Method of control of multiple-effect evaporator with natural circulation head evaporator
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method of control of multi-effect evaporator with natural evaporation head evaporator includes measurement and regulation of consumption of the initial solution and steam in the heating chamber and in the mortar space of the head evaporator and the boiling temperature of the solution, and the pressure of heating steam and the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber of head evaporator are measured, based on the pressure of heating steam the temperature of its saturation and the difference between it and the solution temperature at the outlet of the heating chamber Δt1 is calculated, as well as the difference between the temperatures of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber and the bioling temperature of the solution Δt2. With that, if Δt1 reduces to the value mentioned, e.g. 5°C, then the steam is supplied to the mortar space with consumption, corresponding to the amount of steam passing through the 0.3 section of the pipe during 1-2 minutes, if Δt2 decreases to the value lower than specified, e.g. to 3°C, the steam is supplied to the mortar space with consumption, corresponding to the total cross section of the pipe, and after reaching the setpoint value, e.g. 5°C the steam supply is stopped.
EFFECT: method enables to stabilise the operation of the apparatus, to increase plant efficiency and reduce the steam consumption for evaporation.
The invention relates to the field of control systems. It can be used in chemical, metallurgy, energy and other industries that use evaporation plant.
Upon evaporation of the solutions, having in its composition crystallizing and nicepeople components, an important issue is ensuring the long-term and reliable operation of the evaporator with high performance. These components when the evaporation is allocated on the heat exchanger tube, so that the capacity of the plant is reduced. Particularly strong is the selection of these components, if the solution is boiling in the tubes, to exclude what evaporators tend to make the area of the boiling solution from the tubes.
In evaporators with natural circulation guaranteed removal zone boiling heat transfer tubes is the application of reverse circulation. In such devices the solution in the tube moves down, warming at the same time, and boils in lifting the pipe, where the main selection of salts. However, this apparatus is very sensitive to sudden changes in mode of operation, especially in reducing the pressure of the heating steam, which often occurs during operation. As a result, as experience shows, the normal operation of the apparatus is broken: qi is colace solution "flips", and he begins to move through the heat exchange tubes in the opposite direction. While the solution is boiling in the tubes, and the productivity of the apparatus, and all installation falls sharply.
To correct the situation described has to stop evaporation with the installation, terminating the supply of heating steam on it. Stop usually lasts until the cessation of circulation of the solution. Then install the newly set up in such a way that the solution in the tubes of the apparatus of the natural circulation moved in normal - "facing" direction, i.e. from top to bottom.
To prevent "rolling" circulation in the apparatus facing with natural circulation through the steam in its mortar space. The steam facilitates the column of solution in lifting the pipe and does not give the solution to change to the desired direction of movement despite the reduced pressure heating steam. However, there is no need to file pairs in the mortar space constantly, because this leads to cost overruns and performance. Couples should be submitted only when there is a danger of "turning" of the circulation apparatus. This requires the use of a management system that will ensure stable operation of the apparatus, thus achieving improved performance evaporator installation and reduced steam consumption.
A device for automatic regulation of the evaporation process in the evaporator apparatus of the natural circulation (see A.S. USSR №1256758, CL B01D 1/30, G05D 27/00,1985), containing sensors expenses source and one stripped off solutions, connected through the ratio controller with actuator, sensor steam pressure in the heating chamber, the speed sensor circulation, mounted on the circulation pipe evaporator and coupled with the regulator, the regulator of the original solution and steam, characterized in that it additionally contains block definition of the sign change signal, the switch of the steam flow, the first and second differential units, with the pair of pressure sensors and the speed of circulation is connected to the inputs of the respective differential blocks whose outputs are connected to the block definition of the sign change signal, the outputs of which are connected with the camera set speed control of the circulation and with one of the inputs of the switch, the other input connected to the output of the speed controller circulation, and the outputs of the switch are connected to cameras set flow regulator of the original solution and the flow regulator pair, connected to the sensors of the steam flow.
The purpose of the known solution is to increase the performance of the evaporator, and prodolzhitelnost operation in which he enters. This is a stabilization of the flow of steam to the apparatus and to stabilize the flow of the original solution is adjusted depending on the speed of circulation of the solution. Moreover, the flow control one stripped off solution is given by the ratio of costs of the original and one stripped off solutions.
A disadvantage of the known solutions is that the regulation of evaporator is made by changing the speed of the circulation in it. In the lower level and the speed of circulation of the solution, the boiling zone will enter the heat exchanger tube, which will lead to increased allocation nicepeoplemusic and crystallizing salts in them. As a consequence, the plant capacity will decrease, and will also decrease the period of its operation.
Another disadvantage of the known device is that the adjustment work is carried out by changing the steam pressure in the heating chamber. The increase in the pressure leads to an increase of the solution temperature in the apparatus, resulting in an increase in the allocation of scale-forming salts in tubes having a generally inverse solubility. As a consequence, the performance decreases.
Closest to the claimed technical essence is a method of controlling a multi-effect evaporator in which the plant with natural circulation in the first case and with a forced - in other cases according As the USSR №1455413, CL B01D 1/00, G05D 27/00, 1986, which consists in changing the flow rate of the steam supplied into the mortar space of the first housing depending on the flow of the original solution, its concentration and the concentration of the target component in the vaporizing solution, and measurement of the concentration of the target component in one stripped off the solution, wherein the measure: in the initial solution concentration of non-target component, in the first case - the boiling temperature of the evaporating solution, and the concentration of the target component in one stripped off the solution to support the change in the flow rate of the starting solution, the consumption of steam in the mortar space first hull support in accordance with the specified expression.
The main goal of applying this method of control is to increase the efficiency of evaporation of multicomponent solutions by preventing crystallization of non-target component in the first case.
This method is adopted as a prototype.
There is a method of control provides reliable operation of the first housing evaporator evaporator with natural circulation in conditions of exclusion allocation from the solution of the crystallizing component. In the mortar space of this device, along with the heating chamber, the steam is fed CHP. P is giving the pair is thus to the concentration of the crystallizing component does not exceed its solubility in the solution when the temperature of the solution in the apparatus. This increases the stability and reliability of the evaporator.
The disadvantage of this method consists in frequent supply of steam into the mortar space first building a multi-effect evaporator. The result is a dilution privelage solution, which leads to performance degradation of the installation.
Another disadvantage of the known method is that for a constant supply of steam to maintain a constant capacity is increased steam flow to evaporation. In this case, steam is fed into the mortar space of the first housing, goes directly into the heating chamber of the second housing. This reduces by one the frequency of use of the steam in the evaporator plant.
In addition, the disadvantage of this method consists in the absence of thermal criteria normal operation of the evaporator with natural circulation, which should be responsive control system. In the known method set the action of the control system based only on the conditions of the concentration mode evaporator to avoid allocation from the solution of the crystallizing component. At the same time, as p is found the experience of such equipment, thermal parameters of the mode is much greater than the concentration, each of them is able to provide not less influence on the action of the apparatus with natural circulation, and, in General, they are shown much often. The probability of change of thermal parameters evaporator is substantially higher.
Also the disadvantage of this method is that it does not stipulate the actions of the control system in case of pressure drop of the steam entering the first unit body. It is this factor that occurs during the operation often enough, is the greatest danger to save the normal operation of a device with natural circulation, and the entire evaporator. When the pressure of steam decreases the intensity of the first housing and the amount of evaporated water in it. When this reversed circulation in the unit may "roll over". As a result, the installation has to stop and then start again. Due to set out the overall performance of the evaporator is reduced.
The marked disadvantages of this method are associated with an almost constant supply of steam into the mortar space of the first housing evaporator and the absence of thermal criteria normal operation of the evaporator eats with the public circulation. This ensures reliability evaporator with natural circulation of the solution only when the change of the concentration mode evaporator. However, such a device, operating the first housing evaporator can operate without a constant supply of steam into the mortar space and in the case of change of thermal profile settings. The need in the steam flow occurs only in some cases when critical conditions to ensure stability.
Based on the foregoing and on the basis of the analysis of the disadvantages of the known technical solutions, the authors proposed a method of controlling a multi-effect evaporation plant with the first body with natural circulation, allowing to supply steam into the mortar space of the apparatus is not continuously, but only when necessary. This will give you a stable operation of the apparatus, increased plant productivity and reduced steam consumption for evaporation.
To solve this technical problem applying the method of controlling a multi-effect evaporation plant with the first body with natural circulation, including the measurement and regulation of the costs of the initial solution and steam in the heating chamber and into the mortar space of the first housing and the boiling point of the solution. The new way is what about, what it measures the pressure of the heating steam and the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber of the first housing, the pressure of the heating steam calculate the temperature of saturation and the difference between it and the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber (Δt1), as well as the difference between the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber and the boiling point of the solution (∆T2), if ∆ T1is reduced to a predetermined value, for example 5°C, the solution space serves vapor with a flow rate corresponding to the quantity of steam passing through a 0.3-section pipe steam for 1-2 minutes, if ∆ T2decreases to a value less than specified, for example up to 3°C, the vapor in the mortar space served with a flow rate corresponding to a full section of the pipe, and after reaching the value Δt2specified value, for example, 5°C steam into the mortar space stop.
The claimed invention meets the patentability criteria.
The claimed method of controlling a multi-effect evaporation plant with the first body with natural circulation is new, as in the prior art is not known solutions with the same set of essential features, as evidenced by the above analysis analogues.
The method of controlling a multi-effect evaporation plant with the first housing with natural the military circulation involves an inventive step, as for specialist technical differences are not explicitly follow from the prior art. This statement is based on the results of the applicants patent research. None of the identified technical solutions does not have signs consistent with the distinctive features of the proposed method.
The invention is industrially applicable and can be used in the above industries. All the features of the invention are feasible and reproducible. They are used to achieve the expected technical result in full.
Confirmation is described below description of a specific implementation of the claimed method of controlling a multi-effect evaporation plant with the first body with natural circulation, shown on the drawing, see figure 1. Her example shows a diagram chetyrehkorpusnoj counterflow evaporator, the first case which is evaporating device with natural circulation. This diagram shows how to implement the claimed method of the control.
Evaporation plant is chetyrehkorpusnoj counterflow and is composed of the first housing 1 - evaporator with natural circulation, the second 2, third 3 and fourth 4 sections connected in series by a couple. The original solution of 5 delivers the I in the fourth case 4 and passes sequentially through all corps prototechno couple. One stripped off the solution 6 is removed from the first housing - 1. The heating chamber 7 of the first building is heated by steam CHP 8. This steam is summed up in the mortar space of the housing through the pipeline 9.
Control system installation includes the flow of the source solution 10, the steam in the heating chamber of the first housing 11 and its mortar space 12. It includes control valves 13, 14 and 15 for regulating the expenses of the initial solution, the steam in the heating chamber and into the mortar space of the first housing 1. As part of the control system includes sensors for measuring the boiling temperature of the solution in the first body 16 and the temperature of the solution 17 at the outlet of the heating chamber 7 of this enclosure, the pressure of the heating steam 18 and blocks calculation and control 19 and 20.
The claimed method of control describes the installation as follows. When the effect evaporator steady state initial solution 5 is served in the fourth case 4. Consumption of this solution is measured by the flow meter 10 and is regulated by the regulating valve 13 by means of the computing unit and control 20. The steam in the heating chamber 7 of the first housing 1 is supplied by pipeline 8, the flow rate measured by the flow meter 11 and is regulated by the regulating valve 14 by means of the computing unit and control 20. Regulation is a measure of the cost of the initial solution and steam installation is performed in accordance with a specified algorithm her control.
During operation in the first housing 1 - evaporating apparatus of the natural circulation is measured by the following temperature sensors measure the temperature of the boiling solution sensor 16 and the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber 7 sensor 17, and the pressure of the heating steam sensor 18. The signals from these devices are receiving in the computing unit and control 19. In block 19 on the pressure of the heating steam is calculated, the temperature of saturation and the difference between it and the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber 7 (Δt1), as well as the difference between the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber 7 and the boiling point of the solution (∆T2). During normal process operation evaporator when the temperature difference Δt1and ∆ T2are within acceptable limits, the evaluation unit and control 19 holds the control valve 15 in the pipe 9 is closed. That is, pairs in the solution space of the first housing is not available.
In the case of deviations of the mode of operation of the evaporator set-up from normal, especially with a sharp decrease in pressure of the heating steam when the temperature difference Δt1(calculated by the block 19) is reduced relative to the current value to a predetermined value, for example 5°C, and when there is a risk that the stability of the first housing,the signal computing unit and control 19 control valve 15 opens. In this case, steam CHP steam pipe 9 enters the mortar space of the first housing 1 is installed. Consumption of this pair is measured by the flow meter 12 and is regulated by the regulating valve 15 by means of the block 19 so that it was equal to the amount of steam passing through a 0.3-section of the pipe 9 steam for 1-2 minutes. That is, the signal unit 19 of the control valve 15 is opened at the beginning of 0.3-section of the pipe 9 and is maintained in this position (1-2) minutes. After that, the valve 15 opens another 0.3-section of the pipe 9 and through (1-2) minutes opens fully. This mode of steam due to the need of exception hydraulic shock.
If the deviation of the mode of operation from normal faster than is the supply of steam into the mortar space of the first housing 1, the temperature difference Δt2decreases to a value less than specified, for example up to 3°C. In this case pairs in the solution space of the first housing 1, you must submit a full section of the pipe 9, i.e. the maximum flow.
Steam CHP in the mortar space of the first housing 1 is carried out until, until you restore the normal process mode evaporator. Disabling steam is produced when the value of the temperature difference Δt2on asaeda and reaches the preset value, for example 5°C. in this case, the signal computing unit and control 19 control valve 15 is closed.
Next, let us consider the necessity and sufficiency as each of the distinctive characteristics of the proposed technical solution, and the whole aggregate.
The stated set of characteristics of the proposed method can support the basic thermal parameters of the first housing evaporator system with natural circulation, characterizing the stability of its mode. The stability and sustainability of the work first block determines the effectiveness of the evaporator. In the proposed method of control in addition to the basic settings of the apparatus of the natural circulation also noted the limits of their changes, capable of stable operation of this device. In addition, the conditions of return the device to normal operation. Marked parameters and working conditions of the apparatus of the natural circulation of the solution in the first housing evaporator were proposed on the basis of operating experience.
Measuring the pressure of the heating steam and the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber of the first housing and the calculation of the saturation temperature of steam and the difference between it and the temperature of the solution at the output of g is eUSA camera Δt 1and the difference between the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber and the boiling point of the solution ∆ T2allow to define the most important parameters of the device with the natural circulation of the solution. This is evidenced by the experience of the operation of such apparatus, on the basis of which was defined as the range of stable operation.
The temperature difference Δt1characterizes, in fact, the driving force of the evaporation process in the apparatus. From its size depends on the flow rate of the evaporated water in the apparatus, i.e. the intensity of his work. The temperature difference Δt2also determined by the amount of evaporated water. The value of Δt2characterizes the circulation rate of the solution in the apparatus, which, in turn, depends on the flow rate of the evaporated water. Moreover, it is the value of ∆ T2indicates the current value of the speed of circulation of the solution in the apparatus and the intensity of his work.
The decrease in the value Δt1talking about lowering the vapor pressure CHP and about the reduction of the driving force of evaporation. As a consequence, dramatically reduced the intensity of evaporation in the first case evaporator. As a result, in the evaporating apparatus with reversed natural circulation last "flips" and the solution boiling in the tubes. It is a drop in the value Δt1as has shown experience, is Erwin signal about the upcoming "turning" circulation. Change of size ∆ T2delayed and occurs only in a few minutes. If the time to notice a decrease in the value of Δt1and file pairs in the solution space of the apparatus, the "curl" circulation can be excluded, while maintaining its performance at an acceptable level of stability actions evaporator.
According to the experience of evaporators with reversed natural circulation decrease in ∆ T1to a predetermined value, for example 5°C, indicates a decrease in the driving force of evaporation by approximately one third. While the device is still the circulation of the solution in the desired direction, although at a slower rate. If at this point using the system management file in the mortar space pairs, the circulation does not "roll over"and the phone will continue to work. Thus will be saved stability actions evaporator.
The supply of steam into the mortar space, the device must be carried out with a flow rate corresponding to the quantity of steam passing through a 0.3-section pipe steam for 1-2 minutes. Such consumption while supplying the vapor is optimal. Its increase leads to a hydraulic shock due to the formation of large vapor bubbles and their collapse. The reduction in the rate of steam supply compared with the decree of the Noi can lead to "flipping" the circulation in the apparatus, as introduced in the mortar space pair may not be enough to maintain the circulation in the desired direction.
If, despite the supply of steam into the mortar space, the circulation rate continues to fall, the apparatus is required to submit the maximum amount of steam. Critical fall velocity of circulation demonstrated by the decreasing temperature difference Δt2. When this critical value ∆ T2as has shown experience, is the value, approximately equal to 3°C. by reducing ∆ T2to the specified value pairs in the mortar space, you must submit a full section of the pipe, i.e. the control valve 14 must be fully open. Moreover, it should be noted that the change Δt2as noted above, occurs with a delay of a few minutes, compared to the change Δt1. Therefore, the reduction of ∆ T2up to 3°C occurs after the control system in the mortar space of the apparatus already filed pairs. As a consequence, the full opening of the control valve 14 will not cause hydraulic shock.
Steam flow into the mortar space unit full cross-section of the pipe when the value of Δt2more than 3°C will overrun the pair, as introduced earlier, a smaller number of pairs is sufficient to maintain the circulation. If ∆ T2less than 3°C, t is supplied, the pair will not be enough to ensure the normal operation of the apparatus, and circulation "capsize".
According to the claimed method of controlling evaporation install steam flow into the mortar space of the first case is when the deviation mode evaporator from normal. Talking about it measured during operation of the values of the temperature differences Δt1and ∆ T2. Over time, normal operation of the apparatus of the natural circulation will gradually recover. The main indicator of this is the increase in ∆ T2after reaching the values which a given value, for example 5°C, the steam flow into the mortar space stop.
As shown by experience, the value of Δt2indicates stable operation of the apparatus, and applying steam in the mortar space is no longer necessary.
Thus, the claimed method allows you to feed steam into the mortar space of the first housing to stabilize its operation only when the deviation of the mode evaporator from normal, when fears arise in stability evaporator with natural circulation. The rest of the pairs in the mortar space is not available. Due to this, compared with the prototype provides improved performance and reducing steam consumption. Marked technical achiev that achieved due to the fact, in the proposed method identifies the main thermal parameters for the action evaporator with natural circulation, ensuring its stable operation, as well as by maintaining them in the specified range.
The use of the claimed method of controlling a multi-effect evaporation plant with the first body with natural circulation helped to stabilize the installation. Due to this, her performance was increased by 10%, and the cost of steam is reduced by 5%.
The method of controlling a multi-effect evaporation plant with the first body with natural circulation, including the measurement and regulation of the costs of the initial solution and steam in the heating chamber and into the mortar space of the first housing and the boiling point of the solution, characterized in that the measured pressure of the heating steam and the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber of the first housing, the pressure of the heating steam calculate the temperature of saturation and the difference between it and the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber Δt1and the difference between the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber and the boiling point of the solution ∆ T2while if ∆ T1is reduced to a predetermined value, for example, up to 5°C, the mortar space serves vapor with a flow rate corresponding to the quantity of steam passing che is ez 0.3-section pipe steam for 1-2 minutes, if ∆ T2decreases to a value less than specified, for example, up to 3°C, the vapor in the mortar space served with a flow rate corresponding to a full section of the pipe, and after reaching the value Δt2specified value, for example, 5°C., the supply of steam into the mortar space stop.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device includes the following: continuous monitoring device of percentage of soaked carbon band; limit stops; time sweep unit of item winding; monitoring unit of volumetric distribution of binding agent; monitoring unit of shift parameters of binding agent in structure of wound item; monitoring unit of kinetic properties of binding agent in surface layer; interface unit to information display device; display device of information and communication between them.
EFFECT: increasing monitoring efficiency of manufacturing process of items by winding method and improving the quality of the item.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for control of the service life of the items made from A85 grade aluminium and operated under creep conditions. Creep control method of A85 grade aluminium involves attachment to the item from aluminium of one of the metal plates having work function that is different from aluminium. At attachment of the above plates the contact difference of potentials appears. Depending on value of potential contact difference the creep process is either slowed by connection of plate from Pb, Ti, Fe, Cu, or accelerated by connection of plate from Zr, Ni.
EFFECT: increasing service life of aluminium items.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of synthetic carnallite. Proposed method comprises stabilising dissolution temperature, stabilising useful component concentration in varying stock consumption and determining useful component in flows entering the process. In varying said consumption relative to preset magnitude, useful component consumption is adjusted. Useful component comprises, apart from potassium chloride, magnesium chloride. Its concentration on feed stock flow is stabilised by evaporation of magnesium chloride initial solution. Additionally, content of magnesium chloride in evaporated solution is measured to calculate flow rate of evaporated solution by the following expression: where is flow rate of evaporated magnesium chloride solution, t; GKCl is potassium chloride flow rate per 100% of the product, t; is specified content of MgCl2 in evaporated solution, 35±0.5 %. Calculated magnitude is loaded in solution consumption control system as a setting point.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of control.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the following steps: (a) feeding a stream containing carbon and an oxygen-containing stream into a reactor in given ratio O/C, (b) at least partial oxidation of the stream containing carbon in a gasification reactor to form a gaseous stream of a product containing at least synthetic gas, CO2 and CH4, (c) determining content of CO2 in the stream of product obtained at step (b), (d) comparing content of CO2 determined at step (c) with predetermined content of CO2 as a result of which the value of the difference between content determined at step (c) and the predetermined content can be obtained, (e) controlling the ratio O/C at step (a) based on the difference value obtained at step (d), where 'O' denotes mass flow of molecular oxygen O2, which is present in the oxygen-containing stream, and 'C' denotes mass flow of material containing carbon, except any optional carrier gas or water.
EFFECT: high accuracy of controlling quality of the product.
9 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: main and auxiliary materials are added at speeds of transition process flows or stabilised condition depending on value of control signal. Actual speeds of flows monitor command speeds of flow. Device provides for dynamic control over instant and integral error for specified range of control.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities.
16 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: physics; control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods and devices for regulating processes and can be used in chemical industry during production of cyclohexane. The method of regulating streams in the production of cyclohexane comprises heat exchangers, condensers, hydrogen and benzene hydrogenation reactors, an end product cooler, a separator with benzene and hydrogen flow valves and sensors, temperature sensors in the hydrogenation reactors, level sensors in the end product cooler, connected to a controller. The method also comprises a benzene circulation loop with a pump, a container and a pressure sensor, collectors for distributing benzene and hydrogen to standby units, apparatus for removing trace impurities from benzene, a liquid cyclohexane pipe, shut-off valves, additional temperatures sensors in hydrogen and benzene hydrogenation reactors, and a pressure and residual gas flow sensor. Benzene and hydrogen are fed from the container with a pump and shut-off valves along the circulation loop to benzene and hydrogen distribution controllers. The initial mixture is heated and directed through heat exchangers and shut-off valves into the apparatus for removing trace impurities from benzene and into hydrogen and benzene hydrogenation reactors. The weighted average temperature of the mixture is determined and is regulated through supply of condensate.
EFFECT: wider range of application, increased output and quality of obtained cyclohexane.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: oil-and-gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention related to oil-and-gas production and meant multiphase fluid for oil and gas composition analysis. Method executed in on - line regime. From the sources flow transported as a mixed flow via single pipeline. In and after the pipeline execute composition measurements, at least on of the mixed flow phases. It is analysed with device, which uses mixed flow fluid probes, the measurement results sent to computing device, which calculates flow form every source with help of separation algorithm that uses measured mixed flow, analysed composition of at least one phase, associated with every source.
EFFECT: distribution of backward flow to well or reservoir reliability increase in oil and/or gas production systems.
24 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: first version of the method involves the following steps: distillation of a mixture which contains methyl iodide and acetaldehyde in a distillation apparatus in order to obtain an overhead fraction and a residue, measuring density of the said overhead fraction, determination of relative concentration of methyl iodide, acetaldehyde or both in the overhead fraction based on the measured density and regulation of at least one process variable, associated with the said distillation apparatus. As a response reaction to the said measured density or relative concentration calculated from the measured density, the said process variable is selected from heating intensity, column pressure, the composition fed, condensate composition and coefficient of flow reversal.
EFFECT: effective reduction of amount and removal of acetaldehyde and methyl iodide from a carbonylation system.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: personal demand items.
SUBSTANCE: measurement of density of aerated food product during its making is performed on aerated product in area past shear processing node used for formation of aerated material; at that, far enough from the node in order to maintain product in balanced condition. Then rate of aeration gas injection in area before shear processing node may be determined in order to equalise the difference between preset and measured density of product. Besides gas injection with lower solubility may be used in order to reduce time required for product density balance. Disturbances of density of formulation base material earlier in the process also may be monitored and compensated by means of gas flow rate control in order to support maintaining of desired density of product.
EFFECT: safe monitoring of product density.
20 cl, 12 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: physics, measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to facilities for odorisation of natural gases and may be used in gas, oil and other industries. The result is provided due to the fact that working, consumption tanks are used, as well as reservoir for storage of odorant, which are connected between other by pipelines, odorant is supplied into working reservoir from reservoir for its storage by means of creation of pressure difference between reservoir for its storage and working reservoir, afterwards, odorant is pumped from working reservoir into consumption reservoir, from which odorant is dosed into gas line, proportionally to gas consumption. Besides odorant is pumped from working reservoir into consumption reservoir by excess pressure from high pressure gas line, and in consumption reservoir pressure is created, which is equal to pressure in low pressure gas line, level of odorant in consumption reservoir is maintained as permanent with the help of float valve, and in working reservoir odorant level is controlled by detectors of upper and lower levels, process of working reservoir filling with odorant and its pumping into consumption reservoir is done by signals from level detectors with the help of electric valves, and batching is done from system of commercial accounting of gas consumption.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of batching.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to plasma chemical reactions and can be used in chemical engineering devices, particularly in processes suitable for condensation of carbon or formation of an oxide film on walls of the quenching apparatus. The apparatus has a housing, a connecting and an end flange, having supports with bearings inside, and a shaft on which brushes are uniformly attached with shift of 90° on the length on spring-loaded rods.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities of the apparatus for quenching a stream of hot gas.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises absorber and regenerator. Absorber comprises CO2 absorption section and water rinsing section. Said absorption section allows flue to be exposed to adsorbent based on main amino compound to absorb carbon dioxide in flue gas. Water rinsing section allows decarbonated flue gas with reduced amount of carbon dioxide to get in contact with circulating rinsing water to reduce amount of amino compounds trapped by decarbonated flue gas. Regenerator release absorbed carbon dioxide from main amino compound-based absorbent. Proposed system comprises also device to concentrate rinsing water of aforesaid section. Concentrated water from said section is returned into said rinsing section.
EFFECT: additional decrease in concentration of main amino compound.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building and power engineering, particularly, to sea water desalination and device to this end. Evaporated water is distributed and fed to heat exchange sheet corrugation crests 2 by distribution device with four tubular manifolds 6 and control valves. Manifolds 6, desalinated water collectors 7 communicated therewith and control valves are arranged in every two evaporation stages. Each said stage accommodates seven adjoining sheets. Evaporated water is fed into collector 6, the first top one, via control valve while additional water is fed at a time to lower three collectors 7 via their control valve in amount of 3-10 % of the entire water volume. Water is bypassed from all three collectors 7 into three collectors 6 wherefrom it is fed via radial holes 9 to distribution plates 11 arranged under each collector. Now, water flows on corrugation crests of underlying sheets 2. Water evaporates to flow into corrugation valleys and, via holes 4, onto corrugation crests of the next underlying sheets 2. Formed secondary steam is directed via holes 20 in walls 21 onto separator 22 and, further, from evaporator via branch pipe 23. Evaporated water is directed into brine plate and brine chamber and out from evaporator. Heating steam is fed simultaneously to all seven evaporation stages via branch pipe 16 and into heating steam chamber wherefrom is flows on channels of sheets 2, into secondary steam chamber and discharge branch pipe.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, longer life.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: inventions may be used in production of engines. Device is intended for preparing gas mix containing, at least, one of the following substances: reducing agent and its precursor. Proposed device comprises supply tank for water solution 45 of reducing agent precursor communicated with evaporation chamber 24, device to dispense said solution 45 into evaporation chamber 24 and evaporation chamber heater 27. Evaporation chamber is heated to 350-450°C whereat said water solution is completely evaporated. Hydrolysis catalyst 17 is arranged downstream of evaporation chamber 24. Hydrolysis catalyst 17 is furnished with means 31 to maintain uniform temperature therein. Heat capacity of hydrolysis catalyst 17 does not exceed 60 J/K.
EFFECT: ruled out local cooling, efficient hydrolysis.
12 cl, 24 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and pharmaceutical industry, particularly to a method for making a drug for osteoarthrosis and to a method of treating osteoarthrosis. The method for making the herbal preparation for osteoarthrosis applied for the purpose of electrophoresis wherein grinded dry raw herbs, including wild rosemary shoots, elecampane inula rhizomes and roots, common St. John's wort herb, wild camomile blossom, cowberry rhizomes and roots, black poplar buds, hop cones taken in certain proportions, extracted in 70% ethanol under certain conditions; the extracts are combined, purified by double separation, boiled out in vacuum, dried up in a spray dryer; the dry powder is used to prepared 20% herbal preparation in 25% aqueous dimethylsulphoxide. The method of treating osteoarthrosis aiding electrophoresis wherein the herbal preparation described above is applied on a pad to perform an electrophoresis procedure with modulation diadynamic currents.
EFFECT: preparation made by the method described above, and a method for diadynamic-current electrophoresis are effective for osteoarthrosis.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solar power engineering. Water flows into tight case of plant 1 via bottom branch pipe 3. Plant case inside is heated by solar radiation. Compressed air is fed via aerator 14 from receiver 8 of compressor 9. Air from plant case central part is bled via branch pipe 10 to inlet of compressor 9. Top surface of translucent baffle 4 is cooled by water fed by air lift 11 into distribution trough 15. Cooling water runs free over cooled surface of baffle 4 into water source. Water from formed steam-air mix is condensed on inner surface of said translucent baffle 4 to flow into condensate collection trough 6. Cleaned water is bled from trough 6 via branch pipe 7.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in chemical industry. Device 1 and method are used to evaporate, at least, one of the following reagents, i.e. solution of reducer precursor and reducer precursor. Device comprises, at least, one electrically heated heating zone 2. Said heating zone 2 comprises, at least, one electrical heater 3 with heating resistor 4 self-adjusted nearby significant temperature. Electrical resistor 4 is characterised by electric resistance variation curve related to temperature and having, at least, one kink point. Curve of derivative of said electric resistance variation curve, in temperature range related to said kink point, features full width at the level of semi-peak, equal to not over 40 K. In the range of significant temperatures, said electric resistance variation curve features rise exceeding 1 Ohm/K.
EFFECT: simplified and fast adjustment of evaporation.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cleaning liquefied hydrocarbon gases of methanol, said gases including mix of commercial propane and butane, commercial butane and propane, and may be used in gas condensate processing. Proposed method comprises extraction washing of said gases and their adsorption drying. After extraction washing, methanol is stripped from used water and condensed. Regenerated water is sent back to extraction washing stage. Note here that regenerated water contains not over 0.05% of methanol. Proposed plant comprises extraction washing unit and adsorption unit. Note here that said plant incorporates extraction water regeneration unit with its water outlet communicated with extraction washing unit and methanol outlet is communicated with methanol condensation apparatus.
EFFECT: non-polluting high-efficiency plant, production of valuable byproduct, ie methanol.
9 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of dedusting to be used in heat engineering, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy. Proposed method comprises feeding gas to be cleaned into cyclone with top axial exhaust branch pipe, gas cleaning by centrifugal forces in forward motion of revolving flow from top to bottom and reversing cleaned flow upward, collecting entrapped dust in dust collector, spraying additional coagulating fluid jets onto collected dust flow to make mix of dust and fluid, pelletising entrapped dust and fluid mix at roller press arranged at dust collector bottom. Note here that linter finer particles of 0.01-1.0 mm-dia are fed in amount of 0.01-0.5 kg/m3 into cyclone top, in gas being cleaned.
EFFECT: higher degree of cleaning, higher strength of pellets.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: for removal of siloxanes from gas containing siloxanes and water, gas is expanded to cool gas down and to freeze water contained in gas. Then siloxanes and frozen water are removed from expanded and cooled down gas. Method may comprises gas compression before its expansion. Gas expansion stage may include gas expansion in turbine. Besides, it may include using excitation mechanism for actuating compressor and turbine. Ice and siloxanes may be removed from gas by means of cyclone separator.
EFFECT: removal of siloxanes from gas.
52 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: separating materials by evaporation.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises evaporating in several stages. In the preliminary stage, the aluminate solution is evaporated by the secondary steam supplied from the final stage and heated up to 20-60oC before supplying to the intermediate stage. In the intermediate stage, the solution is evaporated by live steam. Before supplying to the final stage, the solution is mixed with the circulating solution and is evaporated by the secondary steam supplied from the intermediated stage. The device comprises evaporating apparatus with vertical heat exchanging pipes. The end stage is connected with pipelines for supply of initial aluminate solution and secondary steam from the second housing and pipe line for discharging evaporated solution which is connected with the first housing and provided with a heater. The first housing is in communication with the second housing provided with circulation circuit and chamber for boiling of solution arranged above the heat exchanging pipes. The first housing is provided with circulation pipe and external chamber for boiling of solution.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex