Hydraulic damper

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises hollow case accommodating hydraulic cylinder to make working fluid chamber. Hydraulic cylinder piston and rod are arranged to produce piston and rod ends. Damping device is arranged between case and cylinder and furnished with cover coupled with structural element accommodating restrictor and safety valve to communicate said piston and rod ends with said chamber. Cover has annular groove with seal fitted therein and is arranged to make drain chamber communicated with aforesaid chamber. Annular groove with support and sealing elements fitted therein is arranged at structural element on rod side. Safety valve is made up of plunger with flanges and cylindrical guide housing locking element to move relative plunger flange for contact with seat arranged on structural element for communication of rod en with drain chamber and, further, with aforesaid chamber. Cover seal is made up of sealing scraper. Annular grooves in cover and structural elements are open toward drain chamber wherein adjusting washer with annular ledge is arranged to lock sealing scraper. Said locking element has toroidal grooves on working fluid flow path at safety valve open.

EFFECT: simplified design, expanded operating performances.

4 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in moving vehicles for damping oscillations, mainly rail transport.

The prior art telescopic gidroaerotsentr, comprising a housing, a cylinder, the piston, rod and piston caps, valves, installed in the piston and the piston cover and the throttle channel, which connects nadporshnevaya the cylinder chamber with the reservoir with the working fluid formed between the housing and the cylinder (see ed. St. USSR N362958, 61F 5/10, 1972; ed. St. USSR N1006819, CL F16F 5/00, 1983; ed. St. USSR N1325225, CL F16F 5/00, 1987).

The disadvantages of the known solutions of the shock-turbulence characteristics and rapid overheating of the working fluid due to its circulation from the piston cavity in the rod cavity through the check valves in the piston in two directions.

Also known absorber containing cylinder, inside of which with the formation of the rod and piston working cavity has a piston rod, rod and piston cap, reservoir with the working fluid between the casing and the cylinder, inlet valves in the piston and piston cover, bypass valve and the throttle channel in the rod cap connecting the reservoir with the piston cavity (see kN. A.D. of Derbaremdiker, Hydraulic shock absorbers of vehicles. - M.: Masha is stroenie, 1969, p.132, RIS).

Known shock absorber has more stable characteristics, as the flow of the liquid in it is always moving in one direction and better cooled by use as the loading of items during the compression and stretching of the same relief valves and throttle rod in the lid, however, the excessive increase in the strength of the resistance at low temperatures when the viscosity of the working fluid increases, causes instability of the shock absorber in the cold and the possibility of damage from overload.

Closest to the invention is the decision on the patent of the Russian Federation 2118726 (1997), according to which the hydraulic damper includes a housing, a cylinder, piston rod, rod and piston cap, reservoir with the working fluid formed between the housing and the cylinder, the intake valve mounted in the piston and piston cover, bypass valve and the throttle channel in the rod cap connecting the reservoir with the piston cavity, with rod cover is provided with an additional by-pass valve, made with camera control, and throttle made consisting of laminar part at the inlet of the working fluid from the piston cavity and turbulent parts at the outlet to the reservoir, a transition zone between which are connected by a channel with camera control dopolnitelnoj the by-pass valve.

Known for the invention is directed to improving the reliability of the hydraulic damper and stability characteristics, especially at low temperatures environment. However, the design has several disadvantages due to the complexity of the structural embodiment of the valve of the site, by no means exhaust leaks through the seal in the area of the rod cover, lack of adaptability, caused by the complexity of seats for sealing box section.

Task to be solved by the present invention is directed, is to eliminate these disadvantages, as well as simplifying the design and improving technology with improved performance due to the introduction in the design of the shim is installed through free landing on the rod of the hydraulic cylinder, and which simultaneously support walls located on either side of the seal and the sealing element, and means for discharging working fluid from them, while the shim is also a support element of a spring-loaded plunger of the safety valve, made with spring increased diameter providing together toroidal bearing surface of the locking element smooth actuation Priozerny loads in the suspension parts. The thickness of the removable shims sets the value of the maximum resistance force of the hydraulic damper.

To achieve the specified result in the hydraulic damper of a vehicle, comprising a housing, is made hollow and is associated with one part of the vibrating system, installed inside the hydraulic cylinder with the formation of a reservoir for the working fluid, the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder is installed with the formation of the piston and the rod ends, between the housing and the cylinder on the rod is a damping unit having a cover associated with the housing element, which set the choke and at least one relief valve with messages piston and the rod ends with the tank, the free end of the rod connected with the other part of the oscillating system and the cover is made coaxially with the annular stem groove with the seal and installed relative to the body element formation between the drain cavity communicated with the tank, and on the hull element from the side of the rod is made annular groove installed in it a support element and a sealing element, a relief valve in the form of plunger flange and the cylindrical napravlyayas on the locking element, a spring-loaded relative to the flange of the plunger and mounted with a possibility of contact with the saddle placed on the hull element for the message the rod end with the drain cavity and the reservoir, the said sealing cover made in the form of the seal-wiper, and an annular groove in the cover and the hull element is made open toward the discharge cavity, inside of which is concentric with the rod is a shim with an annular projection for axial fixing of the seal-wiper and the bearing and sealing elements, as well as the possibility of contact with the end face of the plunger, made with a spherical surface, and the locking element is made with a toroidal groove in the path of movement flow of operating medium through the open safety valve with the possibility of radial rotation of the fluid flow and the formation of dynamic forces.

There may be other embodiments of the invention, according to which it is necessary that:

the throttle would be a set of throttle washers installed in the throttle channel, made in the hull element with the possibility of dissipative energy dissipation of the flow of the working fluid in heat

the thickness of the shim is defined from the condition specify the maximum force is soprotivlenie the pressure of the working environment.

- on the annular ledge of the shim is made of a radial hole with exhaust leaks from the bearing and sealing elements into the drain cavity.

These characteristics are essential and interrelated causal connection with the formation of the essential features sufficient to achieve the above technical result.

Hereinafter the invention will be disclosed in a preferred embodiment in more detail, with reference to graphic materials, on which:

Figure 1 presents a General view of the damper longitudinal section.

Figure 2 - cross section a-a of figure 1.

Figure 3 is a fragment of the complete damping of the node.

Figure 4 is an embodiment of the seal-wiper.

On the drawings the hydraulic damper is depicted with the following positions:

1 - body

2 - cylinder

3 - piston

4 - rod

5 - rod cavity

6 - piston cavity

7 - inlet valve

8 is a reservoir for the working environment

9 - cover

10 annular groove

11 - seal-wiper

12 - corps

13 annular groove

14 - reference

15 - o

16 - orifice plates

17 - relief valve

18 is a plunger with a spherical reference surface is of cylindrical guide

19 - closing element

20 - conical surface

21 - circular reflector with a toroidal groove

22 - spring

23 - shim

24 is a radial hole in the adjustment washer

25 - spherical surface

26 - conical chamfer

27 is a cylindrical collar

28 is a sealing ledge of the toroidal shape

29 - sealing edge

30 - circular cavity

31 - elastic ring

32 - drain cavity

33 is an annular ledge

34 - channel with safety valve 17

35 - throttle channel

36 is a bottom inlet valve

37 - radial hole in the adjusting washer 23

38 - casing

39 channel in the hull

40 - flange plunger.

The present invention is illustrated with a specific example of implementation, which, however, is not only possible, but demonstrates on the example of the suspension bogie rail wagon the possibility of achieving a given set of features specified technical result.

According to the invention, the hydraulic damper of a vehicle includes a housing 1 made hollow, which is associated with one part of the vibrating system of the suspension railway truck of the car. Inside the housing 1 has connected therewith a hydraulic cylinder 2 with the formation of the reservoir 8 to the working liquid is ti, and on top of the housing 1 is placed a casing 38.

The piston 3 with the rod 4 of the hydraulic cylinder 2 is installed with the formation of the piston and the rod ends 5, 6, respectively. Between the housing 1 and the cylinder 2 on the rod 4 is a damping unit having a cover 9 that is associated with the body element 12, in which the throttle channel 35 has a choke and at least one pressure relief valve 17 with messages piston rod 5 and 6 cavities with the tank 8.

The free end of the rod 4 is connected with the other part of the vibrating system, in particular the suspension railway truck of the car. The cover 9 from the side of the rod is made with an annular, coaxially to the rod 4, the groove 10 with the seal.

The cover 9 is installed on the shaft 4 side relative to the body element 12 with the possibility of formation between the discharge cavity 32 communicated with the tank 8 channels 39. On the hull element 12 from the side of the stem 4 is made annular groove 13 defined therein a support element 14 and the sealing element 15 for engagement with the surface of the rod with the possible exception of penetration of the working environment from the rod end 5 into the drain cavity 32.

The relief valve 17 is made in the form of the plunger 18 with the flange 40 and the cylindrical guide placed on it by the shut-off element 19, the spring loaded considers the flax flange of the plunger 18 and installed with shielding its conical surface 20 with a saddle placed on the end part of the channel of the body element 12 for messages rod end 5 with the drain cavity 3.2 and later with the tank 8. The plunger 18 from the flange 40 is made with a spherical end surface 25.

The said seal cover 9 is made in the form of a seal-wiper 11, that is, in addition to sealing the area with an elastic ring 31 of circular cross section for protection against penetration of dirt from the outside of the damping node and then to the hydraulic cylinder. The annular grooves 10 and 13 in the cover 9 and the hull element 12 is open towards the discharge cavity 32, inside of which is concentric with the shaft 4 is a shim 23, performed with the annular protrusion 33 for axial fixing of the seal-wiper 11 and the bearing and sealing elements 14, 15, and contact with the spherical surface 25 of the end face of the plunger 18, the circuit thereby force action of the spring 22 of the safety valve 17 on the cover 9.

On the annular ledge 33 of the shim 23, is made removable, the protrusion 33 a radial hole 24 with exhaust leaks from the base 14 and the seal 15 elements in the drain cavity 32. In this case, the thickness of the shim 23 is determined from the conditions specify the maximum damping is of Elah opposing the pressure of the working environment.

In one embodiment, the choke is a set of throttle washers 16 installed in the throttle channel 35, is made in the hull element 12 with the possibility of dissipative energy dissipation of the flow of the working fluid in the heat.

To ensure directional movement of the working environment from the rod end 5 shut-off element 19 is made with a toroidal groove 28 in the path of flow of operating medium through the open safety valve 17 with the possibility of radius of rotation of the flow and the formation of dynamic forces from the action of the fluid flow acting in the direction of the compression spring 22. Thus, according to the invention, the spring 22 may be made as large size in relation to the prototype with similar elastic properties, which allowed when exposed to the working environment at the end of the locking element 19 at peak loads on the damper smoothly to open it, which also contributes to the aforementioned dynamic power. This solution actually eliminate shock loads on the fasteners damper for railway truck.

Hydraulic damper works as follows.

During normal loads and speeds of movement of the piston relative to the cylinder, the so-called "throttle mode", the piston 3 moves the I in the direction of the damper node, the inlet valve 7 when it is closed, and the working environment from the rod end 5 through the throttle channel 35 defined orifice plates 16 flows into the drain cavity 32 and forth in the tank when this happens, the conversion of mechanical energy of relative displacement of the frame rail truck and nadressornoj its beams into the hydraulic pressure energy of the working environment with subsequent dissipative scattering it into heat energy.

The force F on the rod 4 is determined almost by the differential pressure developed in the throttle channel 35, and is roughly proportional to the amount "q" of the working environment and the speed "V" of her move. With increasing velocity V and pressure P of the working environment in the rod end 5 above acceptable in the work shall become the safety valve 17, which reduces stress on the damper, and, as a consequence, the structural elements of the suspension. In piston cavity 6 through the bottom check valves 36 and through a line provided with a drain cavity 32, is sucked into the working environment.

In another mode of operation of the damper, when the piston chamber decreases in volume, the piston 3 open the intake valve 7 is made in the form of a ball check valve, pushes the working environment in the rod cavity 5.

The design feature of the invention is, first, the execution before the enforcement of the valve 17 with the possibility of minimal radial dimensions to increase the cross-section area without increasing the compression force of the spring 22 and effect "throttling" when passing the working medium through the flow area, and secondly, the execution of the damper unit with the replacement of the adjusting plate 23, is made with the protrusion and the channel 37 and installed with a gap on the cylindrical surface of the rod 4 with the possibility of discharging working fluid from the seal-wiper 11 and the sealing element 15 in the drain cavity 32 and then into the tank 8. This shim 23 his ledge 33 and the opposite side of the pressed seal-wiper 11 and the sealing element 15, providing always working condition. In addition, the implementation of annular grooves 10 and 13 in the cover and the hull element 12 open towards the discharge cavity 32 substantially improve manufacturability as manufacturing and services, in particular the process of replacing the seal-wiper 11 and the sealing element 15 and the support element 14 in case of their replacement.

The invention meets the condition of patentability "industrial applicability"because feasible using known means of production.

1. A hydraulic damper of a vehicle, comprising a housing, is made hollow and is associated with one part of the vibrating system, installed inside the hydraulic cylinder with the formation of a reservoir for the working fluid, the piston rod guide is aplicacao cylinder installed with the formation of the piston and the rod ends, between the housing and the cylinder on the rod is a damping unit having a cover associated with the housing element, which set the choke and at least one relief valve with messages piston and the rod ends with the tank, the free end of the rod connected with the other part of the vibrating system, and the cover is made coaxially with the annular stem groove with the seal and installed relative to the body element formation between the drain cavity communicated with the tank, and on the hull element from the side of the rod is made annular groove installed in it a support element and a sealing element, characterized in that the safety valve is made in the form of a plunger with a flange and a cylindrical guide placed on it by the shut-off element, a spring-loaded relative to the flange of the plunger and mounted with a possibility of contact with the saddle placed on the hull element for the message the rod end with the drain cavity and the reservoir, the said sealing cover made in the form of the seal-wiper, and an annular groove in the cover and the hull element is made open toward the discharge cavity, inside of which is concentric with the rod is adjusting W is IBA with an annular projection for axial fixing of the seal-wiper and the supporting and sealing elements, and contacting with the end face of the plunger, made with a spherical surface, and the locking element is made with a toroidal groove in the path of flow of operating medium through the open safety valve with the possibility of radial rotation of the fluid flow and the formation of dynamic forces.

2. The hydraulic damper according to claim 1, characterized in that the choke is a set of throttle washers installed in the channel made in the hull element with the possibility of dissipative energy dissipation of the flow of the working fluid in the heat.

3. The hydraulic damper according to claim 1, characterized in that the thickness of the shim is defined from a condition specifying a maximum damping force.

4. The hydraulic damper according to claim 1, characterized in that the annular ledge of the shim is made of a radial hole with exhaust leaks from the bearing and sealing elements into the drain cavity.



 

Same patents:

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Damper // 2327067

FIELD: mechanics.

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Hydraulic damper // 2457375

FIELD: machine building.

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EFFECT: simplified design, decreased sizes and weight.

1 dwg

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