various products can be isolated from coal at different values of temperature; the values of the surface temperature of the coal may lie in the range from 70 to 250°C. In implementations of the invention, the moisture of the water can be removed at lower values, while the sulphur is removed at a temperature of from 130 to 240°C; ash can be removed in the temperature range between water and sulfur and may be removed with water and/or gray. In the implementation of the invention, the coal may be heated to some internal values of the surface temperature, because the heat by-products is using the energy of the microwave system.

In the implementation of the invention, electromagnetic energy is microwave system 148 may be received by devices such as a magnetron, klystron, gyrotron, or the like. In carrying out the invention in a conveyor installation 130 may be at least one microwave system 148. In the implementation of izobreteny is in the conveyor installation 130 can be more than one microwave system 148.

In the conveyor installation 130, where there are more than one microwave system 148, the microwave system 148 may be in a parallel orientation, in a consistent orientation or in combination-parallel orientation with respect to the transport system.

The parallel orientation of the microwave system 148 may have more than one microwave system 148, mounted next to one or two sides of the conveyor system 130. In the implementation of the invention more than one microwave system 148 can be joined together and installed on both sides of the conveyor system 130. For example, in some place along the conveyor system 130 has N microwave systems 148 N/2 on each side of the conveyer unit 130. This configuration may allow you to make the most of the microwave power in some place conveyor system may allow you to work with more than one small microwave system to generate the required power, can afford to install in some place under the bias up or down microwave installation, it may be possible to set the pulse mode of microwave installations may allow continuous operation of the microwave installations, it may be possible to install a combination of continuous or pulsed mode, the sludge is like. In the implementation of the invention more than one microwave system 148 may be controlled independently or as a single device.

For qualified specialist in this field when it becomes evident that to obtain the necessary parameters for the processing of coal parallel to the microwave system 148 may be controlled by providing microwave energy in terms of the number of microwave installations, frequencies, combinations of plants or combinations of frequencies.

Microwave system consistent orientation 148 can have more than one microwave system 148 that are installed along the length of the conveyor system 130. In carrying out the invention, each set of individual microwave system 148 may be considered as a station or part of the process the overall process of processing of coal. In carrying out the invention there may be more than one microwave system or one group of microwave systems 148 may be no more than one location on the belt conveyer unit 130. Between successively installed microwave systems 148 has a length, which means that between successively installed microwave installations 148 can be performed other procedures. The sequence of the microwave systems 148 may allow different microwave cha is total to be applied in various places, different microwave power to be applied in different locations, different microwave work cycles (pulsed or continuous) to be applied in different places, or things.

In carrying out the invention the distance between the microwave systems 148 may allow you to have prior training other processes, such as removal of by-products, refrigeration, coal, placement of by-products for the removal process is complete, processing of coal, weighing coal, recognition remote products or the like.

In the implementation of the invention more than one consecutive microwave system 148 may have one redundant microwave system or group that may be able to repeat if necessary private process. For example, one microwave station can exert its power to remove moisture water from coal, followed by weighing of coal at the facility weighing to determine the moisture of water. Depending on the weight of coal can be determined that water moisture still remains in the coal, and redundant microwave system 148 may be the next place for re-application of power to remove any remaining moisture of water. In carrying out the invention a redundant microwave system 148 may or may not be used BU the painful process of coal. In carrying out the invention a redundant microwave installation 148 may repeat the same process, which was intended for the microwave system 148, or may be used for different processes, not intended for the microwave system 148.

In another example, the sensors moisture water can determine that water moisture is still derived from coal and coal can be applied to the second redundant processing. In the implementation of the invention, the control device may determine whether the repetition of the microwave process.

In carrying out the invention of the microwave system 148 can operate in pulsed or continuous modes of operation. For regulation of microwave energy applied to the coal, the output microwave energy may be pulsating, by adjusting the time interval of operation at a constant frequency. In carrying out the invention a microwave power source may be at least 15 kW at a frequency of 928 MHz or below, and in another implementation of the invention can be at least 75 kW at a frequency of 902 MHz or higher.

In carrying out the invention a lower frequency microwave energy can penetrate into the coal deeper than higher frequencies. Microwave system 148 generates the output frequency in the range between 100 MHz and 20 GHz. Other frequencies or mi is Romanova energy can be used in accordance with implementations of the invention.

As discussed earlier, the microwave system 148 may be installed in the form of coordinated cascades. For example, coal conveyor installation 130 may be located at intervals corresponding to the distance between the microwave systems 148, allowing the coal during processing of coal to be placed under each microwave generator. In carrying out the invention it may be an advantage in the processing of coal, which consists in changing the speed of the conveyor at each station microwave system 148 for processing coal. In carrying out the invention it may be a single processing method on a continuous conveyor 130 installation.

In implementations of the invention, the processing time (full program, according to which coal can be subjected to microwave exposure) usually lies in the interval from 5 seconds to 45 minutes, depending on the size and configuration of the conveyor system 130, the availability of the microwave system 148 and the amount of processed coal. For small volumes requires little processing time.

In carrying out the invention, at 100% efficiency, 1kW electromagnetic energy can evaporate 3,05 pounds of water per hour at ambient temperature. When properly specified electromagnetic radiation systems 98% of this energy can be absorbed is converted into heat. For example, 1 kW of applied electromagnetic energy requires approximately 1.15 kW of electricity and evaporated 2,989 pounds of water; removal of 160 pounds of moisture may be required for 61.6 kW of electricity.

Setting control parameters 140 may receive information from sensors and send it in the form of feedback to the controller 144. In carrying out the invention, the installation control settings 140 may include a computer device such as a server, web server, desktop computer, calculator, PDA, flash memory, and others. In carrying out the invention, the installation control settings 140 may communicate with other devices and sensors using LAN, WAN, R2R, CD, DVD, flash memory or the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation control settings 140 may have an interface for receiving signals from various sensors installed in the processing of solid fuel 132. The interface may be capable of receiving from sensors either of the two signals, either analog or digital. For analog signal interface installation management parameters 140 may use the Converter analog to digital (ADC) for converting analog signal into digital data for storage.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control settings 140 may have an interface with sensors, which is s can be part of the conveyor system 130 as measuring air flow, the conveyor speed, temperature, microwave power, microwave frequency, the levels of inert gas, humidity levels, the levels of ash, sulfur levels or the like. The measured temperature can have two values of the temperature of the coal, i.e. during the processing of coal and the temperature in the chamber; the temperature in the chamber may be an indication of whether there is a camera to fire.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control settings 140 may include an external storage device such as RAM, CD, DVD, flash memory or the like, which can store data of the read sensor. Setting control parameters 140 may store the sensor information, to transmit the real-time feedback to the controller 144 to store the information of the sensor and to transmit the real-time feedback to the controller or to use another method of storing/feedback. In carrying out the invention a control device parameters 140 may collect read sensor data and transmit the stored feedback data to the controller 144. The collected data of the read sensors can be used for delivery to the controller 144 past the average values of the readings of the read sensors, time to read gauges, histograms of the values of the read sensor after the long time, real time readings of the sensors, and the like.

In carrying out the invention the sensor data collected by the installation control settings 140, can be viewed on the installation control settings 140 or any computer device associated with the installation of the control parameters 144.

The sensors 142 conveyor system 130 can issue a data processing coal for the installation of control parameters 140 and the controller 144. Sensor data processing coal may include water vapor, ash, sulfur, microwave power, microwave frequency, the surface temperature of the coal, the weight of the coal, microwave radiation, the measured values of the air flow, the temperature of the conveyor systems and the like. In implementations of the invention, sensors can be analog or digital measuring devices.

In carrying out the invention the water vapor conveyor system 130 can be measured by a moisture analyzer. The moisture analyzer can be set relative to the microwave system 148 for measuring water vapor, are removed from the coal during processing. In carrying out the invention the processing of coal can be a continuous procedure until the measured level of water vapor reaches a predefined level. The level of water vapor can be measured as prezentujemy, at the scale of one millionth of one billionth, or other dimensions of steam.

In carrying out the invention the measurement of both parameters ash and sulfur can be executed signature level analyzer. Here can be a chemical separation of the signature analyzer level for ash and sulfur. In carrying out the invention the processing of coal may be continuous until such time as the measured levels of ash and sulfur reaches a predetermined level.

In the implementation of the invention, the power and the frequency of the microwave system 148 can be measured as the current level to be compared with the established levels.

In carrying out the invention the surface temperature of the coal can be measured by sensors, such as infrared sensors or thermometers. Temperature sensors can be set depending on the processing of coal to measure the surface temperature of the coal within the coal processing and after it: the process of coal can be one of two, the heated coal or cooling. In carrying out the invention the processing of coal may be continuous up until the measured surface temperature of the coal reaches a predetermined level. In the implementation of the invention, the coal may be heated from the inside and superficial, since heating by-products is performed with POM is using microwave energy microwave installation 148.

In carrying out the invention the weight of the coal can be measured using commercially available scales. The weight of the coal can be used to determine the by-products removed from the coal. In the implementation of the invention, the coal can be measured before and after the installation process to determine the weight lost coal. The difference is the weight of the coal can be an indicator of the percentage of by-products, which can be removed from coal. In the implementation of the invention, the weighing of coal can occur in real time, as the coal passes through the weighing in the balance.

In implementations of the invention of the microwave radiation from the conveyor system 130 may be measured, for example, an indicator of security. Sensor microwave radiation can be standard available sensor. In implementations of the invention may be provided with a safe environment, because microwave radiation beyond a predetermined level cannot be measured away from the conveyor system 130.

In carrying out the invention the current value of the air flow conveyor system 130 can be measured for comparison with the required air flow. Air flow can be measured from the point of view of its speed, direction, pressure, vacuum and the like.

In the implementation of the image is the shadow chamber temperature conveyor system 130 may be measured by the standard temperature sensors. For the processing chamber coal chamber temperature can be measured from the point of view of detection of signs of safety. The removal system 150 may remove by-products from the conveyor system 130, that is, those products that were removed from the treated coal. By-products can be removed from coal as a gas or as a liquid. The removal system 150 may remove gases with air movement towards the pipeline, where the gases can be collected and processed. The system 150 may use positive or negative pressure to remove gases from the conveyor system 130. System positive pressure may drive the gases in the area of their collection, while a negative pressure can push gases from the area of collection. The removal system 150 may collect liquid at the bottom of the conveyor system 130 catchment area.

In carrying out the invention, some by-products can be collected in turn, the gas and liquid (e.g. water). In carrying out the invention, once the water vapor is removed from the coal, a certain amount of water vapor can be captured by the gas removal system. Depending on the number and extent of water vapor removed from coal, water vapor may condense as liquid water on the walls of the conveyor system 130.

In carrying out the invention, condensate the water on the walls can be reduced airflow inside the area of fluid collection.

In carrying out the invention, depending on the temperature of the coal sulfur can act like the water moisture that is removed as a gas or as a liquid. In carrying out the invention, the ash may be removed either with humidity water or gray.

In carrying out the invention the installation of gas collection can assemble a simple type of gas or can collect a lot of gases that are removed from the treated coal. Depending on the location within the conveyor system and the temperature of the coal processing, coal can be removed, at least one gas. Depending on the temperature of the coal, gases removed in some place conveyor system can be gases of various types. For example, where the temperature of the coal lies in the interval between 70 and 100°C, the gases can be mainly water vapor, and where the temperature of the coal lies in the range between 160 and 240°C, the gases can be mainly pairs of sulfur.

In carrying out the invention the installation of the collection fluid can collect simple standard liquid or can collect a lot of liquids that are removed from the treated coal. Depending on the location within the conveyor system and the temperature of the coal processing, coal can be removed, at least one liquid. Container installation 162 can receive by-products in the form of gas and liquid, are removed from the envelopes is jerney installation 130 removal system 150. Deleted by-products include water, sulfur, coal powder, ash, hydrogen, hydroxides and the like. In carrying out the invention the container installation 162 may be sealed reservoir for the liquid, removed from the conveyor system 130 for storage; it can be a lot of tight reservoirs. In implementations of the invention can be of various sealed tanks that are placed in various locations conveyor system 130 for collecting liquids.

In carrying out the invention the container installation 162 may be sealed tanks for collection of gases that are removed from the conveyor system 130; there may be many tight gas reservoirs. In the implementation of the invention, pressurized gas reservoir may contain more than one type of gas, depending on what was removed gas from pipeline installation. In implementations of the invention can be of various sealed tanks that are placed in various locations conveyor system 130 for collecting gases.

In carrying out the invention the container unit can also include a screen for shielding microwave energy in a conveyor installation 130.

Setting processing 160 may receive gas and liquid from the conveyer unit 162 for separation of gases and liquids to separate gases and liquids for sale./p>

In carrying out the invention the by-products can be separated using the process, which may include the deposition process, occulation, centrifugation, filtration, distillation, chromatography, electrophoresis, extraction, liquid extraction, precipitation, fractional freezing, sieving, winnowing, or the like.

In carrying out the invention, after gases and liquids will be separated, gases and liquids can be placed in individual containers or tanks.

Install export 158 may receive separately the resulting gases and liquids from the processing device 160 for export. In carrying out the invention the removal of gases and liquids may include removing them as waste, sale of gases or liquids to other businesses, the destruction of harmless gases (e.g. water vapor), or the like. In the implementation of the invention by other companies can be companies that can directly be used separately derived gases or liquids, or can be a company which may in the future be cleaned gases or fluids for sale.

Install export 158 may be connected with the installation transportation separately derived gases and liquids by rail, truck, pipeline or similar.

Installing 158 may include storing eat the spines, who can afford to temporarily store gases or liquids until you reach the amount of real commercial shipment. In carrying out the invention the capacity of temporary storage can be local or can be placed at a distance.

Install cooling 164 can be placed after the conveyor system 130 and may emit a regulated air composition to control the cooling process of coal. In carrying out the invention, the installation of cooling can be embedded in the conveyer unit 130 or may be separated at the outlet conveyor systems; figure 1 shows a cooling plant as a separate installation.

In carrying out the invention, the installation of cooling 164 may control the degree of cooling of the coal and to regulate the composition of the air to prevent re-absorption of moisture, because the coal is cooled after processing. In carrying out the invention, the installation of cooling 164 may have an installation of transportation, which may consist of a conveyor system 300, many individual containers or similar equipment, surrounded by an enclosed space, which can create a cooling chamber.

In carrying out the invention the process of controlled cooling may include a serial cooling to ambient temperature, natural ohlord the treatment in a regulated air composition, cooling with forced feeding an inert gas or the like. In carrying out the invention, the transportation system may be able to adjust the speed to maintain its own level of cooling. In implementations of the invention can be installed in the system sensor to control gases, the temperature of the coal, belt speed, and the like. Sensor data can be received by controller installation cooling 164 or may be used by controller 144 of the conveyor 130, the controller can ensure that the issuance of the operating parameters of installed cooling 164.

In carrying out the invention a controlled atmosphere may be dry air or inert gas.

Installing the distribution of coal 168 can move completely cooled coal removed from the conveyor system 130. In carrying out the invention the installation of the distribution of coal 168 may include a system of transportation, installation, collection carbon powder, an input section, a transit section, section adaptation, and the like. In carrying out the invention the installation of distribution can finally put the processed coal silos, rail cars, storage location, directly on the installation process or the like. In carrying out the invention the installation of the distribution of the output can finally put treatments is p coal in the bunkers, cars, local warehouses, directly on the installation process or the like.

In carrying out the invention, the input section may receive the processed coal from the cooling plant and the size of the receiving section can be set such that the reception section is corresponded to the transport system installation cooling 164, and the output section corresponded to the transit section.

In carrying out the invention transit section may be a channel, directing the processed coal in section adaptation; transit section may contain the transport system.

In carrying out the invention the size of the section of the adapter can be configured to align with the transit section, and the required form for approval by the placement of the output (for example, machine, warehouse, delivery directly to the installation).

In carrying out the invention the installation of distribution 168 may serve at least one place. In carrying out the invention in one conveyer unit 130 can be more than one distribution 168 to feed more than one place of the output.

Installation testing 170 can sample final treated coal and perform an inspection of the coal sample to determine how characteristics of the treated coal comply with the required characteristics is eristical 122. In carrying out the invention the installation testing may be local or remotely located from the installation 132.

In carrying out the invention the standard test can be performed in accordance with such standards as ASTM standard D388 (Classification of grades of Coal), ASTM Standards D 2013 (the Method of preparing coal samples for analysis), ASTM Standards D 3180 (Practical standard for the calculation of coal, analysis of coke on the basis of certain data in different databases), US Geological Survey Bulletin 1823 (Methods for sampling and inorganic analysis of coal) and the like. Standard tests can provide characteristics of the coal, which may include the percentage of moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, BTU/lb, BTU/lb M-A Free education sulphur grinding characteristics (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting temperature of the ash mineral analysis of ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric properties and the like.

In carrying out the invention it may be periodically withdrawn samples of finished coal, it may be the first and last samples, this may be one sample, and the like. In implementations of the invention can be tested all samples was selected, and can be used statistics of all samples from the final treated coal with the addition of t is ists, based on the results of statistical samples. Informed in this technology, a person may be clear statistical sampling method of checking on various parameters, assuming the knowledge of how many samples are to be verified and could there be a return to the other samples according to the test result.

In carrying out the invention has been fully processed coal cannot be used until it will be passed the data validation test sample final processing of coal.

The output parameters of the coal 172 can be the storage location information for the classification 110 for final treated coal. The output parameters of the coal 172 can be represented in the form of a database, a relational database table, text file, XML file, RSS feed, uniform file or similar submission of information that can retain the characteristics of the final treated coal. Data can be stored on a computer device that may include a server, a web server, a desktop computer, a small computer, a laptop computer, PDA, flash memory or similar device. In carrying out the invention, the data characteristics of the final treated coal can be passed to set the output parameters 172 on paper hard copies, in electronic form, in the form of the AZ data or similar data presented. If the characteristics of the final treated coal are supplied in the form of hard copies, the characteristics can be entered into the appropriate format of the output characteristics of coal 172 or computer devices. In carrying out the invention finally treated coal characteristics can be sent by e-mail, FTP, connected to the Internet, WAN, LAN, P2P or similar methods of installation test 170. Output parameters 172 can be accessed through a network, which may include the Internet.

Installation testing 170 may represent characteristics of the coal, which may include the percentage of moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, BTU/lb, BTU/lb M-A Free education sulphur grinding characteristics (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting temperature of the ash mineral analysis of ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric properties and the like.

In implementations of the invention may be at least one registered data stored in the output parameters 172 for each final treated coal. There may be more than one registered data when it finally processed coal became the object of a selective or periodic checks during the processing of coal. In carrying out the invention each test, the wire is ' on the finally processed coal, may have characteristics of coal stored in the output parameters of coal 172.

Installation feedback 174 may compare characteristics of the final treated coal desired characteristics 122 to determine how completely processed coal meets the tolerances required characteristics. As installation feedback may be a computer device that may include a server, a web server, a desktop computer, a small computer, a laptop computer, PDA, flash memory or the like.

In carrying out the invention the installation feedback 174 can maintain tolerances characteristics of the coal, which may be acceptable for final treated coal. Tolerances can be represented in the form of a database, a relational database table, text file, XML file, RSS feed, uniform file or similar submission of information that can retain the characteristics of the final treated coal. In carrying out the invention, the reverse link 174 may be connected to the network, which may include Internet, WAN, LAN, P2P, or the like. In carrying out the invention, the reverse link 174 may compare characteristics of the final treated coal desired characteristics 122 to determine the suitability of anatella processed coal.

In carrying out the invention, if the final treated coal does not meet the agreed tolerances, the control unit 134 may implement a change in operating parameters.

In carrying out the invention, if the final treated coal does not meet the agreed tolerances, can be prepared the report; the report can be obtained from any computing device connected to the network by setting the feedback.

Installation pricing/business (transaction) 178 may determine the final price final treated coal. Setting the transaction 178 may be a computer device that may include a server, a web server, a desktop computer, a small computer, a laptop computer, PDA, flash memory or similar device. In carrying out the invention the setting of the transaction 178 may be connected to the network, which may include Internet, WAN, LAN, P2P, or the like.

In carrying out the invention the installation of a transaction can access data in the cost of raw coal and operating costs of the installation 132 to determine the final cost of the treated coal. The cost of operation 132 may be obtained in the processing of coal; coal can be identified by type, number of single processes, the number of identifications or t the th similar. In carrying out the invention the operating costs of the installation 132 can be registered for the entire processing identification of coal. Operating expenses may include the cost of electricity used inert gas used coal, salaries of the staff, the cost of the tests and the like.

In carrying out the invention the trade report can be obtained from any computing device connected to the network by setting the feedback.

In the coal fuel installation 200, to produce heat and light, the burning of coal occurs at high temperature in the presence of oxygen. For ignition of coal it is necessary that he has been heated to a temperature below the temperature of combustion. The ignition temperature of the coal is determined by the content of fixed carbon. The ignition temperature is contained in the coal volatiles above the ignition temperature of the fixed carbon. Products of the gas in the combustion process can be thus distilled. When the burning starts, the heat produced by oxidation of fuel carbon, can, among other conditions, to maintain a high temperature sufficient to maintain combustion. Direct combustion of coal can be obtained, for example, in furnaces with a fixed layer 220 or fur is practical furnaces burning, plants burning pulverized coal 222, installations combustion fluidized bed coal 224 and the like.

System with a fixed layer 220 are used in small boiler plants burning coal for more than a century. They use lump downloadable coal, the size of the piece which is about 1-5 see the Coal is heated when it is loaded into the furnace, provided that moisture and volatile matter from coal removed. As the coal moves in the area of its ignition temperature of the coal layer is increased. There are many different types of fuel systems, including furnaces with static-iron grates, furnaces with lower fuel furnace with chain grate bars of the furnace with moving-iron grates and distribution system furnaces. Furnaces furnaces with chain and traveling grate bars have similar characteristics. Pieces of coal loaded on the chain or roaming the grate, while the air is directed through the grate and through the layer of loose coal. In a distribution furnace high-speed rotor throws the coal inside the furnace from the top moving grates, distributing the fuel is more or less evenly. Fire the ovens are characterized by flame temperature lying in the range between the 1200-1300°C, and large enough retention time.

Fuel system 220 with a fixed layer of relatively uneven, and thus, during the combustion process can be interrupted allocation of CO, NOxand volatile substances. Chemical fuel and temperature can change, mainly through the fuel grate. The allocation of SO2will depend on the sulfur content in the loaded coal. Residue may have a high carbon content (4-5%) due to relatively inefficient fuel and limited access of oxygen to the carbon contained in the coal.

Method for pulverized coal ("RCC") 222 represents the best of the most commonly used method of using coal for electricity generation 204. Before use, the coal is crushed (pulverized) to a fine powder. The powdered coal is blown part of the air to produce fuel within the boiler through a series of nozzles burning. Air can also be added for the second time or third time. Worker nodes are closed by the atmospheric pressure. The working temperature of the fuel is in the range 1300-1700°C and depends on the type of coal. For bituminous coal, the fuel temperature is in the range of 1500-1700°C. For low grade coal order temperature is 1300-1600°C. the particle Size of the coal used in the procedure raspy is to be placed, is of the order of 10-100 microns. The retention time of the particles is usually 1-5 seconds, and the size of the particles should be such that they are completely burned during this time. The steam generated by this procedure may be dried by the steam generator and turbine to produce power 204.

The powdered coal fuel combustion chamber 222 can be used together with parietal flame or tangential component of combustion. The results of the near-wall combustion climb the walls of the combustion chamber, while the tangential components of combustion rise in the corner, along with the flame, heading toward the center of the boiler, forming, thus, a swirling motion of the gases during combustion, resulting in air and fuel are mixed more efficiently. Boilers can end either with a wet bottom or dry bottom, depending on the dropdown at the bottom of the ash in the form of molten slag or dry solid component. Mainly RCC 222 produces a small, thin layer of ash. Usually RCC 222 can produce 65-85% fine ash with ash content in the form of coarse fractions (on a dry bottom boiler or boiler slag (wet bottom boilers).

Boilers that use as fuel intracity coal, can use the construction with the lower fuel supply, where the mixture of coal and air is sent down on the cone, lugasi the base of the boiler. This design leads to a prolonged retention time, which ensures more complete combustion of carbon. In another design provided by the cell is burning, contributing to the formation of two or three circular treatments burning, combined within a simple vertical installation, which produces a compact, intense flame. High flame temperature, the resulting combustion may be due to the formation of a larger number of NOxbut despite this, the use of such a design is less preferred.

Boiler fuel cyclone can be used for coal with a low melting point ash, which would be difficult to use with RCA 222. The cyclone furnace has a combustion chamber mounted in the side of the wedge holder of the boiler. The first stream of air carries the fuel in the form of fine particles of coal in the fuel chamber, while the second air stream tangentially pumps air into the cyclone, creating a solid funnel through which penetrate the larger particles of coal on the walls of the fuel chamber. The third stream of air is delivered directly into the Central funnel of the cyclone to control Central vacuum and location of the fuel inside the combustion chamber. Large particles of coal are captured in the hot layer, which covers the inner surface of the cyclone, which then are recirculated for more complete combustion. Small particles of combustion pass into the center of the funnel. This system facilitates intense heat buildup inside the fuel combustion chamber, and thus, the coal burns at extremely high temperatures. Fuel gases, residues amplepuis substances and fine ash pass into the combustion chamber of the boiler for a more complete combustion of the fuel. Hot ash falls due to its own weight to the bottom of the chamber for subsequent removal.

In the cyclone boiler 80-90% ash remains at the bottom of the boiler in the form of hot slag, and the lower part of the small ash is removed after passing through the hot section of the boiler. These boilers operate at high temperatures (from 1650 to 2000°C) and use a low atmospheric pressure. High temperature, resulting in the formation of large amount of NOxa great disadvantage of the use of a boiler of this type. Boiler cyclone combustion may use coal with some fundamental characteristics: volatile substances must be greater than 15% (dry basis), ash content should be in the range of 6-25% for bituminous coal or 4-25% for sub-bituminous coal, and the humidity should be less than 20% for bituminous coal and 30% for sub-bituminous coal. Ash should have a specific viscosity characteristics of the slag; ash slag formed during the process is, has a particularly large effect on the operation of this type of boilers. In the boiler of this type can burn fuel with high humidity, but you need to change the structure.

The powdered coal fuel 222 in the U.S. is used in subcritical and supercritical cycles of vaporization. Supercritical cycle of evaporation that occurs in the vicinity of the critical temperature (374°F) and critical pressure (22,1 MPa), where cease to exist gaseous and liquid phases of water. Subcritical systems typically achieve thermal efficiency 33-34%. Supercritical systems can achieve efficiency by 3-5% higher subcritical system.

The increased thermal efficiency of fuel coal reduces the cost of production of electricity, because you are using low-grade fuel. Increased thermal efficiency also reduces other allocation generated during the combustion of fuel, such as SO2and NOx. In other words, a small fuel plants that use combustible substances of low-grade coal can have a thermal efficiency of not less than 30%. For larger installations with subcritical boylernymi systems, where g is the creation of high quality coal, thermal efficiency can be 35-36%. Thermal efficiency in facilities using subcritical system of vaporization, can reach values of 43-45%. The maximum achieved by the efficiency with low sorting of coal and low brand coal may be lower than what could be achieved at a high sorting of coal and high brand coal. For example, the maximum value of the efficiencies expected in a new installation, the combustion of brown coal (available, for example, in Europe), may be about 42%, while the equivalent setup working on a new bituminous coal can reach approximately 45% of the maximum thermal efficiency. System supercritical units of vaporization using bituminous coal and other optimal structural materials, can produce a net thermal efficiency equal to 45-47%.

System fluidized bed ("FBC") 224 mixes the coal with the same sorbent, as limestone, and fluidizedbed mixed components during the combustion process, resulting in more complete combustion of the fuel and the output gases of sulfur. "Fluidization" creates a condition in which solid components are freely floating, like a fluid environment. As the gas passes up h is the cut layer of solid particles, the gas flow produces forces that tend to separate particles from one another. In the FBC system 224 coal burns hot nonflammable layer, because the coal particles suspended upward flow of the fluidized gas.

The FBC system 224 are used mainly with subcritical steam turbines. The FBC system 224, the atmospheric pressure can be bubbling or circulating. Sealed system FBC 224, presented at the early stages of development, used mainly boiling layers and could produce electricity in a combined cycle with gas and steam turbine. FBC 224 at atmospheric pressure can be used with a high content of coal ash and/or coal with varying characteristics. As for the coarse particles of coal, they can be used with a size approximately equal to 3 mm Fuel is loaded at a temperature of between 800-900°C, mainly below the threshold for formation of NOxbecause these systems operate at low values of emissions of NOxcompared to systems PCC 222.

Boiling layers have low fluidizers performance, so they are retained in the layer at a depth of about 1 mm, with identifiable surface. As particles of coal cease to burn and become small, they eventually released together with gases Lu the I remote distance, as well as fly ash. Circulating layers will use the highest fluidizers speed, because these coal particles suspended in the flue gases pass through the main fuel chamber to the cyclone. Particles of large size are extracted from the gases and again get stuck inside the combustion chamber. Individual particles can dwell between 10-50 periods, depending on their fuel characteristics. Fuel conditions are relatively uniform throughout the combustion chamber, and it has a large number of mixed particles. Even though the particulate coal is distributed throughout the installation, the density of the layer in the lower part of the furnace requires the mixing of fuel in the combustion process. For the layer of burning bituminous coal carbon content in the layer is approximately 1% with the remainder forming the ash and other minerals.

Circulating FBC system 224 can be designed for a specific type of coal. These systems are especially applicable to low-grade coal with high ash content, which is difficult to definitively spray and which may be variable fuel characteristics. Such systems are also used for burning coal with other fuels, such as biomass or industrial waste. Once the plant is built, it will work with a higher coefficient of gender is EIT actions intended for her fuel. There are various options for its use. Thermal efficiency is usually, to some degree, less than the equivalent systems of RCC. When using low-grade coal with variable characteristics of low thermal efficiency could be even lower.

Installing FBC 224 in a sealed system can be used for working with low-grade coal and, as a consequence, with variable fuel characteristics. In a sealed system of fuel Luggage and all cyclone gases together with coal and enter the sorbent is placed under pressure in a container, inside the system through the boundary pressure, and across the border pressure derived ash. When the coal plant works, coal and limestone can be mixed in the system with 25% water, like pasta. The system can work under pressure of 1-1,5 MPa, the fuel temperature in the range of between 800-900°C. the Fuel heats the steam, like the corresponding boiler, and can also produce hot gas for controlling a gas turbine. Sealed units are designed to have a thermal efficiency of not less than 40%, with lower emissions. Future sealed power production systems can be improved so that they could have thermal coefficients is efficiency more than 50%.

Some bituminous coals themselves have properties that can be used for smelting iron and steel without prior formation of coke. Their feature for this application depends on certain qualities of coal, including melting, and a combination of other factors, including a high content of fixed carbon, low ash content (<5%), low sulphur content and low content of calcite (CaCO3). Coal, having the quality required for use in metallurgy, may cost 15-50% more than coal to produce heat.

Gasification 230 involves the conversion of coal into fuel gas, volatile substances, bupivacaine substances and residual minerals (ash/slag). The gas supply system 230 converts the hydrocarbon fuel type coal gas components by applying heat under pressure, usually in the presence of steam. Devices that perform this process, called gasifiers. Gasification 230 differs from the combustion of fuel, because it passes with limited access of air or active oxygen. Thus, only a small portion of the fuel burns completely. The fuel that burns, promotes the formation of heat for the rest of the gasification process 230. Instead of burning a large part of the raw carbon (coal, for example) enters himicheskuju react with many other substances, forming aggregate "synthetic gas". Synthetic gas is primarily hydrogen, adeolis carbon and other gaseous constituents. Components of the synthetic gas AC, however, they are based on the supply of installation and used the gasification conditions.

Mineral residues in raw materials for the industry is not gasified, like carbon materials. Mineral residues can be separated and removed. Contaminated sulfur in coal can form sulfuric hydrogen from which can be obtained sulfur or sulfuric oxide. Because the gasification takes place in conditions with recovery, NOxusually not formed and instead formed ammonia. If during gasification 230 instead of the air is oxygen, the concentration of the gas stream is carbon dioxide, which can be isolated or which may be adopted preventive measures in order not to pollute the atmosphere. Gasification 230 may be able to use coal, which might be difficult to use in a fuel plants due to the presence of high sulfur and high ash content. Ash, typical for coal used in gasification, is detrimental to the efficiency of the process, because they both cause damage, contributing to the formation of slag and is giving difficulty placing solid fuel inside the cooling systems of synthetic gas or heat exchange units. At low temperatures, such as formed in the fixed layer and gas-fluidized layer, the formation of the resin may cause problems.

There are three types of gasification systems: a fixed layer, a fluidized bed and a portable flow. Installation fixed layer, as an exception, used for electricity production, use lump charcoal. Fluidized bed size used coal is 3-6 mm Installation portable flow using pulverised coal. Install portable threads are running at a higher temperature (approximately 1600°C), than install fluidized bed (about 900°C). Gasifiers can operate at atmospheric pressure or can be sealed. When sealing the gasification of the coal feedstock can be introduced through the barrier pressure. To accommodate coal can be used in the system bulky and expensive closing of the hopper, or the coal can be loaded as a slurry with a water base. Removal through the barrier pressure streams of by-products must be depressurized. For production of synthetic gas heat exchange and gas purification should also be internally sealed.

System complete gasification combined cycle (IGCC) 232 that implement the processes of gasification is used to produce electricity. In the IGCC system 232 syngas produced during gasification is purified from contaminants (sulfur, hydrogen, ammonia, granular substances and the like) and burns, driving a gas turbine. In the IGCC system 232 gases from the gasification installation is in the form of heat exchange with water to generate sverhierarha steam, which drives a steam turbine. As in the IGCC system 232 uses a combination of the two turbines (fuel gas turbine and steam turbine), this system is called "combined cycle". Usually most of the power (60-70%) in this system comes from the gas turbine. The IGCC system 232 generate electricity with a higher energy conversion efficiency than fuel coal system.

Synthetic gas 234 can be converted into many other products. For example, components such as adeolis carbon and hydrogen, can be used to produce a wide range of liquid or gaseous fuels or chemicals, using conventional procedures, practiced in this process. Another example is produced during the gasification of hydrogen, which can be used as fuel for fuel cells or potentially for hydrogen turbines or hybrid fuel systems, including that the cast elements and hydrogen turbine. Hydrogen, which is separated from the gas stream, can also be used as raw material for the cleaning industry that uses hydrogen for production of oil products deeper processing.

Synthetic gas 234 can also be converted into various hydrocarbons, which can be used as fuel or for further processing. Synthetic gas 234 may be condensed in light hydrocarbons, used, for example, in the catalysts of the Fischer-Tropsch process. Light hydrocarbons can then be converted into gasoline or diesel fuel. Synthetic gas 234 can also be converted to methanol, which can be used as fuel or fuel additives or serve as the basis for the production of gasoline.

Cox 238 is a solid carbon residue obtained from coal from which the volatile components removed by baking them in the oven at a high temperature (higher than 1000°C). At this temperature the fixed carbon and residual ash are melted together. Industrial raw material for the formation of coke is usually a bituminous coal with low ash and sulfur. Coke can be used as fuel during, for example, the smelting of iron in blast furnaces. During such processes the coke can also be used as the reduction of Avicenna additive. When converting coal into coke can also be side products such as coal tar, ammonia, light oil and coal gas. Because of the volatile components of coal for coke production 238 are removed, it is desirable that the coke used as fuel in furnaces where combustion conditions differ from the conditions of combustion of the coal. For example, coke as smokeless or emit a small amount of smoke fuel can burn in conditions when using bituminous coal can cause a large amount of discharge. It is desirable that the coal replied to some strict criteria, which include the moisture content, ash content, sulfur content, volatile solids, resin and plastic, before it can be used as coking coal.

Pure amorphous carbon 238 can be obtained by heating coal to a temperature approximately equal 650-980°C, with limited access of ambient air, resulting in cannot complete combustion of fuel. Amorphous carbon 238 is graphite, the allotropic form of carbon that consists of microscopic crystals of carbon. Thus obtained amorphous carbon 238 finds wide application in industry. For example, graphite can be used in electrochemical components, activated carbon use shall be for water and air purification, and black carbon can be used to reinforce tires of cars.

In implementations of the invention, the main process of coke production 238 can be used for the production of hydrocarbon 240 containing mixed gas, which can be used as fuel ("city gas"). City gas may contain, for example, about 51% hydrogen, 15% odnoosnogo carbon, 21% methane, 10% carbon dioxide and nitrogen and about 3% of other alkanes. For the production of methane used for other processes, such as process Lurgi and synthesis Sabatier, allowing the use of coal of low quality.

Liquefaction converts coal into products 240 carbon fluid, which can be used as fuel. The process of coal liquefaction can be direct or indirect. Any process that converts coal into hydrocarbon fuel 240 may add a hydrogen to hydrocarbon contained in the coal. There are four ways liquefaction: (1) pyrolysis and hydrocarbonate, where the coal is heated in the absence of air or in the presence of hydrogen; (2) removing the solvent, where the hydrocarbons of coal selectively removed from the coal mass and added hydrogen; (3) catalysis of liquefaction, where the catalyst performs the hydrogenation of carbon coal; and (4) indirect liquefaction, where odnookonny carbon and hydrogen are combined in Pris the accordance of the catalyst. As an example, the processes of Fischer-Tropsch represent the catalysis of a chemical reaction in which odnookonny carbon and hydrogen are converted into various forms of liquid hydrocarbons 240. Substances formed as a result of this process, include synthetic oil used as a replacement for oil or fuel.

In another example, the low temperature carbonization can be used for the production of coal liquids 240. In this process, coking coal 238 occurs at a temperature between 450 and 700°C (compare with temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000°C for metallurgical coke). These temperatures optimize the production of coal tar, more rich in light hydrocarbons 240 than conventional coal tar. Then the coal tar will be converted into fuel.

Coal produces various by-products of coal 242, including hydrocarbons, ash, sulfur, carbon dioxide, water, or the like. Subsequent processing of these by-products can be brought to an end with the economic benefits.

Volatile substances are such products, with the exception of moisture during heating may enter the gas or vapor. For coal, the percentage of volatile matter is determined when it is first heated to a temperature of 105°C, at which moisture is removed, then the heating of the coal to 950°C and metering the Institute of residual weight. Volatile substances may include mixed short and long chain hydrocarbons plus other gases, including sulfur. Volatile substance, therefore, may consist of mixed gases, organic compounds having low boiling points, which are condensed by cooling in oil and resin. The content of volatile matter in the coal increases with decreasing grades of coal. In addition, coals with high content of volatile substances have a high reactivity during combustion and are easily ignited.

Coal ash, a common product of coal combustion, consists of fly ash (waste that is received from smokestacks) and bottom ash (boiler and fuel cells). Coarse particles (ash and/or boiler slag), Academie at the bottom of the combustion chamber, and the fine fraction (fly ash) pass through the chimney, restored and reused. The concentration of coal ash can contain many trace elements and heavy metals, including Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn. Thus obtained ash after combustion of coal can be used as an additive to cement products, such as replacing the soil at the excavation in civil engineering projects, as the ground of high quality and as a component of other products, including paints, plastics, coatings and adhesives.

Sulfur in coal can be selected which when burned as a sulfur oxide or can be obtained in the coal ash due to the reaction with the basic oxides, contained in the impurity minerals (a process known as self-preservation sulfur). The greatest significance of the basic oxide for self-preservation sulfur CaO has formed in the decomposition of CaCO3and combustion of calcium containing organic group. Burning coal is the execution of two sequential steps: the removal of volatiles and combustion opplevelse fuel. During the removal of the volatiles combustion of sulfur is converted to SO2. During the combustion opplevelse fuel at the same time the process of education SO2, sulfitation and decomposition CaSO4.

Destructive components distillation 244 coal are coal tar and coal gas in the appendices to metallurgical coke. The use of metallurgical coke and coal gas were discussed earlier as transformation products of coal. Coal tar, a third by-product, has numerous examples of commercial purposes.

Coal tar is a mixed compound of hydrocarbon substances. Most of these volatile components, with the smell of hydrocarbons of different composition, derived from the simplest of volatile substances (gasoline) and converted into a non-volatile substance with a complex structure and high molecular weight. Hydrocarbons in coal tar widely represented petrol is tonew, naphthalene basis, or anthracene basis, or phenantrene. There may be different amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons, paraffins or olefins. In addition, coal tar contains a small number of simple phenols, such as carbolic acid, kumaran. Can be also found components, sulfur and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. A large part of the nitrogen compounds in coal tar based on the properties and conformance to the family of pyridine and quinoline, for example aniline.

Coal tar can be fractional distilled 244 order to obtain the amount of useful organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, xylan, naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene. Such substances may have the title of crude coal tar. They form the basis for the synthesis of a number of products, such as dyes, medicines, spices, perfumes, synthetic rubber, paints, condoms and explosives. After fractional distillation of crude coal tar residues of resin are removed. This substance can be used for the manufacture of roofing, paving of streets, as an insulating and waterproof material.

Coal tar can also be used in its original state without the application of fractional distillation 244. Before it can be used, the resin may be the ü heated to some extent for outlet of volatile substances. Coal tar in its original state can be used as a paint-like material, resistant to weathering, or as a protective coating against corrosion. Coal tar can also be used as a roofing material. Coal tar can be burned as fuel, although in this case there are harmful gases. During combustion of coal-tar produce large quantities of soot, called lampblack. If soot to collect, it can be used for the production of carbon for electrochemical industry, printers, dye, etc.

The usual fuel coal units 200 and other plants that use coal, is the storage of coal in a remote location. For installations producing electricity 204 coal should be kept to 10% or more of annual needs. However, excessive quantities of coal can lead to difficulties associated with spontaneous ignition, loss of volatile materials, and the loss of calorific value. Intracity coal may pose less risk than other brands of coal. Anthracite, for example, may not be subject to spontaneous combustion, and therefore can be stored in unlimited quantities for coal batteries. On the contrary, bituminous coal can spontaneously ignite if it is located in a very large bat is each and can be quite disintegrated.

In stored coal there are two types of changes. Inorganic materials, such as pyrite can be oxidized, and organic materials in the coal can be oxidized. When inorganic materials are oxidized, the volume and/or weight of coal can be increased and the coal can disintegrants. If oxidized coal itself a substance that changes cannot be evaluated immediately. Oxidation of organic material in the coal involves the oxidation of carbon and hydrogen, the absorption of oxygen unsaturated compounds hydrocarbons and leads to changes that may cause loss of calorific value of coal. These changes can cause spontaneous combustion.

In implementations of the invention, the coal can be transported from its place of production to place of use. Before it is transported, the coal can be cleaned, sorted and/or broken to the desired size. In some cases, installation of electricity production can be placed in side or inside of the mine, which produces coal for installation. For these installations, the coal can be fed by a conveyor or similar means. However, in most cases, installation of electricity production or other plants that use coal, placed at some distance. The main method of transporting coal from mines to UD is certain installations is the railroad. Can also be used barges and other watercraft. Feasible transportation on highways by trucks, but it can be inefficient in cost, especially over a distance of fifty miles. Suspended powdered coal slurry coal is transported by pipelines.

In the implementation of the invention, the processing parameters of solid fuel for continuous processing of solid fuel, for a single process or other processes can be generated by setting generation options 128, based on the desired characteristics of the solid fuel and the processing capability setting processing of solid fuel 132. The data of the coal sample 120 can be taken for the initial characteristics of the solid fuel as input setup processing of solid fuels 128, and the required characteristics of coal 122 can provide the required final characteristics of the solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention the first step in determining the processing parameters of the solid fuel may be in determining the difference between the characteristics of raw, unprocessed solid fuels and required characteristics of the final treated solid fuel.

As described earlier, information solid fuel stored in the sample data 120 may, in locate such data, as the percentage of moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, BTU/lb, BTU/lb M-A Free education sulphur grinding characteristics (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting temperature of the ash mineral analysis of ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric properties and the like. Characteristics of the solid fuel can be attributed to such fuel, which is supplied with coal mine 102, with the installation of the storage 112, the installation processing of solid fuel or the like. In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 can check and identify the characteristics of solid fuel for storage in a data sample of coal and 120.

In carrying out the invention, as previously discussed, the required characteristics of coal 122 can store the final desired characteristics of solid fuel for delivery to the consumer for use at the location of the installation processing of solid fuel 132 or the like. For example, the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may be part of a big rig and can for her to make the final treated solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the desired properties of coal 132 may store the characteristics desired by the consumer, eating a solid fuel and a solid fuel can be made accessible from the th, the obtained solid fuel and the characteristics of the solid fuel can be obtained using the above obtained solid fuel or the like.

In the implementation of the invention, the processing parameters of the solid fuel can be generated by setting generation options 128, based on the final desired characteristics of the treated solid fuel. Finished the required characteristics of the solid fuel may be associated with the customer's requirements relating to combustion, further processing, storage, and resale or the like.

In the implementation of the invention, the processing parameters of the solid fuel can be generated based on the desired final characteristics of the solid fuel and capabilities of handling solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention set generation parameters 128, based on the requirements for the finally desired solid fuel, can search for and find the characteristics of the solid fuel characteristics 122 to finally processed the desired solid fuel. In carrying out the invention set generation parameters 128 may calculate the desirable characteristics for producing solid fuel is required to produce final treated solid fuel. After calc is of the installation of generation parameters 128 may search for data of a coal sample 120 to identify raw coal solid fuel, which can be processed by the installation processing of solid fuel 132 to produce finished the desired solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention the calculations performed by the installation 128 generation parameters may relate to the functional characteristics of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. Depending on the installation configuration processing of solid fuel 132, the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may have some opportunities for processing of solid fuels. For example, the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may be capable of removing a certain percentage of moisture from the solid fuel during one cycle of the processing of solid fuels. In determining the qualities of the raw solid fuel, to select from a coal sample data 120, set generation parameters 128 may consider the amount of moisture completely processed solid fuel and to calculate the amount of moisture that can be removed from unprocessed solid fuel to determine the initial moisture content in the characteristics of the solid fuel. For example, if you want to have a final moisture content of 5% moisture content and setting processing of solid fuel capable of removing 80% of the moisture of raw coal during one processing cycle, this means that the initial is s selected conditions can be selected from the group unprocessed solid fuels, with 25 percent moisture content. Conversely, the installation of generation parameters 128 may choose unprocessed solid fuels with the highest percentage of moisture content and to determine a set of cycles of processing, for best effectiveness or measure the cost-efficiency during processing. The face is familiar in this process, it can be understood that the installation processing of solid fuels can vary for different types of solid fuel and can also vary depending on other characteristics of the solid fuel during the operation of the above setup with solid fuel or the like.

In carrying out the invention the calculations performed by setting the parameter generation 128 may be conducted for each of the characteristics required of a solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the calculations performed on the set of required characteristics of the final solid fuel, can set the characteristics of the raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may attempt to match the set of parameters used in strict accordance with the criterion of the best match criterion based on some characteristics of the highest priority according the, in combination matching criteria, statistical criteria are met or the like.

In carrying out the invention in the process of matching set generation parameters 128 may find more than one raw solid fuel that meets the eligibility criteria. For example, the search data 120 coal sample can lead to finding more than one raw solid fuel, if you use the criterion of best fit. In carrying out the invention the best fit may require for the identification of the raw solid fuel, which meets at least the required parameters of the solid fuel, the best match may be from unprocessed solid fuel, which corresponds to the best settings. In carrying out the invention the best criteria may require the identification of the raw solid fuel, which meets at least some of the required parameters of the solid fuel, the best match may be from unprocessed solid fuel, which corresponds to the best settings. In carrying out the invention the set of result values of the procedure parameters compliance may include the listing of conformity of the raw solid fuel; firmly the fuel with the highest rate can be at the top, and the lowest rates may be at the bottom of the list. In the implementation of the invention, the indices of the list can be sorted according to the request of the consumer.

In the implementation of the invention, the list of the corresponding solid fuel can be presented to the operator of the installation processing of solid fuel 132 for the final selection of solid fuels on the basis of its use for the production of the desired final treated solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the operator may submit a list of matching the raw solid fuel; the list may contain a classification that indicates the raw solid fuel, which can be regarded as having the best fit. In carrying out the invention, where compliance for numerous characteristics, set generation parameters 128 may set the priority drop mode the most part, compliance settings. In carrying out the invention, where the matches are to numerous characteristics, set generation parameters 128 may calculate the aggregate compliance, representing the level of compliance among all characteristics. In carrying out the invention priority mode can be used to give more weight to certain characteristics of conformity with the plans and calculations of total conformity. In the implementation of the invention, the parameters for assessing the closest match can be selected by the user as a priority, aggregate, or can be used other measured compliance while maintaining the technical characteristics of the consumer.

In carrying out the invention, after the raw solid fuel is selected, set generation parameters 128 may generate a set of parameters for processing the selected raw solid fuel.

In another implementation of the invention set generation parameters 128 may calculate the parameters of the processing of solid fuels, based on available solid fuel and capabilities of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In implementations of the invention may be at least one available solid fuels installation processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention set generation parameters 128 may choose one of the available raw solid fuels, to determine the characteristics of the raw solid fuel on the basis of data 120 coal sample and to determine the final treated solid fuel that can be made with regard to the processing capability of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. Setting generation options 128 also can modelirovat the changes which can be in a raw solid fuel within one processing cycle and for many cycles of treatment. Considering the handling of solid fuels, installation of generation parameters 128 may simulate the results of the processing of the raw solid fuel, using several different sets of processing parameters, and, thus, can be selected processing mode, providing the greatest efficiency and a measure of cost-effectiveness.

In carrying out the invention one type of raw solid fuel can be used to produce more than one type of the final treated solid fuel. For example, the selected raw solid fuel may contain 30 percent moisture, and the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may be able to remove one-third to two-thirds of humidity in each processing cycle. Therefore, the installation processing of solid fuel may be able to produce final products of solid fuel with a moisture content of from 10 to 20 percent within one cycle. If the second cycle is also removed between one third and two thirds of moisture in the final product can be achieved, the moisture content in the range between 3.3 and 13.3 per cent. The second and subsequent cycles may not PR is to bombard the same efficient processing as in the first cycle, therefore, in these cycles cannot be provided the same percentage of moisture removal, as in the first cycle. It should be added that processing in one cycle can be more efficient and/or higher cost-effectiveness than with many cycles, or Vice versa. One cycle means that the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may be able to produce the final solid fuel with a moisture content between 10 and 20 percent. By using a number of cycles setting processing of solid fuel may be able to produce the final solid fuel with a moisture content between 3% and 13%. A consumer who wants to have the final solid fuel with a moisture content of 10 percent, has the ability to get the same result using different types of processing protocols that rely at least partially on the Economics of conducting loops, using different settings and different modes.

In carrying out the invention set generation parameters 128 may determine the final characteristics of solid fuel for all of the selected characteristics of unprocessed solid fuels, based on the capabilities of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. The face is familiar in this process, it is possible for the better the optimization of the special characteristics of the final solid fuel may entail processing parameters, which may not be ideal to optimize other characteristics. This suggests that there may be selected multiple processing cycles, each of them with different parameters, and thus can be optimized a lot of the features of the final solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention, when the setting processing of solid fuel 132 generates the operating parameters, set generation parameters 128 may consider the characteristics of the final solid fuel required for solid fuel, requested solid fuel, last produced by solid fuel or the like.

In carrying out the invention the operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132 can be determined from the final selected solid fuels.

In another implementation of the invention set generation parameters 128 may calculate the operational parameters for the handling of solid fuels 132 on the basis of previous solid fuel processed in the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention set generation parameters 128 may store past information for raw, previously obtained solid top is willow and processed solid fuel, which can be produced from unprocessed solid fuel. Using this process, when received a raw solid fuel, set generation parameters 128 may determine the processing characteristics of the solid fuel that can be produced from unprocessed solid fuel. In addition, the installation of generation parameters 128 may find a specific final treated solid fuel with the desired final processed fuel to calculate the operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132.

In carrying out the invention set generation parameters 128 may support previous data of the operating parameters for processing the previously received unprocessed solid fuels; past performance parameters can be used instead of the calculation of new parameters.

In carrying out the invention the operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132 can be calculated for a continuous process, one process or other processing of solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention, after setting generation options 128 will determine the operating parameters for processing of solid fuel, the operating parameters can be transmitted to the control unit 134, the controller 144, the installation of the Board parameters 140 or the like.

In carrying out the invention the processing of solid fuels uses a continuous process, one-off processes, a combination of continuous and one-off process or the like, which can be controlled using a feedback loop between the control unit 134, the controller 144, the sensor processing 142 or the like.

As discussed previously, the installation of generation parameters 128 may calculate the processing parameters of the solid fuel that can be used in different systems installation processing of solid fuel 132 for processing of solid fuel, which must meet special characteristics. Special characteristics can be based on customer requirements, capabilities of the installation processing of solid fuel 132, available raw solid fuel or the like.

In the implementation of the invention for processing of solid fuel in the installation processing of solid fuel 132 installation management 134 can control the process by obtaining information from procedural sensors 142. In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may provide for the issuance of work teams on different systems (for example, the microwave system 148) for processing of solid fuels. In carrying out the invention procedural sensors 142 may evaluate RA the GTC handling unit solid fuel 132. The sensors 142 may measure the input and output parameters of various systems conveyor system 130, the by-products removed from the solid fuel during treatment, to measure immaterial indicators (e.g., moisture content) or the like.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may receive the settings for the processing of solid fuel from the installation of generation parameters 128. When managing the treatment of solid fuel installation management 134 may be applied to the region of permissible values of the parameters. In the implementation of the invention, the tolerance range can be based on system capabilities, the capabilities of the sensors, the minimum and maximum values of parameters required for a solid fuel, the priority measurement of solid fuel or the like.

In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may determine the region of permissible values that can be applied to the processing parameters of the solid fuel.

In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may receive the parameters of the solid fuel without areas of valid values. The controller may provide for the issuance of work teams, based on the parameters of the solid fuel without areas of valid values.

In the implementation of the invention, the management process is the feedback loop can be established between the control device 134, the controller 144, sensors process 142 for controlling continuous processes, and management of outside management data processing continuous processing of solid fuel, a single treatment of solid fuel or the like.

In the implementation of the invention, the feedback loop may begin with the installation of generation parameters 128, providing for the issuance of operating parameters on the installation control 134 and the controller 144. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may issue in the operating parameters parameter permissible values; parameter tolerances can be used to compare the results of the read sensor 142 with admissible results. In the implementation of the invention, the operating parameters may include parameters to control systems installation processing of solid fuel 132, measurement of by-products derived during the processing (e.g., moisture), and the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may use information sensor 142 measurement products to change settings in the system settings.

In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may start the processing of solid fuel by the transmission of operating parameters on system conveyor system 130, such as microwave system 148, the salvage system, system preheating 138, control system parameters 140, the removal system 150, and the like. In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may transmit the operating parameters on system processing of solid fuel without tolerances. Receiving operating parameters, system processing of solid fuels can start processing the solid fuel using a continuous process, a single process or the like.

In carrying out the invention, once the processing of solid fuels has begun, the sensors 142 may start to measure the output parameters of different operating systems for the processing of solid fuels. In carrying out the invention the output processing options may include dimensions such as microwave power, microwave frequency, the conveyor speed, temperatures, air flow, levels of inert gas and the like. In carrying out the invention the processing of the output parameters may include the remote measurement of by-products, such as remote moisture, remote ash, remote sulfur, as well as the surface temperature of solid fuel, temperature and the like. As previously discussed, the sensors 142 may be installed at various locations along the conveyor system 130 for measuring various output parameters processing of solid fuel.

In the realization of the purpose of the invention, the sensors 142 may provide a measurement output parameters of solid fuel, arriving at the installation control 134. Install control 134 may receive the measurement results of the sensor 142 in real-time during processing of solid fuels. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may compare the measurement sensor 142 with the range of allowable values of the operating parameters.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may include various algorithms for changing operating parameters on the basis of the obtained measurement sensor 142. The algorithms can determine the magnitude of changes in operating parameters if the measurement results of the sensor is outside the tolerance range. For example, measurement data of the sensor 142 may be either inside or above or below the tolerance range.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may build changes of operating parameters on the measurement sensor 142 real-time sample measurement sensor 142, the average value of a measurement sensor 142, the statistical significance of the measurement sensor 142 or the like.

In carrying out the invention changes the operating parameters can be implemented on the basis of measured sensor 142 by-products, such as remote moisture, remote ash, remote sulfur, as well as the values of the surface temperature of the solid fuel, the solid weight Topley is a and the like. In carrying out the invention the installation of a modification of the algorithm 134 can reliably associate the sensor measurements side components 142 with system parameters setup processing of solid fuel 132 for regulating sensor 142 reading of by-products. For example, to measure a by-product of the level of moisture in the environment, conveyor installation, you may need to increase or decrease the values of the parameters of the microwave system 148, such as power microwave installation, microwave frequency, the microwave duty cycle, the number of working microwave systems or the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation control algorithm 134 may join the system reads the sensor interacting with the reading sensor 142 to determine the extent to which changes are required parameters in the system. For example, the read sensor 142 power level for the microwave system 148 may be combined with a level sensor moisture on the area of the microwave system 148. As a result, the modified parameters of the microwave system 148 may be such as assessment of the current level of capacity installed in the microwave system 148, and evaluation of environmental humidity. In this example, installed in the microwave system 148 power can be higher than the measured values, comparable with tropoelastin parameter, but read the humidity may be lower than the humidity values comparable to the required level. In this case, the setting value of the power can be increased to remove moisture from the solid fuel, even if the installed capacity of the microwave system is always below the required setting values.

In the implementation of the invention, the measurement sensor products 142 may be associated with more than one system of handling solid fuel 132. In implementations of the invention may be many sensors 142 measurement of by-products associated with the system. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may determine how best to change operating parameter (s) system to compensate for the measurement of sensor products, the readings of which are outside the permissible range parameter. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may pre-determine the adjustment of the sensor 142 may be positioned base adjustable parameters, you may use a neural network to control the parameters based on the previous regulation, and the regulation can be performed by human intervention, or the like. In carrying out the invention a secure installation of the operating system settings can be entered into the system, which cannot twerkn the th or which requires administrator intervention, to reject.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may support previous work regulation parameters established during processing of solid fuels. Install control 134 may send to the parameters of the previous regulation, defining them in the following parameter regulation. For example, the power of the microwave system 148 may be pre-adjusted to the high content of moisture to be removed from the solid fuel. When we determined the amount of power of the microwave system 148, the regulation was based on the new value of the read sensor 142, and installation of control 132 may send the previous parameter regulation for determining the value of the next parameter regulation. For example, the last parameter regulation can show that the latter regulation microwave system 148 to the increased moisture content of 5 percent is removed by two percent. This information can be used to regulate power microwave system 148 to obtain the desired changes to remove moisture from the solid fuel. In carrying out the invention on the basis of a sequence of measurements of past regulatory parameters can be obtained calibration curve, and, thus, to obtain the desired result, this maintains the existence of the parameter can be performed more accurately in response to some of the results of the read sensor 142.

In carrying out the invention, as soon as the installation management 134 made the adjustment of the operating parameters of the solid fuel, adjusted parameters can be passed to the controller 144 for transmission to various systems installation processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention adjusted parameters can be passed in real time, with some time intervals, continuously, or in a similar manner.

In carrying out the invention, once the controller 144 receives the adjusted parameters, the controller may transmit the adjusted settings on different systems in real time, with some time intervals, continuously, or in a similar manner.

Similarly, the installation control 134, the controller 144 and the sensor 142 feedback loop can continuously issue the operating parameters on system setup processing of solid fuel 132, be obtained using sensors 142 information about the components and by-products, to transmit the measurement results to the control unit 134, adjusting operating parameters, and to transmit the adjusted operational parameters to the controller, and the like.

In carrying out the invention, for processing of solid fuel, a continuous feedback loop can be covered by the operational parameters for nepreryvnog the process, a single process or the like.

In the implementation of the invention for the conveyor system 130 can be controlled operating parameters generated by the installation of generating 128 and modified installation control 134. As mentioned earlier, the operating parameters can be controlled and regulated by the installation control 134 and the controller 144 may transmit the operating parameters on system conveyor system 130.

In carrying out the invention a conveyor installation of solid fuel may include systems such as a belt conveyor, microwave systems, sensors, data acquisition, installation, pre-heating installation, cooling and the like. In carrying out the invention a conveyor installation 130 may be continuously manufacturing plant, once the manufacturing, installation or the like.

In carrying out the invention the treatment of solid fuel to produce a final treated solid fuel that meets the desired characteristics can be controlled systems conveyor system 130 using the operating parameters selected for the production of solid fuel with the desired characteristics. The face is familiar in this process, it can be understood that the desired characteristics of the final treated solid fuel can be obtained from the houtem control more than one system conveyor system 130. For example, the moisture is removed from the solid fuel during processing, can be controlled by adjusting the power of the microwave system 148, the frequency of the microwave system 148, the working cycle of the microwave system 148, the temperature of pre-heating values of the speed of the conveyor, the composition of the atmosphere (e.g. air or inert gas) or similar parameters used individually or in combination. The system parameters conveyer unit 130 can be influenced by other requirements, such as obtaining solid fuel per unit of time, the initial characteristics of the raw solid fuel, the final characteristics of the processed fuel or the like.

In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may store operational parameters for systems conveyor systems 130 and can pass parameters on the system conveyor system 130. In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may convert the operational parameters in the system commands that are interpreted and executed systems conveyor system 130.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may be used to measure operations systems conveyor systems 130 and for information concerning the handling of solid fuels. In implementations of the invention, the sensors 142 may measure information is, coming directly from the systems conveyor system 130, such as a microwave system, or information environment, which may arise from the processing of solid fuel, such as selected from solid fuel moisture. In implementations of the invention, the environmental condition may include the moisture level, the level of ash, sulfur level, air temperature, surface temperature of the solid fuel, the level of inert gases, the cooling or the like. In implementations of the invention may be many sensors 142 to measure the same environmental health within the conveyor system 130, and to provide redundancy or to perform measurements in different locations, to support the processing sequence, use either of the two sensors. For example, there may be multiple sensors 142 for measuring the moisture of the solid fuel, measured by the humidity sensor 142 placed in the microwave system 148, followed by installation of the microwave system 148, and the like. In addition, there may be sensors of water to measure the amount of liquid water, which is collected by the installation of the collection in the conveyor installation 130. In implementations of the invention can be multiple sensors for each type of measurements made inside the unit 10.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may record information on the various components and by-products, and to transfer this information to install the control 134. As mentioned earlier, the installation management may use the received sensor information to perform settings of the regulation of solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may transmit the adjusted parameters of the solid fuel on the controller to change the processing of solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention the processing of solid fuel can be continuously measured by the procedure for achieving the characteristics of the final treated solid fuel. Therefore, the processing of solid fuel may be continuously adjustable in response to any change in the characteristics of the raw solid fuel. For example, feature solid fuel, such as moisture content, may vary outside of time processing the raw fuel. In this example, the moisture content begins with an initial run level processing of solid fuels and changes in one direction or another during the time of processing. In carrying out the invention any of the measured characteristics of the solid fuel may change with the arrival of a firm is opleve. When using sensors 142 within the conveyor system 130, while the solid fuel is processed, the operating parameters can be adjusted to obtain a compatible set of characteristics over the full time of treatment of the solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the working parameters of the conveyor system 130 can be adjusted to obtain the set of characteristics in the final treated solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention, once the solid fuel is processed, the parameters that may be adjusted may include microwave energy, the temperature, the levels of the inert gas, the speed of the air flow, the speed of conveyor systems and the like. In carrying out the invention the working parameters of the conveyor system 130 can be controlled and adjusted individually, groups of connected groups (for example, the speed and power of microwave energy) and in a similar manner.

In carrying out the invention a method of controlling and regulating the operating parameters can be applied to a continuous process for one-off process or other methods of processing of solid fuels. In a single processing characteristics of the raw solid fuel may vary from one process processing the TCA to another and may require different operating parameters for the production of coherent processed solid fuel at the end of the process.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 conveyor installation of solid fuel 130 can measure emitted from solid fuel products in the processing of solid fuel, can measure the operating parameters of the systems conveyor system 130 or the like. After that, the sensors 142 may transmit measurement information to the controller 144 may transmit measurement information to the installation control 134 may transmit measurement information on installation pricing/business may transmit measurement information to the control parameter 140 or the like. In carrying out the invention a conveyor installation 130 can process the solid fuel in a continuous process, a single process or the like, and sensors 142 can register information processing solid fuel from these processes.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may measure the system parameters conveyor system 130, which may include the conveyor speed, the power of the microwave system 148, the frequency of the microwave system 148, the duty cycle of the microwave system 148, the temperature, the flow of inert gas, air flow, air pressure, the pressure of the inert gas, the levels of the deleted products, stored in tanks, heating, cooling and the like. It should be added that Attiki 142 can also be measured outside the parameters or the parameters of the information environment, which may include remote water vapor, remote pairs of sulfur, the collected volume of water collected amount of sulfur, the collected amount of ash, the weight of the solid fuel, the temperature of the surface of the solid fuel, the temperature of the preheating, the temperature of the cooling and the like. In implementations of the invention may be at least one sensor 142 for each system the conveyor system. For example, the microwave system 148 may have one or more sensors 142 for measuring the input power, frequency, power output, and the like. In carrying out the invention there may be more than one sensor 142 for measuring side options. For example, there may be one or more level sensors moisture 142 for measuring the selected moisture from all solid fuel which has passed through conveyer unit 130. It may be that the moisture sensor 142 in the microwave system 148 installation is installed immediately after the microwave system installation 148 or the like. Can also be more than one microwave system installation 148, which may also have more than one moisture sensor 142.

In the implementation of the invention using the installation processing of solid fuel sensors 132 and 142 may be able to measure the consumption of resources, such as power consumption, used is an inert gas, used gas, used oil, or the like. In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may be able to measure the products produced by the installation processing of solid fuel 132, such as water, sulfur, ash, or other products separated from the solid fuel during treatment.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may transmit measurement information to the controller 144, the installation control 134, installation pricing/business 178 or the like. In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may transmit selectively, for example, do not send the entire installation information processing solid fuel 132 all installations recipient of this information.

In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may receive sensor information 142 from the various systems conveyor system 130. The controller can be responsible for maintaining the state of the operating parameters of various systems conveyor system 130. For example, the controller may be responsible for maintaining the speed of the conveyor in a continuous processing of solid fuels. The sensors 142 may provide information about the speed of the conveyor to the controller 144, which can set the controller mode to maintain the setting of the desired speed. For example, when the number of solid fuel is added or reduced from the conveyor is installed 130, may require different power levels to maintain a constant speed conveyor and the controller 144 may adjust the power required to maintain constant speed of the conveyor.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may receive information sensor 142, which allows you to control operating parameters for the processing of the raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may receive the system information of the sensor 142, which may include the frequency of the microwave system 148, the power of the microwave system 148, the duty cycle of the microwave system 148, the conveyor speed, the levels of the inert gas and the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may receive information sensor 142 of the side products, which may include remote sulfur, remote ash, surface temperature of solid fuel, temperature and the like.

As mentioned earlier, the installation control 134 may combine sensor 142 information for the two components and by-products used in the algorithms achieve and/or maintain the required operating parameters of the processing of solid fuels for the production of the desired final treated solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the installation management 134 can the t to obtain a set of basic operating parameters from the installation of generation parameters 128. Installation management 134 can then adjust basic settings, based on receiving information from the sensor 142. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may transmit the adjusted operating parameters on the controller 144 to control the installation processing of solid fuel 130.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business can obtain information sensor 142, related to the magnitude of the cost/profit finally treated solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the information relating to the cost/profit, can include, or can be costing to produce finished fuel costs such as the cost of inert gases, the amount of collected neverthelesse products, the volume of the final treated solid fuel or the like.

In carrying out the invention the sensor data associated with the cost, can be used include the power used by the inert gas, the input fuel and the like. In implementations of the invention may be sensors 142, which measure the power consumption of each system installation processing of solid fuel 132. In the implementation of the invention, power consumption may include electricity, gas, oil or the like. In implementing the tion of the invention, power consumption can be volume of inert gas, water or the like.

In carrying out the invention the sensor data associated with profit, may include the volume of water collected, the amount collected sulfur, the amount of collected ash, the volume of the final treated solid fuel or the like.

In carrying out the invention the installation 178 pricing/business can obtain information sensor 142 in real time, in ascending time order, on request or similar. In carrying out the invention, the information request may be requested from the installation 178 pricing/business from sensors 142 or the like.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may use algorithms to determine the volume of the finished fuel that uses information, which may include the initial cost of a unit volume of the raw solid fuel, the cost per unit volume of the solid fuel handling unit 132, obtained by setting processing of solid fuel 132 materials, making a profit (e.g., water, sulfur or ash), the power consumption of the processing of solid fuel 132 per unit volume, and the like.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may provide information to the cost/profit, which may include the volume of the resulting solid fuel, energy, trebuia is for pre-heating the energy required for the pipeline, the volume of inert gas, the energy required for the microwave system 148, the energy required for cooling of the solid fuel, the bulk of the solid fuel, the collected water collected sulfur collected ash or the like.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may have access to cost, recalculated per unit of electricity, gas, oil, solid fuel and the like. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may have access to the market value of selected products, such as water, sulfur, ash, solid fuel or the like.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 using the information on the cost of production, the cost and market value, you may be able to determine the cost of final treated solid fuel, the cost is removed from the solid fuel products and the like. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can calculate in real time the market price of the final treated solid fuel and such parameters as the amount of the loss, the average price at the end of processing of solid fuels in ascending or the like.

For example, setting pricing/BIZ the ECA 178 may receive initial data the cost of the raw solid fuel from the data 120 of the coal sample. Installation 124 input sensors can give a measure of the amount of solid fuel loaded into the conveyer unit 130 for processing. Sensors conveyer unit 130 can generate information about the energy consumption required for pre-heating solid fuel, transportation of solid fuel, the rate of inert gas injected into the conveyer unit 130, the energy cost for microwave systems 148, energy costs for cooling systems 164, the amount of final treated solid fuel obtained from the installation processing of solid fuels, and the like. In carrying out the invention the installation of costing/business 178 may weigh against such measurement with the unit production cost for each cost element for the development of the model the value of the processed solid fuel. In the implementation of the invention, the cost model may include increasing add up the costs of individual systems involved in the processing of solid fuels, with the initial cost of the raw solid fuel to calculate the cost of finished solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention are obtained when calculating the value of the final treated solid fuel can be compared with a market value of solid fuel to create the s-efficiency model for handling solid fuel 132.

In addition, setting pricing/business 178 may receive information about the volume of products collected by the setting processing of solid fuel 132, which may have market products, such as water, sulfur, ash, other selected products or the like. This information can be used to calculate the market value per unit of various selected products solid fuel to produce a model of profit allocated for solid fuel products.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can calculate the cost model, the model of profit, efficiency models and other financial models for handling solid fuel 132.

In carrying out the invention of the microwave system 148 conveyor system 130 may be one of a number of processing systems included in the installation processing of solid fuel 132 acting on the solid fuel to remove unwanted products. Microwave system 148 may be used in the singular, in combination with many microwave systems 148, in combination with other processes to remove unwanted products or similar.

In carrying out the invention of the microwave generated by the microwave systems 148 may be used to heat regulatel the different products of solid fuel to a temperature which can cause undesirable selection of products from solid fuels. In carrying out the invention the undesirable products of solid fuel can be water moisture, sulfur, ash, or the like. In carrying out the invention, as soon as the microwave energy is applied to a solid fuel, junk foods can be heated to a temperature which may cause the selection of undesirable products, such as gas, liquid, the combination of gas and liquid or the like from solid fuels. For example, water can be removed as a gas, as soon as the water contained in the solid fuel reaches a temperature conversion of water into steam. But depending on the temperature of sulfur, sulfur can be removed as a gas or as a liquid. In carrying out the invention, once the sulfur is heated, first sulfur is removed as a liquid and then gas. In implementations of the invention may be advantages in a two-stage allocation unwanted products to ensure full allocation of unwanted products from solid fuels.

In carrying out the invention there may be more than one microwave system 148 to remove unwanted products of solid fuel. In carrying out the invention there may be more than one microwave system 148 within the conveyor system 130. More than one microwave system 148 which may ask for solid fuels with different control parameter, such as frequency, power, duty cycle, or the like. In carrying out the invention the various controlled parameters of the microwave system 148 may be aimed at removing some unwanted products from solid fuels. It should be added that the applied energy of the microwave systems 148 may be aimed at some ways to remove unwanted products, such as converting unwanted products into gas, liquid or the like.

In carrying out the invention of the microwave system 148 may include more than one microwave device, each of which can be controlled independently, groups or similar.

In carrying out the invention of the microwave system 148 may operate independently; therefore, for each of the independent microwave devices can be specified performance parameters. For example, the microwave system 148 may have more than one microwave device, and each independent of the microwave device can be controlled parameters such as power, frequency, duty cycle or the like. In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 and installation of control 134 may manage each of the independent microwave devices.

In carrying out the invention independent controlled microwave devices can improve different is functions to effectively remove unwanted products from solid fuels. For example, the first microwave device can operate at a certain frequency with a constant installed capacity, while the second microwave device can operate at different frequencies, using the duty cycle, where the installed capacity can vary over time. The combination of these two working microwave devices can be designed to remove specific unwanted products using special phase state of matter (e.g., gas or liquid).

In carrying out the invention of the microwave system 148 may include a number of microwave devices that operate in the group; consequently, there can be one set of operating parameters for the whole group, regardless of the number of microwave devices that can be in the group of microwave systems 148. For example, the grouping of a number of microwave devices and ensuring all microwave devices with the same frequency and a given power can be a way of solving the problem of supply of high microwave energy to solid fuel, using a small microwave devices, equivalent to one large microwave device. Use a small microwave devices may cause configuration of microwave devices, for effective removal of unwanted products is tov. In carrying out the invention the operation of the microwave system 148 may be changed from the established mode of independent work of a microwave device in the mode group of the microwave device, by transmitting the operating parameters of the operation. For example, the microwave system 148 may operate as an independent microwave device, when the independent parameters were given for each and microwave devices, microwave system 148 may work as a group a microwave device, when the operating parameters of one group were transferred to the microwave device. In carrying out the invention of the microwave system 148 may operate as an independent microwave device, group a microwave device or the like.

In carrying out the invention the microwave system 148 may be placed along the conveyor system 130 for handling the Association of microwave systems that can produce the desired finished fuel. For example, along the conveyor system 130 may be installed on more than one microwave system 148 to remove moisture water from the solid fuel. The first microwave system 148 may be directed to the removal of a certain amount of moisture from solid fuel; a second microwave system MoE to be installed at a distance from the first microwave system 148 for additional moisture from the solid fuel. Added microwave system 148 may be installed along the conveyor system 130 to further reduce the moisture content, because the solid fuel moves along the conveyor system 130. In carrying out the invention the undesirable product of solid fuel may be removed at increasing mode by processing solid fuels many microwave systems 148 along the conveyor system 130. In carrying out the invention between the microwave systems 148 may be a length that allows to delete unwanted product; the distance can be defined as the period of time between processing steps. In carrying out the invention the microwave system can be installed closed together. It may be clear that such processes can be applied to the removal of other undesirable products of solid fuel either independently, or in combination with other undesirable products of solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention the energy from the microwave systems 148 may be applied individually on the conveyor system 130, the first conveyer unit 130, the processing of solid fuel, and at least more than one conveyor installation, manufacturing of solid fuels in the future. In carrying out the invention, each conveyor installation 130 can handle TV is rdoe fuel and then to ensure their products additional conveyor system 130 before as will be reached the final characteristics of the processing of coal.

In carrying out the invention the installation of a single fuel treatment can provide ascending remove unwanted products from solid fuels. In the implementation of the invention to install a single handle solid fuel may be at least one microwave installation 148, which can be controlled by variables operating parameters. For example, the microwave system 148 may work with the first output frequency and duty cycle at the first stage of processing and different power, frequency and duty cycle of the second stage of processing. In carrying out the invention it may be the time period between stages in order to create conditions for complete removal of unwanted products in the first stage of processing prior to the onset of the second stage of processing. In carrying out the invention the period of time between processing steps may not be, and continuous processing can be applied to one treated solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the installation of a single fuel treatment initiates a process of solid fuel with such many processing steps that need to produce final treated solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention, as previously discussed, micro. levie system 148 can be controlled by a feedback loop, which may include sensors 142, installation management 134, the controller 144, and the like. In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may be installed along the conveyor system 130 or placed inside the unit once the processing for measuring the efficiency of the microwave system 148 deleting unwanted products of solid fuel. Sensors can be installed in the microwave system 148 or after the microwave system 148 for measuring gas remote unwanted products for remote measurement of liquid unwanted products or the like.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may transmit the read data processing of solid fuel installation management 134 from many local sensors. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may be designed to read data of each sensor 142 process. Since the read sensor 142 receives data from sensors 142, installation management 134 may compare the received data of the read sensor 142 with data aimed sensors to determine how popular the further processing of the solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, based on receiving the read values of the sensors 142, installation management 134 may transmit the adjusted working settings in system conveyor system 130. In the implementation of the control setting control 134 may associate each sensor 142 within a conveyor system with an operating system of the conveyor system 130. In carrying out the invention, each of the read sensor 142 may show weight, because it can be involved in system management. For example, the first sensor 142 placed in the same place that one of the microwave systems 148 may show a greater weight than the second sensor placed at some distance from the microwave system 148 in the direction of motion. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may maintain a table weight specifies the weight that could be obtained by the reading sensor 142.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may store the previous value of the read sensor 142, which may allow the installation of 134 to monitor the instantaneous values of the read sensor 142, the average values of the read sensor, the statistical values of the read sensor that reads the sensors deviation of the read sensors of changes in the quality or the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may use any means of tracking sensors to determine whether regulation of the desired system parameter.

In implementations of the invention can be used is to feed different reading sensors 142 to control various parameters of the systems conveyor system 130. For example, the first sensor 142 may be used to control and regulate the frequency of the microwave system and the second sensor 142 may be used to control and regulate power microwave system 148. In carrying out the invention the majority of the sensors 142, which may be associated with the microwave system 148 may be used to control a separate microwave devices inside the microwave system 148. For example, if inside the microwave system 148 includes four microwave device, for regulating the four microwave devices individually can be used multiple sensors associated with the microwave system 148. It should be added that any of the microwave systems 148, located along the conveyor system 130 may be the same management either individually or in a group.

It can be understood that any of the systems conveyor systems can be operated in the same mode.

In the implementation of the invention for the conveyor system 130 may receive from the installation of control 134 is adjusted parameters based on the characteristics of the finished fuel. In carrying out the invention, after the solid fuel is handled entirely in the setting processing of solid fuel 132, installation testing 170 which may test samples of the final treated solid fuel to determine the final characteristics of the solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the installation test 170 may be part of the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may be external installation testing in relation to the installation of test 132 or the like.

In carrying out the invention, the installation test 170 may check the solid fuel on the percentage of moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, BTU/lb, BTU/lb M-A Free education sulphur grinding characteristics (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting temperature of the ash mineral analysis of ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric properties and the like. In carrying out the invention these final characteristics of the solid fuel can be stored in the output parameters of coal 172, where they can be applicable for the desired characteristics of the coal 122, to set the feedback 174, to install control 134 and the like.

In carrying out the invention the final characteristics of the solid fuel can be determined, although in the setting processing of solid fuel use the same cycle. In carrying out the invention, despite the fact that the solid fuel is still processed, a subset of the characteristics of the final treated solid fuel is considered valid. This subset of features can be defined on the remote t is shirouma installation 170, which may allow feedback to ensure data setup control 134 in real time.

In carrying out the invention the output parameters of the coal 172 can transmit information testing installation control 134, installation management can obtain information testing of the output parameters of coal 172 or the like.

In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may use the information received testing of solid fuels as adding to the input data, which can be considered when adjusting the operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention the installation of generating operating parameters 128 may have access to information, testing, stored in the output characteristics of coal, 172, through the required characteristics of coal 122 and, therefore, may use previous test data in generating the initial operating parameters. In carrying out the invention set generation parameters 128 may pass the last test information on the installation control 134. In carrying out the invention last passed test information may reflect the final summary, statistical information, information about the sample, the deviation information, the test information in comparison with the operating parameters or the like.

In the implementation of the image is etenia installation control 134 may compare that information testing taken from the installation of generation parameters 128, with the new test information taken from the output parameters of coal 172, to determine how the new test information may be associated with past information. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may store the new test information as supplemented test. In carrying out the invention a new test information may be stored in the installation control 134 for the period until the loop in the installation processing of solid fuel 132 for processing the raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the stored test information may be the last information for the stream of unprocessed solid fuel cycle processing. In the implementation of the invention, the stored information may reflect these deviations, statistical data, sample data, or similar data cycle flow of solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, as soon as the test information received, the stored information can be stored together with the operating parameters. In carrying out the invention, the installation management can analyze the similarity of the operating parameters at the time when the test information was obtained for the parameters of the variance, compared with the end of the test information.

In carrying out the invention, once the new dough is traveler information obtained by installation management 134, data can be compared with previous test data can be compared with the stored test data, or the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may use test data of the comparison as an indicator when adjusting the operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention, the test information may be used as a direct indicator for the parameter regulation as an indirect indicator for the parameter regulation (e.g., multiplier), as a combination of direct and indirect parameters, or the like.

In the implementation of the invention, the test data can affect the regulation of the operating parameters by issuing instructions installation control 134 for the compatibility of the operating parameters used for the processing of solid fuel, the desired final solid fuel. For example, the sensors 142 conveyor system 130 can show that from the solid fuel during treatment removed the desired amount of moisture, but the test information can provide data characteristics that specifies a different percentage of moisture that can be retained in the solid fuel, in relation to that, which was calculated using data obtained from sensors 142 conveyor system 130. In the implementation of izopet the of the test information can be used to adjust operating parameters and can check the processing of solid fuel, to enter the changes into the final characteristics of the test information.

In carrying out the invention, the test data can be used by setting the control 134 to perform the control parameter table, the weights for regulating factors in the algorithms used to adjust the operating parameters to determine how much added systems conveyor systems need so that they can be used in the treatment of solid fuel (for example, operating the microwave system), to determine how much can be claimed additional processing cycles of solid fuel (for example, repeated execution of the processing operations), or the like.

In carrying out the invention the by-products removed during processing of the solid fuel can be collected by the setting processing of solid fuel 132. In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may measure such selected products from solid fuels, such as gas, liquid or the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 and the controller 144 may be associated with sensors 142 to control the selected remote products. In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142, installation management 134, the controller 144 or similar device may transmit data about the selected product is x installation pricing/business 178. In the implementation of the invention, the sensor 142 information received in the installation control 134 and the controller 144, is used to calculate the levels instant remote units, the average levels of remote units, the total selected products, the type of the selected products or the like.

In carrying out the invention during processing of solid fuels are by-products that can be collected by the removal system 150, which is capable of removing selected gases selected fluid, selected gases that can condense into a liquid, or the like. In carrying out the invention in the installation processing of solid fuels can be more than one removal system 150. In the implementation of the invention selected gases can be collected in the gas pipelines, the pipelines or containers for transportation of gas to the container 162 installation, installation of processing 160, installation, removal 158 or the like. In the implementation of the invention selected liquids and gases that condense in the liquid can be collected in a liquid storage facilities, pipelines or containers for transportation of liquids in the container 162 installation, the installation processing 160, installation, removal 158 or the like.

In implementations of the invention may be sensors 142, which measure the number of allocated products and plumage which indicate the measurement data to the control unit 134, the controller 144, and the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation management 134 determines the number of allocated products, the level of the selected products, the number of allocated products collected in the storage level of the selected remote gases and the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may determine whether to increase the levels discardable by-products, reduce, or modify them in any other way, to obtain the desired products of solid fuel. For example, the installation control 134 may receive information sensor 142, which may be formed more liquid selected products than remote from the installation processing of solid fuel 132 stores the liquid. In response to this information installing control 134 may instruct the controller 144 to reduce the level of the removed liquid. In carrying out the invention it may cause an increase in the speed of the pump to change the exhaust fluid level, start another pump to change the deleted level or the like. Similarly, the gas sensor 142 may transmit to install control 134 such parameters selected atmospheric gas (pressure, temperature, gas concentration and the like), which indicates that the selected gas is not removed at the specified level. In the invention, the installation control 134 may instruct the controller 134 to adjust the levels of the removed gas by regulating the fan speed, start another fan, pressure changes in the gas collection chambers or the like. In implementations of the invention, the system output 150 installation processing of solid fuel 132 can be controlled individually or as part of a group.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may be located at various locations along the conveyor system 130 to measure the results of various processing operations of the solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may adjust the operation of the removal systems 150, based on reading the sensors 142, which indicate, for example, the quantities of selected products. Install control 134 may calculate the level of the side selected products based on the output of the read sensor 142, and may adjust the levels of the deleted product removal system 150 based on the levels of selected products, the levels of the products obtained, read naturally products or the like. In implementations of the invention may be sensors 142, which measure selected products, such as water, sulfur, ash and the like, for local processing installations processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may be able to regulate local processing removal system 150 to maintain specified levels on the I-products.

In carrying out the invention, as discussed previously, the collection of selected by-products can be a process container installation 162, installation of processing 160, installation, removal 158 or the like. In implementations of the invention may be sensors 142, which can provide information installing control 134 about the status of these facilities. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134, the controller 144, the removal system 150 or similar device can control the levels from which to collect allocated to by-products are collected, separated, or are otherwise controlled manually. In the implementation of the invention, the remote collection selected by-products occurs before the threshold of the collected products, which at this time, the operator processing of solid fuel 132 may be informed that the selected products need to remove them from the plants of their collection. In carrying out the invention the selected product, such as water, may be selected from the setup processing of solid fuel without accumulation or aggregation.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142, installation management 134, the controller 144 or similar device may transmit data of the selected product installation pricing/business 178. In " the invention of the installation costing/business 178 may have information that is associated with the market, such as market value or the value at the location, which is valid for each of the deleted products. In carrying out the invention, decisions relating to the location of remote selected products can be based on their market value, cost or the like. Data related to the market, may include information associated with aspects of special products, such as fixed price related to environmental protection, or the overcapacity in generation or placement of specific substances. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134, the controller 144 or similar device, installation of costing/business 178 on the basis of data transmitted by the sensors 142 may be able to calculate the market value of selected products, the cost of the selected products or the like. For example, the collected liquid sulfur may have a market value for its use in industry, while the collected ash may not have market value and may cost money to backfilling as junk.

It is clear that the data relating to the market, may be applicable to a number of different markets. For example, the collected ash can have market pricing from negative values (location) to positively the x values, set depending on the requirements for its various industrial uses. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can calculate the market value of selected by-products per unit of time, the average market value per unit solid fuel, instant market value by level of the deleted products, or the like. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can calculate the market value of the processed solid fuel taking into account the market value or cost of the selected products, which are assembled from solid fuel processed. For example, setting pricing/business 178 can receive data about the selected product for special processing cycle of the solid fuel. Installation pricing/business 178 can calculate the total cost and, therefore, the market value of the processed solid fuel by calculating the cost of processing of solid fuels and value, cost/market value, for a total of by-products.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/deals 178 may include algorithms for calculating the cost of final treated solid fuel, the market value of the finally processed the solid fuel, the cost of accommodation substances selected products, the market value of the substances selected products or the like. In the implementation of the invention, the algorithm may include the market value of the raw solid fuel from the data 120 of the coal sample, the cost of finished solid fuel of the output parameters of coal 172, the cost of the process from setting processing of solid fuel 132 and the like.

In carrying out the invention the installation 178 pricing/business can summarize data at cost, market value or the like for the full cycle of processing of solid fuel or for part of the cycle. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can calculate the total cost and market value periodically, at the end of the loop, upon request of the loop or similar.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/deals 178 can summarize data the market value of the untreated sample of solid fuels on the basis of the data 120 of the coal sample. In carrying out the invention the market value of the raw solid fuel can be calculated as the cost per unit of production total cost of the full volume of the obtained raw fuel or the like. In the realizatsii inventions installation 178 pricing/deals in the process can calculate the market value of the used raw solid fuel by determining the total quantity of solid fuel, processed during the cycle or part cycle, and use the market value per unit of production unprocessed solid fuels to calculate the total market value of the raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the market value of the used raw solid fuel may be an input variable in the algorithm estimates the market value.

In carrying out the invention, as previously described, the operating parameters can be obtained as feedback from the installation 178 pricing/business after the loop processing of solid fuels. In the implementation of the invention, the operating parameters may include inherent in the processing of solid fuels costs, such as used electricity used gas, used oil, used inert gas and the like. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can sum up all the cost of operations from the processing cycle of the solid fuel. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may store data cost allocated per unit of output for all operating parameters. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can calculate the cost of operating parameters for the loop processing of solid fuel using the cost for each and the individual unit and the number of work units. In carrying out the invention the cost of processing operations of the solid fuel can be inside the algorithm of calculation of market value.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can summarize market value of selected products of solid fuel, the cost of placing the selected products and the like. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may store the cost per unit of information, the market value of a unit of information or the like for all selected products. In carrying out the invention the cost of the final selected products and the market value can be input size algorithm, the market value of the solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may store information income from operations. In carrying out the invention information income from operations may be associated with the type of the processed solid fuel, the market demand of the processed solid fuel, the required number of processed solid fuel or the like. In the implementation of the invention, the income from operations can be expressed in percent of the cost of processed solid fuel, a fixed profit per unit of processed solid fuel, fixed income e is inico solid fuel, supplied to the customer or the like. In the implementation of the invention, the income from the operation can be the input parameter of the algorithm for determining market value.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may combine the market value of the used raw solid fuel, cost of operations, cost/market value of selected products of solid fuel, the cost of operation and the like, to determine the final market value of the processed solid fuel. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may store data of the final market value, the final report of the market value for transmission to the installation processing of solid fuels, final report of the market value for transmission to the customer, and the like. In carrying out the invention the stored market value processing of solid fuel may be valid for further analysis and calculations, including past final results, queries, data about the trend or the like.

In carrying out the invention the raw solid fuel can be processed for a private installation of the final consumer. In implementations of the invention, the installation of the final consumer can be one of many end users of the customer, especially the Ino specified by the customer installing the end user directly related to the installation processing of solid fuel 132, or the like. In implementing the invention by installing the end user may be the fuel-burning appliance 200, the installation of the conversion of coal 210, the installation of by-products of coal 212 or the like.

In carrying out the invention the fuel coal installing 200 may include the installation of electricity generation 204, metallurgical installation 208 or the like. Installation of electricity production 204 may include fuel installation 220 with a fixed layer of coal, fuel installation 222 spray coal, fuel installation 224 fluidized bed coal Association fuel installations using renewable energy source 228, or the like.

In carrying out the invention the installation of the conversion of coal may include the installation of gasification 230, installation integrated gasification 232 combined cycle installation 234 production of synthetic gas, installation 238 coke production, installation, production of pure carbon 238, installation of production of hydrocarbon 240 or the like.

In carrying out the invention the installation of by-products 212 may include the installation of 242 products fuel coal, installation 244 by-products of the distillation of coal or that on the one.

In the implementation of the invention to install the end user may set the requirement for processing of solid fuels by setting requirements for processing of solid fuel in the output parameters 172. Requirements can provide the required characteristics of the final consumer of fossil fuels. In carrying out the invention, the desired properties of the solid fuel may include data such as the percentage of moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, BTU/lb, BTU/lb M-A Free education sulphur grinding characteristics (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting temperature of the ash mineral analysis of ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric properties and the like.

In the implementation of the invention to install the end user can specify the characteristics of the particular unprocessed solid fuels for processing, allowing the installation processing of solid fuel 132 to select the best raw solid fuel for processing, or some combination.

In carrying out the invention, after the processing requirements of the solid fuel will be entered as the output parameters of the coal 172, setting processing of solid fuel may determine whether the processing of solid fuel in a continuous process, a single process or will be used other is their processing methods. In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may determine the processing method on the basis of indicators, including the required amount of solid fuel end user, the required characteristics of solid fuel end user, available raw solid fuel, the possibility of different ways of processing or the like. For example, a single process can be useful for a small number of the desired processed solid fuel, while the process of continuous processing may be preferred for larger quantities. For processing of solid fuel with a narrow range of characteristics of the processing setting processing of solid fuel 132 may select a single process to maintain better control over the specification limits by using basic characteristics. The person informed in this technology, can understand the other reasons for choosing one of two processes, continuous or pulsed, for processing the required fuel to the end user.

In the implementation of the invention to install the end user may require for particular solid fuel, or may require unprocessed solid fuels with specific characteristics, or may require sorting of the raw solid t the fuel inlet or the like. In the implementation of the invention to install the end user can have information regarding special parties unprocessed solid fuels available for processing in the unit of processing of solid fuel 132, and install the end user can select one of the available batches of raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 can display a list of available raw solid fuel installation the end user, or treatment setting solid fuel 132 may provide the system with the end-user a list of the processed solid fuel that can be produced. Informed artisan can be transparent other methods that allow the end user to determine at the entrance of the raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may make a final decision, taking into account the input of the raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the determining of the raw solid fuel may be based on the capabilities of the installation processing of solid fuel 132, the last of the special processing of the raw solid fuel, the characteristics of the raw solid fuel or the like.

In carrying out the invention, after the floor is possible by setting the processing of solid fuel 132 requirements of the end customer, setting processing of solid fuel 132 can choose the best suitable raw solid fuel for the production of the final desired of the processed fuel. In carrying out the invention, the data of the coal sample 120 can be by setting generation options 128 to determine the most suitable raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the most suitable solid fuel may be selected in accordance with such criteria as the characteristics of the end user, determining the final treated solid fuel, the possibility of continuous processing, the ability to install a single handle, the allowable deviations from the requirements of the installation, the end user of solid fuel or the like.

In carrying out the invention, after the raw solid fuel is selected, set the parameter generation 128 may define parameters that can be used for processing to achieve the required end user characteristics. As previously described, the setting of parameter generation 128 may obtain the characteristics of the final treated solid fuel of the required characteristics of the coal 122, where the required characteristics of coal 122 can be determined by the end user. In the implementation of the image is etenia setting parameter generation 128 may use an algorithm to calculate the operating parameters for the processing of the raw solid fuel. In the implementation of the invention, the algorithms may consider such variables as the possibility of setting processing of solid fuel 132, the differences between the selected unprocessed solid fuel and the required installation of end-consumer solid fuel, past performance is similar to the processing of the raw solid fuel or the like. In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 can then install the operating parameters of the systems conveyor system 130 (e.g., microwave systems 148), the number of periods required for the processing of the raw solid fuel, heating, cooling, atmospheric conditions, which can be used during processing of solid fuels, removal of selected products from unprocessed solid fuel and the like. In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may transmit the operating parameters for the installation of control 134, the controller 144 for controlling processing of the raw solid fuel.

Setting parameter generation 128 may choose unprocessed solid fuel use or production installation, the end user, using different methods, which could be transparent to knowledgeable craftsman. In carrying out the invention set generation parameters the RA 128 can find characteristics of the installation of the final consumer of the required characteristics of the coal 122. In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 122 can use the key characteristics of the characteristics of the final consumer of solid fuels for selection of the raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the key characteristics of the desired final product can be provided by installing the end user, or specified by the setting of parameter generation 128, or determined by the capabilities of the installation processing of solid fuel 132, or the like.

Key features can be used to determine the processing of the raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the key characteristics can be arranged in order of their importance to the characteristics of the installation to the final consumer. Alternatively, the alignment features may be performed by setting the end user, installation parameter generation 128 or other appropriate setting. In the implementation of the invention, the alignment can be predetermined in accordance with the end use of solid fuels. For example, setting the end user can specify that in the final treated solid fuel requires some level of moisture, despite the fact that other characteristics are greatly underestimated. Because wet the STI has the highest level in establishing the characteristics of the required processing of coal, installation required to maintain the desired level of moisture, which could take the previous values of other settings.

In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 can use the key characteristics for selection of the raw solid fuel available. In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 can use the key characteristics to determine the operating parameters necessary for the processing of the raw solid fuel solid fuel production to the final consumer. In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may set the operating parameters, based only on the key characteristics, or set generation parameters 128 may use key characteristics in accordance with other characteristics to determine operating parameters.

In carrying out the invention, certain operating parameters may be transferred to the installation control 134, the controller 144 or the like. In carrying out the invention, the installation management 134 using conveyer unit 130, the sensors 142 may control and adjust operating parameters during the processing of solid fuels. In carrying out the invention, once the solid fuel is processed, the sensors 142 which may be measured operational parameters for the key characteristics and to transmit read by the sensors 142 information on the installation control 134. If the installation management determines that the operating parameters require adjustment to obtain the key characteristics of solid fuel installation management 134 may transmit the adjusted operational parameters to the controller 144. In the implementation of the invention, the controller 144 may provide control systems conveyor system 130 for processing of solid fuel in accordance with operating parameters.

In the implementation of the invention using in-process feedback loop with the installation of control 134, the controller 144 and the sensors 142 setting processing of solid fuel 132 starts the process of delivery of the raw solid fuel installation the end user for which you want a solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the solid fuel can be obtained in a continuous process, in a single process, a combination of continuous and single-shot process or the like.

In carrying out the invention at the end of the process completely processed solid fuel can be checked on installation testing 170, to determine characteristics of the finally obtained solid fuel. In carrying out the invention features a proven solid fuel can be compared to the initial characteristics of the installation, the target consumer of fossil fuels. In carrying out the invention features, which compares the obtained parameters can be key characteristics, all the characteristics of solid fuels or combinations of that subset. In carrying out the invention, the installation test 170 may determine whether the characteristics of the final treated solid fuel required specifications installation the end user requesting the solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, once the solid fuel processed, scanned characteristics can be transferred to the installation control 134. In carrying out the invention, the installation control 134 may adjust the operating parameters based on the characteristics issued by installing test 170.

In carrying out the invention, once it is determined that the final treated solid fuel does not meet the installation requirements of the end customer, finally processed solid fuel may be subject to further processing in the unit of processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention, once the solid fuel is processed, the final treated solid fuel may be stored on a temporary storage space until then, until it is determined that it meets the requirements of the end customer. When it is determined what finally processed solid fuel meets the installation requirements of the end customer, finally processed solid fuel can be transported to the installation of the end user.

In carrying out the invention features scan finished solid fuel can be stored with the output parameters of coal 172. In the implementation of the invention maintain the test characteristics of the final treated solid fuel can serve as past results for the future select the desired solid fuel installation the end user, for final inspection of the installation of the end user requesting the solid fuel, complete processing of the raw solid fuel or for other purposes, which could be considered knowledgeable craftsmen.

In carrying out the invention, the transaction may be carried out for the processing of the raw solid fuel for private installation the end user. In the implementation of the invention, the cost of processing the raw solid fuel may include costs associated with electricity, gas, oil, inert gas, placement isolated from solid fuel products, transportation of finished solid fuel on the final installation will consume the La and the like. In carrying out the invention, the transaction may include income derived from the processing of solid fuels, including procedures from the sale of remote products of solid fuel or final treated solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention each installation prompts the end user for processing of solid fuels can be treated as a transaction. In carrying out the invention, as soon as the installation of the final consumer reports the characteristics required for the final treated solid fuel installation pricing/business 178 may begin to summarize the financial meropriyatiya the processing of the raw solid fuel to achieve the required characteristics. For example, setting pricing/business can start with volume of coal, General Ledger, database, spreadsheet, or the like, for summarizing financial pereopredelennye (e.g., cost, revenue, profit and losses)associated with the processing of the raw solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention, as soon as the installation parameter generation 128 chose unprocessed solid fuels, identification of the raw solid fuel may contact the installation pricing/business 178. Using the identification of the raw solid fuel, setting pricing/BIZ the ECA 178 can find the parameters of the cost of the raw solid fuel from the data 120 of the coal sample. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may store the information cost of the raw solid fuel to determine the cost of processing private loop. Information costs may include the cost per unit of output (for example, cost/ton)total cost of raw solid fuel, the total number of existing units and the like. Based on the number of solid fuel that is to be processed, and the requested installation of the end user, installation pricing/business 178 may be able to calculate the cost and value of production costs of solid fuels required for the production of solid fuel requested by the installation of the end user.

As described earlier, setting the parameter generation 128 may generate operational parameters for the processing of the raw solid fuel and can transmit the operating parameters for the installation of control 134, the controller 144 or the like. Install control 134, the controller 144 or similar device can control the processing of the raw solid fuel through the issuance of operating parameters of the systems, such as heating systems, conveyors, microwave system 148, ventilation systems, pumps, removal system 150 and that is such. During the processing of the raw solid fuel energy production costs can be included in the cost of various operating systems that consume electricity, gas, oil or the like. In carrying out the invention, the setting processing of solid fuel 132 may have sensors 142, which can measure the parameters of operation of the various systems. In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may also measure the energy of each of the systems for processing of solid fuel.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors can transmit information about the energy used by each system installation pricing/business 178 during the processing of the raw fuel. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may store the cost per unit of output for different types of energy and may be able to convert the energy consumed by the installation processing of solid fuel 132 in market value. For example, the sensors can transmit data on the number of kilowatts used microwave system 148, in setup pricing/business 178, which has access to information regarding the cost per kilowatt. Using these data and information about the price, installation pricing/business 178 can calculate the cost microwave the systems 148 for processing of the delivered raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can summarize the cost of processing the raw solid fuel during treatment cycle and can store the total cost in the cost of installation of the final consumer of the treated solid fuel. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can summarize the cost associated with machining cycles for future cost estimates and analyses.

In carrying out the invention the additional costs and income/loss may be associated with by-products, which are collected during the processing of the raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention during the processing of the raw solid fuel can be obtained by-products, such as water, sulfur, ash, and the like. Some of these collected products may have a market value, so they can be sold (e.g., sulfur). Some other by-products may not have a market, so they require storage, which affects the price.

In the implementation of the invention, the sensors 142 may measure the number of selected by-products collected in the conveyor 162 installation, the installation processing 160, installation, removal 158 and the like. These sensors 142 may then transmit data relating the I to the number of such products on installation pricing/business 178. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may store information about the market value, the cost of storage and the like of various side products and can calculate the cost and amount of gains/losses associated with each revenue or cost of each selected product. For example, the installation control 134, the controller 144, the sensors 142 or the like can specify installation pricing/business 178, which contains some sulphur (by-product) and is available for sale. Installation pricing/business 178 may classify the collected sulfur for sale and subsequent transfer of data for sulfur to the plant, which will use it. Thus, setting pricing/business 178 can calculate the cost of sulphur, are obtained by setting processing of solid fuel 132, or can calculate the profit from the sold sulfur as the derivative of the cost, or can produce other financial calculations, which could be transparent to knowledgeable craftsman.

Calculations regarding cost, expected values gains/losses and the like, can be improved at any point during the processing of coal, as, for example, the collection of selected products, using, for example, current or planned dannyjohntrio market prices, and thus, planned value cost, profit, profits/losses and the like can be obtained for particular put on the market products. Current rates achieved after the sale and/or transfer of byproduct, can be compared with the planned or projected prices can be compared with previous existing prices. Other applications and combinations in real-time planned and past financial information will be quickly understandable knowledgeable craftsmen. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may store financial information on by-products (including production costs, profits and the like) in the file value to set the end consumer of the treated solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention, based on the installation location of the end customer, the number of finished coal, method of transportation, delivered solid fuel and the like, setting pricing/business 178 can calculate the cost of transportation for delivery of the processed fuel for the installation of the end user. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may use the data relating to the cost of transportation, for calculating, key writing, the total cost to install the final consumer of fossil fuels. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may store the cost of transportation to file the cost to install the final consumer of the treated solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may determine an operating variable income/loss for the processing of the raw solid fuel in the desired installation of the final consumer of fossil fuels. The number of algorithms available to determine this workflow option income/loss, could be developed in the normal person, knowledgeable in the technology. For example, a work option income/loss can be defined as the percentage of the total cost of processing the raw solid fuel or as a setting value income/loss per unit processed solid fuel. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may store operating income in the file the cost to install the final consumer of fossil fuels.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may receive instructions from the installation of control 134, controller 144, sensors 142 or the like that the processing of the raw solid fuel to set the end of the customer completely. In carrying out the invention in order that the processing of the raw solid fuel produced, installation pricing/business 178 can sum up all the costs of processing solid fuel and to determine the amount of income/loss for the installation of the final consumer of solid fuel with a market value. In carrying out the invention outline of costs and revenues can use the standard practical calculation procedure. In carrying out the invention the market value of the finished fuel can be transferred to the installation of the end user. Alternatively, as described above, setting pricing/business can provide planning costs, gains/losses, expected profit, and the like throughout the processing cycle, allowing installing the end user to take cost-effective solutions during processing.

In carrying out the invention the parameters of the solid fuel may be stored, at least one unit of storage as a database. In carrying out the invention, at least one unit of storage may be a hard disk, CD drive, DVD drive, flash memory, ZIP drive, tape drive or the like. In carrying out the invention one store, at least, may be the only installing storage may be in the form of local units of storage, may be because of the set of distributed storage units, may be in the form of a combination of local and distributed storage units or the like. In the implementation of the invention, the database may be a database, relational database, SQL database, table, file, homogeneous file, ASCII file, a document, an XML file or the like.

In carrying out the invention information about the solid fuel may reflect information related to the obtained raw solid fuel, the characteristics of the solid fuel, the required installation of the end user, the operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132, the test information is finally processed solid fuel or the like. Information on solid fuel can be stored in such facilities, as these coal sample 120, the desired characteristics of the coal 122, the output parameters of coal 172, installation, generation parameters 128, installation management 134, the controller 144 or the like.

In carrying out the invention, the data of the coal sample 120 may store characteristics of the solid fuel, such as database access settings such as setting parameter generation 128, the desired characteristics of the coal 122, installation pricing/business 178 or the like. In carrying out the invention coal characteristics may include the percentage of moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed at the of Lerida, BTU/lb, BTU/lb M-A Free education sulphur grinding characteristics (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting temperature of the ash mineral analysis of ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric properties and the like. These characteristics of the solid fuel can be provided by the shaft 102, installing storage 112, installation, testing 170 or the like. In carrying out the invention features in the database can describe the initial conditions of the solid fuel prior to processing in the fixing of the end user.

In carrying out the invention, the database of the coal sample 120 can be search engine that allows you to find the information of the raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention, the information of the raw solid fuel can be found by setting the parameter generation 128 to select the raw fuel to his conversion in solid fuel installation the end user. In carrying out the invention, the stored information in the database of the raw solid fuel may contain a single record for each solid fuel or multiple records for each solid fuel. In implementations of the invention may be many records as a result of periodic samples, statistical samples, random samples or the like. In the implementation and the attainment, when the search data of the coal sample 120, for each unprocessed solid fuels may be more than one matching returned record.

In carrying out the invention, the desired properties of coal 122 may store the characteristics of the end user, the characteristics of the processed solid fuel, based on available raw solid fuel past the characteristics of the processed solid fuel or the like, as a database for access by setting parameter generation 128, the setting data of the coal sample 120, the output parameters of coal 172, or the like. In carrying out the invention coal characteristics may include the percentage of moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, BTU/lb, BTU/lb M-A Free education sulphur grinding characteristics (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting temperature of the ash mineral analysis of ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric properties and the like. Characteristics of the solid fuel can be provided by plants as installing 128 parameter generation coal output parameters of coal 172, installation, end user, or the like. In carrying out the invention features in the database can describe the final terms of processing solid fuel after processing the raw solid topl the VA.

In carrying out the invention, the desired properties of coal 122 can be search the database to find the parameters of the final treated solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the parameters of the final treated solid fuel can be found by setting the parameter generation 128 to select the features installing the end user to generate the operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention, the stored information in the database has been fully processed solid fuel may contain a single record for each solid fuel or multiple records for each solid fuel. In implementations of the invention may be many records as a result of periodic samples, statistical samples, random samples or the like. In carrying out the invention, when the search data of the coal sample 122, for each unprocessed solid fuels may be more than one matching returned record.

In the implementation of the invention using the sample data 120 and the required characteristics of coal 122, installation parameter generation 128 may generate the operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. Operating parameters can be data set to control various systemmicrosoft processing of solid fuel 132, for the processing of the raw solid fuel installation the end user. Operating parameters can be stored in the database in any relevant installation, including installation parameter generation 128, installation management 134 or the controller 144. In addition to the operational parameters setting parameter generation 128 may generate a set of valid values for each operating site, which can be stored in the same database as the operating parameters or which may be stored separately from the database. In carrying out the invention the combined sets of operating parameters and valid values can provide, mainly all the requirements for controlling processing of solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention process can be controlled operating parameters with sensor measurements 142 used to define the function if the installation of special processing of solid fuel 132 within preset tolerances. Based on the sensor measurements 142, the work of a special system can be adjusted so that it falls within the permissible limit values. It should be added that the operating parameters can be adjusted so that the function of the particular system falls within a pre-specified thresholds. For example the EP, working parameter for the microwave system 148 may be adjusted from the initial work of setting, if the measurement sensor 142 indicates a value outside of any of the two upper or lower limits of tolerance for the microwave system 148. In carrying out the invention, the database operating parameters can be modified to fit the regulation of the operating parameter that is passed to the system.

In carrying out the invention, after final processing of solid fuels has been completed, the installation control 134 may pass completely changed the operating parameters of the database at installation parameter generation 128, where you can store the changed operating parameters. In carrying out the invention the stored operating parameters may be associated with the stored characteristics of the raw solid fuel, which is processed using the modified operating parameters. In accordance with this implementation of the invention, when the future of the raw solid fuel can be processed, set the parameter generation 128 may seek work modified the parameter database to locate the data set for use as the initial operating parameters. In implementations of the invention may be found only recorded performance parameter may be the ü found a number of modified operating parameters or can be found working set of modified parameters, so the initial operating parameters for processing new raw solid fuel may use the average value or the modified operating parameters, the only working option records, statistical total modified work files, or the like.

As described above, after the solid fuel will be processed in the installation processing of solid fuel 132, processed solid fuel can be checked to test the installation of 170 to determine characteristics of the final treated solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the characteristics of the finished fuel may include the percentage of moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, BTU/lb, BTU/lb M-A Free education sulphur grinding characteristics (HGI), the total mercury content, the melting temperature of the ash mineral analysis of ash, electromagnetic absorption/reflection, dielectric properties and the like. In carrying out the invention the characteristics of the final treated solid fuel can be stored in the output parameters of coal 172. In carrying out the invention the data characteristics can be used to provide feedback to the control unit 134 to control the processing of solid fuel, may be associated with demand and characteristics of coal 122, can provide data installation pricing/business 178 or the like.

In carrying out the invention, during the processing cycle of the solid fuel, in the output parameters of coal 172 may store data characteristics, at least one set of data characteristics of the final treated coal. As described earlier, the characteristics of the final treated solid fuel can be transferred to the installation control 134 for consideration when was adjusting operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention the characteristics of the final treated solid fuel may be associated with the desired characteristics of coal 122 for determining operating parameters for a particular raw solid fuel.

For example, setting the parameter generation 128 may be required to determine the operating parameters to handle special raw solid fuel. Setting parameter generation 128 can search the required characteristics of coal 122 for final treated solid fuel, in the pre-processing of the selected raw solid fuel. Setting parameter generation 128 may also find the final test characteristics of the cycle of the solid fuel that can be made is established as the final treated solid fuel. Setting parameter generation 128 may consider this information when determining the operating parameters of the raw solid fuel.

In implementations of the invention, the installation parameter generation 128 may issue a final set of characteristics of solid fuels for a variety of samples of solid fuel to produce a final set of technical data for the main solid fuel used by the end user installations, to give the final set of operating parameters used to convert the raw solid fuel in the solid fuel used to install the end user, or the like. In the implementation of the invention summary of the databases may result in generation of a set of predetermined operating parameters of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. A predetermined set of operating parameters may be used for the latter choice for treatment treatment setting operating parameters 132 solid raw fuel to set the end consumer. In the implementation of the invention, the database may be a database, relational database, SQL database, table, file, homogeneous file, ASCII file, a document, an XML file or the like. As described above and shown in figures 1 and 2, install the end user can be that is cast installing coal 200, installing the conversion of coal 210, install a by-product 212 or the like.

In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may issue a final set of characteristics of solid fuels for a variety of samples of solid fuel from the data of the coal sample 120. In carrying out the invention, the data 120 coal sample contain information for the raw solid fuel, which may be available to the installation processing of solid fuel 132 may contain information for the last unprocessed solid fuels that can be used by the installation processing of solid fuel 132, or the like. For each unprocessed solid fuels can be more than one data record in the data 120 coal sample derived from the same solid fuel, with many test results of the sample. In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may issue a final set of characteristics of the raw solid fuel, based on available raw solid fuel, recently processed the raw solid fuel, the set of unprocessed solid fuels, selected by the setting processing of solid fuel 132, or the like.

In carrying out the invention the final database of the characteristics of the raw solid fuel containing the ü many double entries which contain information from the same solid fuel; a lot of double entries can be a result of multiple samples obtained from the same raw solid fuel. In carrying out the invention the collected database of characteristics of the raw solid fuel may have several stages. The first step may include the full grouping data sample of solid fuel in the final database of the raw solid fuel. At the second stage of the installation parameter generation 128 may use an algorithm to sort the records by iterating through the double entries, backing up the database end of unprocessed solid fuel appliance store and the like. In carrying out the invention of double-entry can be deleted from the database the raw solid fuel, dual recordings can be averaged, double-entry can be statistically selected or the like. In carrying out the invention the target database unprocessed solid fuels can contain all records of unprocessed solid fuels that can be converted to installing the final consumer of fossil fuels.

Similarly, the installation information of the ultimate consumer of solid fuels can be grouped into the database finished the firmness of the Dogo fuel. In carrying out the invention, the installation information of the ultimate consumer of the solid fuel can be stored in the database required characteristics of coal 122. In carrying out the invention, the database required characteristics of coal 122 may contain information characteristics on the final treated solid fuel requested by the end user installations, the last information of the characteristics of the previous final treated solid fuel and the like. In carrying out the invention the collected database completely processed solid fuel may contain many records that contain information related to the same final treated solid fuel; many double entries may derive from a variety of samples taken from the same final treated solid fuel, taken during processing of solid fuel.

In the implementation of the invention, the grouping of databases final treated solid fuel may have several stages. The first step may include the full grouping data sample of solid fuel in the final database of the raw solid fuel. At the second stage of the installation parameter generation 128 may use an algorithm to sort the records by iterating through the double entries, keep the base the data end raw solid fuel appliance store and the like. In carrying out the invention of double-entry can be deleted from the database the raw solid fuel, dual recordings can be averaged, double-entry can be statistically selected or the like. For each unprocessed solid fuels can be more than one data record in the data 120 coal sample derived from the same solid fuel, with many test results of the sample. In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may issue a final set of characteristics of the raw solid fuel, based on available raw solid fuel, recently processed the raw solid fuel, the set of unprocessed solid fuels, selected by the setting processing of solid fuel 132, or the like.

In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may use the aggregated database unprocessed solid fuels and collected a database of finished fuel for the operating parameters used for the conversion of solid fuel in the final treated solid fuel used to install the end user.

In the implementation of the invention, the operating parameters can be specified by the setting of parameter generation 128, selects the recording characteristics are not Bratanova solid fuel collected from the database of the raw solid fuel and to bring it into compliance with each of the database records is finally processed solid fuel to calculate working parameters for each of the respective records. In carrying out the invention, since the operating parameters defined for the corresponding records, operating parameters can be stored in a collected database of operating parameters. For example, if you have fifty unprocessed solid fuels collected in the database of the raw solid fuel and one hundred completely processed solid fuels in the finally assembled a database of solid fuel, each of the fifty solid fuels can be set in accordance with each one hundred completely processed solid fuels to determine the operating parameters that would be required to convert the raw solid fuel into the desired solid fuel. This can result in a five hundred accounts total operating parameters.

In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may determine that a solid fuel cannot be converted in the final treated solid fuel and, therefore, cannot determine the operating parameters for a particular corresponding solid fuels.

In another implementation of the invention, the installation parameter generation 128 can choose the recording characteristics of the solid fuel from the final database unprocessed solid fuels and to determine finally printing handling the data of solid fuel, which can be converted by treatment setting solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may determine the operating parameters for each of the entries of the characteristics of the raw solid fuel in the final database of the raw solid fuel. In the implementation of the invention, the operating parameters can be defined by the working capabilities of the installation processing of solid fuel 132. In carrying out the invention the operating parameters for each of the entries of the characteristics of the raw solid fuel can be stored in the summary database working parameter.

In carrying out the invention the installation of generation of the working parameter 128 may determine the operating parameters by matching the characteristics of the raw solid fuel with the possibility of setting processing of solid fuel 132, to determine the performance characteristics of the raw solid fuel or the like. In implementations of the invention, methods for determining the working parameter can be used individually or in combination.

In carrying out the invention workers the final settings can be saved to be selected at a later time for processing the raw solid fuel installation the end-consumer solid topl the VA. In carrying out the invention the final database operating parameters may also store the information of the raw solid fuel and finally processed solid fuel, which was used to create the operating parameters. Therefore, the final database of the working parameter may include operating parameters, the characteristics of the raw solid fuel, the characteristics of the final treated solid fuel or the like. The characteristics of the raw solid fuel and the characteristics of the final treated solid fuel may include identification of solid fuel.

In carrying out the invention, if the installation of the end user requires the installation processing of solid fuels some final treated solid fuel installation parameter generation 128 may be aligned with the requested characteristics of the final treated solid fuel to one of the final treated solid fuel, the characteristics of which are stored in the respective databases. In carrying out the invention to align the desired solid fuel installation the end user for final final treated solid fuel may be the best match when using the key features is to, when building the most important characteristics of a solid fuel or the like.

In carrying out the invention after matching the requested solid fuel for the installation of end-user setting parameter generation 128 can choose all possible solid fuel that can be used to create solid fuels to install the end user can choose all possible operating parameters that can be used to create solid fuel end user or the like. In carrying out the invention, all of the possible raw solid fuels can be used to create solid fuel installation the end user, while setting parameter generation 128 can search the data of the coal sample 120 to determine what (if any) of the possible raw solid fuels available. In carrying out the invention the installation parameter generation 128 may choose unprocessed solid fuel from the data 120 coal sample of solid fuel, which is within a certain tolerance, the required raw solid fuel. If the installation processing of solid fuel 132 available, at least one of unprocessed solid fuels, installation of generating pairs of the tra 128 may select a saved operating parameters, which correspond to the selected unprocessed solid fuels and installing the final consumer of fossil fuels. Selected operating parameters may be transferred to the installation control 134 and the controller 144 for processing the raw solid fuel installation the final consumer of fossil fuels.

In carrying out the invention a method of modelling the cost associated with processing solid fuels for special installation end-user can be improved by providing a database containing a set of characteristics of solid fuels for a variety of samples of solid fuel, a set of technical data for the main solid fuel used by the set of end-user, the set of operating parameters used to convert sample of solid fuel in the main solid fuel used by the end user, a set of cost associated with the implementation of a set of operating parameters, and the like. In carrying out the invention the simulated cost can be used to provide different reports on cost, such as the invoice, calculated to set the end consumer of the processed solid fuel, internal expenses incurred for comparison with the current cost of processing, prog is eskers cost/market value, the efficiency of the installation processing of solid fuel 132 or the like. In the implementation of the invention, the database may be a database, relational database, SQL database, table, file, homogeneous file, ASCII file, a document, an XML file or the like.

In implementations of the invention, the installation of the final consumer may be fuel coal 200 installation, install the conversion of coal 210, installation products 212 or the like.

Setting processing of solid fuel 132 may use a method of modeling the market value of the processed solid fuel for special installation the end user. In the implementation of the invention to install the end user may require the installation processing of solid fuel was processed raw solid fuel to get completely processed solid fuels with specific characteristics. Install the end user can not only specify the initial solid fuels to be used; setting processing of solid fuel 132 can choose the appropriate raw solid fuel, based on the characteristics of the solid fuel installation the end user.

In carrying out the invention the characteristics of the installation, the end user can be transferred is stored in the required characteristics of coal 122. Installation pricing/business can be alerted that the characteristics were transferred to the required characteristics of coal 122.

In carrying out the invention, once the notification that the characteristics of the solid fuel received, setting pricing/business 178 may require that the installation parameter generation 128 identified unprocessed solid fuels for data transmission to the installation of the end user. As described earlier, setting the parameter generation 128 may determine an appropriate solid fuel, knowing the required characteristics and capabilities of handling solid fuel 132, by finding past data processing of solid fuel, to determine the initial raw solid fuel, by querying a database of possible unprocessed solid fuels, and operating parameters, obtained from a pre-defined database, or the like.

In carrying out the invention, as soon as the installation parameter generation 129 chose the available raw solid fuel needed to convert prior to the installation of the final consumer of solid fuel installation parameter generation 128 120 requests data characteristics of the coal sample for the available raw solid fuel.

In the implementation of the Britania setting parameter generation 128 may transmit identification information and characteristics of the raw solid fuel, identification information and characteristics for solid fuel installation the end user, the operating parameters to convert the raw solid fuel solid fuel installation the end user and the same to pass on installation pricing/business 178. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may have a database that associates a cost with operating parameters for a particular solid fuel. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may be able to simulate the operation of the installation processing of solid fuel 132, providing a virtual processing the raw solid fuel in the solid fuel of the end customer, using the operating parameters from the setup parameter generation 128. Using the operating parameters, setting pricing/business 178 may be able to determine the amount of solid fuel, treated over a period of time, the amount of energy consumed, the amount of inert gas, the amount of solid fuel products and the like. For example, modeling may be able to determine the tons per hour produced solid fuel using the obtained workflow parameter to set the speed of the conveyor or the size of the installed single mode. In others the GOM example, the simulation may be able to calculate the required amount of power microwave systems 148 based on the settings of the operating parameters.

In carrying out the invention, using the operating parameters, the simulation setup pricing/business 178 allows you to determine the market value for the complete transformation of the raw solid fuel solid fuel installation the end user, instant market value at any time during the conversion of solid fuels, the increasing market value, added some of the various systems installation processing of solid fuel 132, or the like.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can be used to simulate the installation processing of solid fuel 132 based interface or computer devices. In carrying out the invention, the user interface may provide tools to allow the user to use the simulation stop simulation, a pause in the simulation, the conclusions of the modeling, inverse modeling, simulation is run in slow mode, the simulation is run in fast mode, the focus on special system or the like. In the implementation of the invention focus on a special system can provide the user with additional information for your specific system. In carrying out the invention, the information coming from the simulation may be requested by the consumer.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may be able to provide report information modeling market value of the complete transformation of the raw solid fuel solid fuel installation the end user, for instant market value at any time during the conversion of solid fuel, for increasing the market value added of the various systems installation processing of solid fuel, or the like. In the implementation of the invention, the report may be in the form of a printed report, a report in the form of an image, a documentary report, database, spreadsheet, file, or the like. Reports can show the content, timing details, system details, or the like.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 may have at least one database that contains the estimated costs associated with simulation of the processing of solid fuels. For example, the database may be electrically indicators for microwave systems 148, the cost per cubic foot of inert gases, the cost of human resources management installation processing of solid fuel 132, the cost/market value of selected products solid fuels, restore is related to the removal system 150, cost/market value of used solid fuel and the like. These costs can imagine the old assumptions in the modeling. In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 can make cost projections for modeling to determine the relationship of cost/market value of processed solid fuel installation the end user.

In carrying out the invention set pricing/business 178 using the simulation setup processing of solid fuel 132 may be installed end user calculation of pricing in the market value of the required processing of solid fuels. The calculation can be based on simulations using the operating parameters, costs and pricing of the market value for the operating parameters and the like. In carrying out the invention it is estimated pricing of the market value can be custom installation the end user requesting the solid fuel using special raw solid fuel.

Although the invention has been disclosed in connection with the shown and described preferred implementations, the one who is aware of this technology, will be apparent various modifications and improvements. Accordingly, the volume of infusion is his invention is not limited to the above examples, and it should be interpreted in the widest possible sense.

All documents referred to in the present description, is included in its entirety as a reference.

1. The purification method of the solid fuel that contains:
providing data about the original sample of solid fuel associated with the one or more characteristics of the solid fuel that is to be processed by the installation processing of solid fuels;
required characteristics of solid fuel; a comparison of statistical data of the original sample of solid fuel associated with the one or more characteristics with the desired characteristics of the solid fuel to determine the difference in the composition of the solid fuel;
defining workflow processing option for the handling of solid fuels for the treatment of solid fuel based at least in part, on the above-mentioned difference in the composition of the solid fuel,
monitoring of contaminants separated from the solid fuel during processing of solid fuel, and regulation mentioned working option to create a purified solid fuel, and; providing a multi-layer conveyor belt to move the solid fuel through the install processing, and multi-layer belt made with the possibility of transmission of the main part of Mick is volnovoi energy, moreover, the first layer of the conveyor belt is resistant to wear, and the second layer has a high temperature resistance.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the setting processing of solid fuels is a microwave installation processing of solid fuel.

3. The method according to claim 1, in which the solid fuel is a coal.

4. The method according to claim 1, in which the data sample of solid fuel is extracted from the database.

5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the characteristic of the solid fuel is the percentage moisture content.

6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the characteristic of the solid fuel is the percentage ash content.

7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the characteristic of the solid fuel is the percentage of sulfur.

8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the characteristic of the solid fuel is a type of solid fuel.

9. The method according to claim 1, in which a work processing option is microwave power.

10. The method according to claim 1, in which a work processing option is the microwave frequency range.

11. The method according to claim 1, in which a work processing option is the usage frequency of the microwave range.

12. The method according to claim 1, wherein the contaminants include water.

13. The method according to claim 1, wherein the contaminants include hydrogen.

14. The method according to claim 1, in which polluting substances the CTB include hydroxides.

15. The method according to claim 1, wherein the contaminants include sulfur dioxide.

16. The method according to claim 1, wherein the contaminants include liquid sulfur.

17. The method according to claim 1, wherein the contaminants include ash.

18. The method according to claim 1, wherein the selected pollutants are monitored by sensors installation of solid fuel.

19. The method according to p, in which the sensors provide feedback information to regulate the working of the treatment parameter.

20. The method according to claim 1, additionally comprising step of the high voltage power supply voltage from own production units of electricity transmitted through the line directly to the microwave generator into the treatment setting, where its own unit of electricity production line adapted to produce voltages above 15 kV.

21. Setting processing of solid fuels containing:
input setting, adapted to receive data of the original sample of solid fuel associated with the one or more characteristics of the solid fuel that is to be processed by the installation processing of solid fuel, and desired characteristics of the solid fuel;
installation of comparison, adapted to compare the data of the initial sample of solid fuel associated with the one or more characteristics require the characteristic of the solid fuel to determine the difference in the composition of the solid fuel;
the installation of the processing of solid fuel addition is performed with the cleaning ability of the solid fuel based at least in part on the difference in the composition of the solid fuel;
at least one sensor adapted to monitor pollutants emitted from the solid fuel during treatment of solid fuels;
installation of control processing that is adapted to regulate the working parameter processing in accordance with the feedback signal received from at least one sensor with respect to differences in composition, to create a solid fuel; and
multi-ply conveyor adapted to move the solid fuel through the install processing, and multi-layer conveyor belt is arranged to pass the main part of the microwave energy, and the first layer of the conveyor belt at the same time, resistant to wear, and the second layer has a high temperature resistance.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in microwave gradient activation of coal in high-gradient microwave field in velocity control mode of microwave field rise. Boundaries of coal lump are arranged in zones of zero or close-to-zero intensities of microwave field. Activation is performed till deep cracks appear in coal lump, which do not lead to its complete destruction. End of activation process stage is appearance of persistent flame of activation volatile hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: quick and effective heating of coals; improving energy use efficiency for coal heating; processing of compound hydrocarbons to easier and more volatile hydrocarbons deep in coal lump prior to the combustion beginning; possibility of controlling the modes of power pumping to various forms of activated volumes of coal, which allows implementing various modes of action on coal.

2 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl, 8 dwg

Fuel briquette // 2447135

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of producing solid organic fuel, particularly fuel briquettes, and can be used to heat houses, in field conditions, on transportation and in industry. The fuel briquette is made with longitudinal holes and contains organic binder in form of polypropylene production wastes in amount of 2.0-10.0 wt %, oxidising agent - potassium nitrate 2.0-5.0 wt %, catalyst - MnO2+Fe2O3 mixture with weight ratio thereof ranging from 4:1 to 1:6 in amount of 0.1-1.5 wt % and sawdust - the rest.

EFFECT: high calorific value of the briquette and reduced smoking.

1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method for improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke is implemented by spraying at temperature of not less than 20°C onto blast-furnace coke lumps of 2-20% water solution of sodium, potassium or calcium pentaborate, which contains 0.1-0.2 wt % of non-ionic surface active substance in the form of mono- and/or dialkyl ethers of polyethylene glycol in the quantity providing the content of surface active substance in coke of 0.0035-0.0070 wt %; at that, content of dry pentaborate of one of the above metals in coke is 0.09-0.68 wt %.

EFFECT: improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke owing to decreasing reactivity index and increasing its strength value.

1 cl, 25 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for intensifying the combustion process of TPP solid low-reactivity fuel involves preparation of pulverised-coal mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition; pulverised-coal mixture is subject to ultrasonic treatment immediately prior to supply to burners, and then to ignition and burning in the boiler. As nanoadditions there used are astralines - multi-layer fulleroide nanoparticles or Taunit - carbon nanomaterial. Nanoadditions are introduced to pulverised-coal mixture in the form of homoeopathic doses as per weight of solid fuel of 0.01 - 0.02%. The method results in increase of response rate of ignition and combustion of fuel mixture; besides, at combined burning of low-reactivity coal and fuel oil in the steam boiler furnace the method leads to reduction of unburnt carbon, nitrogen and sulphur oxides emissions, and therefore, to reduction of corrosion of heating surface and to improvement of reliability of power equipment; increase in combustion efficiency of pulverised-fuel mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition owing to avoiding the agglomeration of components. The effect is achieved due to intensification method of combustion process of TPP solid low-reactivity fuel, which involves preparation of pulverised-coal mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition, ultrasonic treatment, ignition and its burning in the boiler.

EFFECT: increasing combustion efficiency of low-reactivity solid fuel.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a fuel mixture via successive mechanical mixing of oxidising agent with fuel-binder. The oxidising agent used is either ammonium perchlorate (APC) or ammonium nitrate (AN) or octogen (HMX) or a mixture of APC/AN, APC/HMX, AN/HMX, components being in ratio 1/1 for each mixture. The fuel-binder used is inert rubber (SKDM-80) or active rubber - polyurethane which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The mixture additionally contains tin chloride powder with particle size (100-150) mcm, which is premixed for not less than 30 minutes with ultrafine aluminium powder with particle size less than 0.1 mcm, with the following ratio of components in wt %: ultrafine aluminium powder 87.5, tin chloride powder - 12.5. A hardener is added to the obtained mixture and the fuel composition is stirred for not less than 30 minutes.

EFFECT: rate of combustion of the mixed solid fuel increases depending on compositions of the oxidising agent and fuel-binder used in the fuel.

2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical mixture of an oxidising agent, fuel binder and metallic fuel. The oxidising agent used is ammonium perchlorate with particle size not greater than 50 mcm and ammonium nitrate with particle size (165-315) mcm. The fuel binder used is butadiene rubber which is plasticised with transformer oil or polyurethane rubber which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The metal fuel used is aluminium micropowder or aluminium nanopowder or mixtures thereof. Further, silicon dioxide with average particle size not greater than 50 mcm is added to the fuel in amount of 1-2 wt % over 100% of the fuel mass. The mixture is further mixed and evacuated. The obtained fuel mass is moulded into fluoroplastic units, polymerised and plated on the lateral surface with a solution of linoleum in acetone.

EFFECT: high rate of combustion and low content of solid condensed combustion products.

5 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sulphur-containing fuel additives and can be used in thermal power for desulphuration of liquid and solid fuel, mainly solid ash-bearing fuel during combustion. The composition of sulphur-containing fuel additives for desulphuration of said fuel during combustion contains the following, wt %: alkali metal hydroxide 19-29; alkali metal carbonate 26-37; alkali metal chloride 29-50; alkali metal hydrocarbonate 1-2; cryolite 3-4; alkali metal chromate 0.0001-0.0003.

EFFECT: additive is mainly meant for solid ash-bearing fuel, lowers temperature for deformation, melting and molten state of sludge, which prevents formation of refractory slag and solves the problem of outlet of slag and cleaning heat-generating equipment from deposits, thus increasing efficiency and service life of the equipment, as well as improving degree of neutralisation of sulphur compounds.

2 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises coal crushing and damping. Crushed and damped coal is heated to sulfur melting point to deposit sulfur on steel electrodes arranged in coal and receiving direct current. Voltage effect on damped coal in air-water medium at sulfur melting point (119.4°C) time sufficient for sulfur that features polar electronegativity to get transferred onto anode steel electrode.

EFFECT: simplified process, high degree of extraction of sulfur and sulfur-containing compounds.

6 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method for performance improvement of incinerators includes the following stages: burning of the hydrocarbon fuel in incinerator, determination of the given incinerator burning conditions which can be improved by adding of the special additive which conditions are determined on the base of measuring and calculations including hydrodynamical ones; determination of special points location whereat the additives are added to the incinerator; providing on the base of the said stages of the mode of special additive adding to the incinerator in the determine points. The using of the said mode allows to achieve one or more effect selected from the group including: decrease of the flame non-transparency, burning intensification, scorification decrease, reducing of limiting oxygen index, decrease of unburned coal amount, corrosion decrease and improvement of the electrostatic precipitator performance. In the said method the special additive contains the alloy of following general formula (Aa)n(Bb)n(Cc)n(Dd)n(…)n whereat every capital letter and (…) means metal with A being burning modificator, B meaning modificator of deposits, C meaning corrosion inhibitor, D meaning comodificator of burning/intensificator of electrostatic precipitator perfomance whereat each subindex means the stoichiometric index of the composition with n being not less than zero, sum of all n is more than zero; alloys includes two different metals; if metal is cerium the stoichiometric index is less than approximately 0.7.

EFFECT: non-transparency decrease of the flame released into atmosphere by large-scale incinerators used in for power production and waste burning industry and community facilities.

30 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: ordinary solid fuel for concentration is obtained; one or several characteristics of ordinary solid fuel selected from following: moisture content (BTU/pound), ash content (%,) total sulphur content (%), content of different sulphur forms (%), content of volatile materials (%), content of bound carbon (%), Hardgrove grindabillity index, mass content of trace minerals and reaction of fuel and its components to electromagnetic radiation are measured; the characteristics of the fuel expectable from solid fuel after its concentration are determined. Relying on desired moisture content in solid fuel at least one working parametre of the system and one configuration parametre leading to obtaining of solid concentrated fuel with desired moisture content are selected; the solid fuel is concentrated by the way of its electromagnetic radiation in accordance with at least one aforementioned parametre; the selected parametre is modified in response to data of moisture content in solid fuel during concentration.

EFFECT: obtaining of new family of solid-fuel custom coals being absent in nature.

17 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy, oil refining industry and coke-chemical industry; calcining of carbon-bearing materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of calcined carbon-bearing materials, in particular, to production of graphitized electrodes and anodic mass and may be used in metallurgical, oil refining, coke-chemical industries. A method of calcinations of the carbon-bearing materials provides for a preliminary heating of materials. Simultaneously with the process of calcination they conduct preheating of the material in a heater in the mode of a counter-flow of heat produced during reburning of a waste gas generated during calcination of the carbon-bearing material. The preliminary heating of the material preferably should be realized at the temperatures not exceeding 350-400°С. The invention allows to increase the furnace performance by 20% and to reduce a specific consumption of fuel by 50%.

EFFECT: the invention ensures significant increase of the furnace productivity and high reduction a specific consumption of the fuel.

2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: briquetting brown coal in regions remote from consumer.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding the coal, heat treatment, mixing with binder and molding. Coal is mixed with binder at pyrolysis of coal fines and "chocolate"-shaped plates are molded in between polymer films.

EFFECT: reduced wear of briquettes in transit; reduced consumption of binder.

FIELD: methods of simultaneous reduction of forming NOx, CO and carbon at combustion of fuel containing coal by addition of effective amount of manganese compound.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes combining coal and additive with manganese-containing compound for forming their mixture which is burnt in combustion chamber. Manganese-containing compound is present in effective amount for reduction of NOx, CO and carbon formed in the course of combustion of coal in combustion chamber in fly ash. Provision is also made for additive for coal at reduction of amount of carbon and NOx formed in the course of combustion of coal. Additive contains manganese compound which is added to coal in the amount of from 1 to 500 parts/min. Proposed method includes also stabilization of combustion of coal in presence of manganese-containing additive. Amount of carbon and NOx in fly ash is reduced relative to their amounts obtained at combustion of coal at absence of manganese-containing additive.

EFFECT: improved combustion of coal at simultaneous reduction of NOx, CO and carbon in fly ash.

21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

Cooker // 2280213

FIELD: domestic cookers to be used in tourism, hunting, in homes and working under field conditions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cooker has body made from combustible material which may be used both as fuel and device for its burning. This body is provided with at least two intersecting vertical slotted passages having common line of intersection inside body which is close to center of its upper base. Length, width and height of vertical slotted passages is dictated by possibility of continuous burning of inner surfaces of body forming vertical slotted passages; burning-out of device accompanied by forming of supports for cooking reservoir.

EFFECT: simplified construction; reduced consumption of labor; avoidance of preparation of fuel.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: treatment of coal for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions during burning of coal.

SUBSTANCE: coal at high content of sulfur is placed in low-pressure medium for cracking of part of coal by extraction of atmospheric fluids entrapped in coal. Then cracked coal is brought in contact with aqueous composition of colloidal silicon oxide oversaturated with calcium carbonate and larger part of aqueous composition is brought out of contact with coal, after which coal is acted on by high pressure in carbon dioxide medium during period of time sufficient for penetration of calcium carbide into cracks in coal. Description is also given for coal cracked in vacuum which contains about 0.5 wt-% of sulfur and additionally contains calcium carbonate deposited in cracks in coal in the amount sufficient for obtaining Ca:S molar ratio equal to at least 0.5. Specification contains also description of obtaining energy in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur at simultaneous reduction of sulfur dioxide in emissions. Specification contains also description of increase of calcium sulfate obtained in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur and aqueous composition used for treatment of such coal. Specification contains also description of preparation of aqueous composition for treatment of coal at high content of sulfur in combustion products. Description is also given for device for treatment of coal at pressure.

EFFECT: considerable reduction of sulfur dioxide and other toxic gases formed during burning of coal.

25 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: power-supply processes and equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises providing furnace having combustion chamber, wherein coal is combusted in presence of oxygen, supplying coal and metal-containing combustion catalyst to combustion chamber, and supplying oxygen to combustion chamber in amounts reduced relative to those required in absence of metal-containing combustion catalyst, which reduced amounts of supplied oxygen constituting up to 50% of the amount of oxygen above its stoichiometric amount.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of oxygen without losses in thermal efficiency and burning stability.

9 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: cleaning of low-grade coal not suited for production of reduced metal by standard carbon-composite method.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on use of cleaned coal for production of high-quality reduced metal. Coal is first kept in organic solvent simultaneously with heating, thus obtaining cleaned coal suitable for metallurgy which possesses higher thermoplasticity as compared with starting coal. Then, mixture of cleaned coal and starting material is subjected to agglomeration in agglomerator and agglomerate thus obtained is reduced at heating in furnace provided with movable hearth; then, it is molten by further heating, thus obtaining reduced melt which is cooled and hardened in furnace provided with movable hearth, thus obtaining solid material, after which reduced solid material is withdrawn from furnace. Then, slag is removed with the use of screen and reduced metal is extracted.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; improved quality of reduced metal.

21 cl, 9 dwg, 10 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to compositions for producing a granulated fuel for pyrolysis on the base of peat with modified additives and can be used in minor energetics and housing and communal services. The invention facilitates efficiency of the granulated fuel for pyrolysis. The assigned task and the said technical result are achieved by means of the fuel containing peat as an organic filling material and aluminium silicate material as a modifying additive at a following composition of elements, mas.%: aluminium silicate material 2-30% and peat 70-98. Granules can be made from 5 to 30 mm size by the method of balling on various types of granulators. A betonite clay, clay marl, Cambrian clay, kaolin clay, synthetic zeolite H-Beta-25 or synthetic zeolite H-MORD can be used as an aluminium silicate material.

EFFECT: increased combustion value of the fuel facilitating its efficient implementation at low temperature pyrolisis.

9 cl, 9 ex, 2 dwg, 10 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an increase in quality of carbon-containing materials by means of thermal processing using method of direct contact of material with heat-bearing medium and removing moisture from material. Carbon-containing materials, which have the first level of balanced content, are subjected to direct contact with heat-bearing medium under pressure to heat the material and remove moisture therefrom to the second level of moisture content being lower than the first one and to reduce the level of balanced moisture content to the value which lies between the first and the second level of the balanced moisture content, with further separation of released moisture from material. Plant for processing carbon-containing materials incorporates technological apparatus with material loading chamber, input and output devices for loading and discharging material from the chamber, input device for supply of heat-bearing medium into technological apparatus for direct contact with material, ventilation window for gas removal, draining device for water discharge and separator, which serves as a means of separation of liquid and hard particles of the material.

EFFECT: chances to remove undesirable admixtures from material and minimisation of residual moisture when processing carbon-containing materials.

57 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex

FIELD: oil and gas production industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to coke-chemical and blast-furnace operations area. Furnace coke processing method that consists of processing pieces of furnace coke unloaded from coke furnace, slaked and sorted at temperature 20-50°C and placed in shipment hoppers by spraying with 2-20% water solution of borate selection from the range: sodium pyroborate, potassium pyroborate, calcium pyroborate. Water solution of pyroborate of concentration required for coke processing is prepared by simple mixing in process vessel of calculated weight of pyroborate and water. The volume of finished solution used for processing shall ensure that amount of dry pyroborate in coke corresponds 0.05-0.5% (weight) in terms of coke. Calculated volume of solution to surface of coke pieces is applied by spraying through nozzles with use of pump.

EFFECT: improved strength of coke after reaction and reduced reactivity.

2 tbl, 14 ex

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