Method of producing fuel briquettes from low-grade fuel

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves thermal treatment of low-grade fuel at temperature 200-500°C. A pyrolysis product is obtained - low-temperature pyrolysis resin and a carbon residue. The carbon residue is crushed and mixed with low-temperature pyrolysis resin in equal parts. Briquettes are moulded from the obtained mixture. The briquettes are dried at temperature not higher than 200°C. The obtained fuel briquettes are left to solidify at room temperature for one day.

EFFECT: minimising processing equipment used.

1 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method of producing fuel briquettes from low-grade fuels (peat, sapropel, brown coal, wood and others) and can be used in low energy and for domestic needs in the production of fuel for burning.

There is a method of briquetting coal (patent RF №2268290, IPC C10L 5/10, C10L 9/08, publ. 20.01.2006), mostly brown, in regions remote from the consumer. The method involves grinding the coal, heat treatment, mixing with a binder and pressing. Meanwhile mix the coal with a binder during the pyrolysis of coal dust, and pressed "chocolate"-shaped plate between the polymer films.

The disadvantage of this method is its complexity due to the need of using a rotary tubular oven and drawer in her binder serial equipment asphalt plant (SP). In a known way as a source of raw materials actually used only coal, which significantly reduces the resource base. Also in the known method uses a hydraulic press, a binder (tar, bitumen and polymer plate, which leads to higher technology.

A method of obtaining briquette fuel by mixing the carbon-containing raw materials and parts resin of high temperature semi-coking remaining after distillation fractions, wikipeida is about 300°C, with subsequent pressing and thermotherapies briquettes at a temperature of 220-280°C (Cox and glezakos based briquetting". Emetic, Bemrich, Iaanneea. M.: Izd. Metallurgy, 1965, p.19-24).

The disadvantage of this method is that it is actually used only pitch part of the resin remaining after distillation fractions boiling up to 300°C. As in the known method is used only part of the resin at a high temperature, semi-coking - reduced resources binder. The use of high-temperature semi-coking requires the use of expensive alloy steels.

The closest adopted for the prototype, is a method of manufacturing briquette fuel comprising a mixture of carbon-containing raw material with a binder, compressing the mixture and the subsequent curing of the pellets in an oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature of 150-300°C, and in the use as a binder resin of low-temperature semi-coking obtained at temperatures up to 650°C (RF patent No. 2375414, IPC C10L 5/14, publ. 10.12.2009).

The disadvantages of this method are dependent on third-party resin of low-temperature semi-coking, as well as the high costs of the implementation process associated with the use of pressing equipment.

The objective of the invention is to reduce the cost of the technological process.

The problem is solved as follows. In use as a binder resin of low-temperature pyrolysis. The source of low-grade fuel is thermally treated at a temperature of 200-500°C, resulting receive the products of pyrolysis - carbon residue, low-temperature pyrolysis resin, podskalny water and fuel gas. Carbon residue is pulverized and together with the low-temperature pyrolysis resin is mixed in equal parts, from the mixture obtained form the briquette raw, dried at a temperature not higher than 200°C, and then leave for a day to harden at room temperature.

The upper limit of the temperature of heat treatment selected from considerations of use in process reactors to heat the low-grade fuel from cheap carbon steel, capable of operating at temperatures up to 500°C.

To avoid the possibility of low-temperature pyrolysis resin of briquettes and reduce their strength, drying is carried out at temperatures below 200°C.

Figure 1 shows the diagram of a unit for production of fuel briquettes.

The plant consists of a reactor 1, placed in the furnace 2. The reactor is installed thermocouple 3 to control the process temperature of thermal processing of low-grade fuel. Reactor with heat-resistant hose 4 is connected to holodilniki. At the exit of the fridge is the condensate collector 6.

The plant is operated as follows.

Low-grade fuel is placed in the reactor 1, where using the furnace 2 is heated without oxygen to 200-500°C, the temperature of the heat treatment process is controlled using a thermocouple 3. Volatile products of pyrolysis (low-temperature pyrolysis resin, podskalny water and fuel gas produced during the heating of low-grade fuel, out through the heat-resistant hose 4, carbon residue remains in the reactor 1. In the refrigerator 5 low-temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water are condensed and fed to the condensate collector 6.

The invention is illustrated by examples.

Example 1.

In reactor 1, placed in the furnace 2, download low-grade fuel - peat (heat of combustion to 2.65 MJ/kg), where it is heated to a temperature of 400°C. the temperature Control of the process of thermal processing of low-grade fuel in the reactor is carried out with the aid of a thermocouple 3. As a result of annealing receive the products of pyrolysis - carbon residue, low-temperature pyrolysis resin, podskalny water and fuel gas. The products of pyrolysis (low-temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water condense in the refrigerator 5 and is collected in the condensate collector 6. The condensed mixture is divided filtering is on the low-temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water. Carbon residue is crushed to a particle size of not more than 1 mm of Crushed carbon residue and low-temperature pyrolysis resin mix in equal parts. From the mixture obtained form the briquette raw, it is placed in a drying oven and dried at a temperature of 105-110°C until reaching constant mass briquetting raw. After drying, briquetting raw becomes fuel briquette. Fuel briquettes leave for a day to harden at room temperature. The resulting briquette has a calorific value of 19.7 MJ/kg

Example 2.

In reactor 1, placed in the furnace 2, download low-grade fuel - peat (heat of combustion to 2.65 MJ/kg), where it is heated to a temperature of 400°C. the temperature Control of the process of thermal processing of low-grade fuel in the reactor is carried out with the aid of a thermocouple 3. As a result of annealing receive the products of pyrolysis - carbon residue, low-temperature pyrolysis resin, podskalny water and fuel gas. The products of pyrolysis (low-temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water condense in the refrigerator 5 and is collected in the condensate collector 6. The condensed mixture is separated by filtration at low temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water. Carbon residue is crushed to a particle size of not more than 1 mm of Crushed carbon residue and nizkotemperaturno the ing the pyrolysis resin mix in a percentage ratio of 60:40. The resulting mixture briquetting raw is not formed, because not enough binder for making form - cake crumbles during stuffing.

Example 3.

In reactor 1, placed in the furnace 2, download low-grade fuel - peat (heat of combustion to 2.65 MJ/kg), where it is heated to a temperature of 400°C. the temperature Control of the process of thermal processing of low-grade fuel in the reactor is carried out with the aid of a thermocouple 3. As a result of annealing receive the products of pyrolysis - carbon residue, low-temperature pyrolysis resin, podskalny water and fuel gas. The products of pyrolysis (low-temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water condense in the refrigerator 5 and is collected in the condensate collector 6. The condensed mixture is separated by filtration at low temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water. Carbon residue is crushed to a particle size of not more than 1 mm of Crushed carbon residue and low-temperature pyrolysis resin mix in a percentage ratio of 40:60. The resulting mixture briquetting raw is not formed, because the mixture is too liquid.

Example 4.

In reactor 1, placed in the furnace 2, download low-grade fuel brown coal (calorific value of 8.4 MJ/kg), where it is heated to a temperature of 350°C. the temperature Control of the process of thermal processing of low-grade is opleve in the reactor is carried out with the aid of a thermocouple 3. As a result of annealing receive the products of pyrolysis - carbon residue, low-temperature pyrolysis resin, podskalny water and fuel gas. The products of pyrolysis (low-temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water condense in the refrigerator 5 and is collected in the condensate collector 6. The condensed mixture is separated by filtration at low temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water. Carbon residue is crushed to a particle size of not more than 1 mm of Crushed carbon residue and low-temperature pyrolysis resin mix in equal parts. From the mixture obtained form the briquette raw, it is placed in a drying oven and dried at a temperature of 105-110°C until reaching constant mass briquetting raw. After drying, briquetting raw becomes fuel briquette. Fuel briquettes leave for a day to harden at room temperature. The resulting briquette has a heat of combustion 15,98 MJ/kg

Example 5.

In reactor 1, placed in the furnace 2, download low-grade fuel - lacustrine sapropel (heat of combustion of 4.57 MJ/kg), where it is heated to a temperature of 450°C. the temperature Control of the process of thermal processing of low-grade fuel in the reactor is carried out with the aid of a thermocouple 3. As a result of annealing receive the products of pyrolysis - carbon residue, low-temperature resin pyro is iza, podskalny water and fuel gas. The products of pyrolysis (low-temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water condense in the refrigerator 5 and is collected in the condensate collector 6. The condensed mixture is separated by filtration at low temperature pyrolysis resin and podskalny water. Carbon residue is crushed to a particle size of not more than 1 mm of Crushed carbon residue and low-temperature pyrolysis resin mix in equal parts. From the mixture obtained form the briquette raw, it is placed in a drying oven and dried at a temperature of 105-110°C until reaching constant mass briquetting raw. After drying, briquetting raw becomes fuel briquette. Fuel briquettes leave for a day to harden at room temperature. The resulting briquette has a calorific value of 17.5 MJ/kg

The technical result reduce the cost of process is achieved through the use of the reactor for pyrolysis of low-grade fuel from cheap carbon steel, minimizing the nomenclature used process equipment. There is the possibility of using fuel gas resulting from pyrolysis of low-grade fuel, as fuel to maintain thermal treatment process, thereby reducing the cost of obtaining fuel briquettes.

SPO is about the production of fuel briquettes from low-grade fuel, including as a binder resin of low-temperature pyrolysis, followed by curing of the pellets, characterized in that the low-grade fuel is thermally treated at a temperature of 200-500°C, resulting receive the products of pyrolysis, low-temperature pyrolysis resin and carbon residue, which was pulverized, mixed with low-temperature pyrolysis resin in equal parts, from the mixture obtained form the briquette raw material, which is dried at a temperature not exceeding 200°C, and then leave for a day to harden at room temperature.



 

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