Method of ultrasonic cavitation processing of fluids and objects placed therein

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of fluids by cavitation. Oscillatory system with fluid and objects consists of walls each being made up of membrane secured on its edges that features intrinsic frequency equal to first harmonic, allowing for oscillator weight. Ultrasound waves are emitted by all membranes at a time to produce superposition of waves with generation of standing acoustic waves or several waves with different frequencies. Amplitude of resonance oscillation of every membrane exceeds the threshold of acoustic cavitation for fluid and objects therein. Membrane frequencies and phase characteristics are selected to mate or to differ to produce cavitation effects with due allowance for medium characteristics. Oscillatory system may have arbitrary shape, flow or stationary mode of fluid motion.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of cavitation effects.

8 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of cavitation treatment of liquid media, as well as environments where specific content of water or other liquid phase exceeds 65-70% of the total mass of the treatment of items in the treated liquid medium. It is known that the acoustic ultrasonic cavitation can be effectively applied to various areas of the economy, which implements the following processes /1-6/:

- Dispersion;

- Homogenization and emulsification;

- Mixing;

- Disintegration;

- Deagglomerate.

In practice, this covers the processes for multicomponent fluids (emulsions, suspensions, aqueous solutions and systems), ultrasonic sterilization (disinfection) of water, milk, other products, cleaning tools and medical supplies, etc.

The method of processing liquid media, which is implemented in the circuit of the ultrasonic reactor, can be adopted for the prototype /1/. It lies in the fact that the ultrasonic wave in the fluid volume created with the help of core radiator, at the end of which is a source of oscillations, as a rule, piezoelectricity emitter. There are many variants of calculations form the core of the radiator and mounting on his butt several pietistically, but they are all aimed at increasing the amplitude of oscillation of the rod on ignem end and side walls /8/. This is due to the fact that the zone of developed cavitation in practice is measured by the size of a few centimetres from the surface oscillations. Thus, the bottom part of the rod is considered the most effective area, as between the flat end face of the emitter and the flat bottom is formed by a standing wave in the treated fluid. It is noted that the diameter of the end is harder to do with larger 50-70 mm Radiation from the cylindrical surface of the rod has a substantially smaller amplitude and a cylindrical divergence. Taking into account the reflected acoustic waves from the walls of the outer cylinder of a glass can be estimated that the optimal regime of stable standing flat coherent ultrasonic waves in the treated liquid medium, by analogy with minor area between the end face of the radiator and the bottom of the cylinder-glass, to obtain almost impossible. A complex picture is transmitted and reflected ultrasonic waves in the medium, the lack of coherence of the wave and the concentration of energy at the same frequency leads to the fact that to obtain emulsions with the size of the dispersed phase of less than 0.8 to 1.0 μm is practically impossible, the level of homogeneity does not exceed 20% of the main fashion. The volume of the treated fluid is limited.

Another alternative method of ultrasonic cavitation treatment of liquid media implemented in rotary pulse the ion homogenizers /2/.

The camera sound, due to the intermittent alternating fluid flow from the rotating system of the stator-rotor occurs ultrasonic wave with cavitation effects. This is an intermediate option between acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation. Such homogenizers got currently most popular. They are quite simple, allow the handling of large volumes of liquid, substantially cheaper than ultrasonic counterparts. Good speed homogenizers allow the emulsion to the size of the dispersed phase of ~1.5 μm on the main fashion, the level of homogeneity does not exceed 12-15%. Nevertheless, this method has some fundamental limitations.

This is due to the low efficiency of Electromechanical systems (up to 10%), which limits the power of the ultrasonic waves up to 1.5-2 watts/cm2not allows you to work with viscous media, with the processing of static volumes of fluid (in the volume of the stator-rotor) and imposes a number of other major restrictions.

The closest is essentially the way the cavitation treatment of liquid flow and the reactor for its implementation in patent No. 2246347 from 25.08.2003 LLC Astor-C".

The fluid flow is passed through the resonance cell cavitation reactor, where the liquid set a standing acoustic wave with specified which one is the volumetric power density. Resonance cell is a diaphragm with a hole in the housing, and the diaphragm is placed in a plane parallel to the oscillatory movement of the walls of the resonance cell.

Due to the undulating motion of the liquid medium within the reactor having one or more stationary cavitation fields.

However, this technology has a number of restrictions on use. This is due to the fact that the liquid medium inside the reactor has limited cavitation effects, which will vary depending on the hydraulic regime of the flow and its properties. In the process, circular flow of the treated fluid through the reactor, its properties, such as viscosity emulsions, suspensions, can vary within wide limits. Difficult is the use of this method for processing objects that are placed into the liquid medium from the outside. In addition, it was repeatedly noted that cavitation effects significantly increase if the liquid to be treated at two different frequencies. At 5, p.60/ States that "while ultrasonic waves of two different frequencies (22-44 kHz) observed a significant increase in the efficiency of cavitation, much more than in a linear summation of the effects of each of the fields of different frequencies".

In the prototype of the processing fluid at different frequencies is problematic.

The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency (power and amplitude of the acoustic waves, coherence) cavitation effects on the treated liquid medium and placed in an environment objects while limiting the power of ultrasonic emitters.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the vibrational system with liquid medium and objects consists of wall-surfaces, each surface is fixed on the contour of the membrane, for example on a rigid frame, having a natural frequency with regard to added masses of pathogen variation of the first harmonic, the radiation of the ultrasonic waves in the liquid medium is carried out simultaneously from all membranes vibrating system, providing the processed volume effect of superposition of waves with the formation of a standing acoustic wave or multiple waves with different frequencies, the amplitude of the resonant oscillation of each of the membrane exceeds the threshold of acoustic cavitation for liquid medium placed in her objects, the oscillation frequency and phase characteristics of vibrations of the membrane are selected so that they can match or be different to obtain the maximum required cavitation effects, taking into account the characteristics of the treated environment, while oscillatory system can the be of arbitrary shape, flowing or stationary mode of motion of a liquid medium.

In the proposed method uses the principle of sequential resonant amplification of acoustic waves at a given frequency, or multiple waves at a given frequency.

The first amplification oscillation amplitude is resonant characteristic of the membrane oscillations which are excited by an external source, for example the system.

It is known that membrane, in contrast to the plates do not have Flexural rigidity and have a higher frequency of natural oscillations. The frequency of oscillation of the membrane does not depend on its thickness, in contrast to the plates. The specific mode of operation of the membrane-plate depends on several factors such as the conditions attaching to the edges (tension), the amount of deflection, frequency of exposure, etc. /8/.

For a rectangular membrane with fixed edges, the solution of the wave equation in the set of frequencies of natural oscillations in the Cartesian coordinate system has the form /7/:

,

where C is the speed of wave propagation on vinyl;

kx, kywave numbers whose values are determined by the boundary conditions;

Lxthe side length of the plate is directed along the axis ox;

Lythe side length of the plate is directed along the axis of the Shelter;

jxI , jyis an integer equal to the number of antinodes of the wave along the respective sides of the plate.

To obtain maximum benefit from the membrane it is necessary to implement the resonant mode at the first fashion, when the number of antinodes is equal to 1 on both axes. In this case, all points of the membrane vibrate on the same frequency and phase with the maximum deflection in the center of the membrane. Figure 1 presents a typical resonant characteristics of the membrane with a size of 250×145 mm, 1.2 mm thick, made of nerjaveyuschei steel AISI 316 (similar HT)with the speed of longitudinal waves ~5800 m/s it is Seen that the resonant frequency ~23,2 kHz q of the vibrating system-cascade is ~7. This allows to significantly increase the amplitude of the acoustic wave in the fluid in contact with this surface, with limited powers applied to the system.

The second amplification stage charactistic acoustic waves is the formation of standing waves in the liquid or in the area of object processing due to the superposition of the reflected and incident waves from the walls-surfaces.

For example, if the oscillating system has the form of a rectangular tank that is open on one side, it may contain five radiating surfaces of the membranes. Figure 2 presents the reactor 4 radiating surfaces (5 side - supply pipes for liquids). The frequency of oscillations of membranes for 23.2 kHz and 46 kHz.

Dunn is the first method can be applied in various industries.

Figure 3 and Figure 4 shows the result of ultrasonic steps to the sand and concrete mix (frequency of 23.8 kHz). The cavitation effect reduces the size of the solid phase, end strength increasing by 20-25% while reducing the time of solidification by ~15% at the same temperature.

Figure 4 shows the result of dispersion of milk fat content of 1.5% at a frequency of 46 kHz. The obtained stable ultrafine milk emulsion (~500 nm, calibration 7) allows to produce products with extended shelf life and high nutritional value.

Figure 5 shows the effect of ultrasonic treatment (frequency of 24.8 kHz) paraffin oil. Experiments conducted with oil, where paraffin was 10%, 17%, 26% and 50% (optional paraffin was dissolved). It is shown that ultrasonic treatment leads to partial destruction of paraffins, rheological properties of paraffin oil significantly improved the crystallization temperature of the wax is reduced by ~15 degrees (43-45 degrees), the viscosity decreases in 2.5-3 times at the same temperature, time delay, taking into account thixotropic properties of paraffin becomes unlimited.

Figure Fig shows the effect of cavitation on the objects that can be processed in liquid medium. When the superposition of acoustic waves from all membranes is nabludaetsa significant strengthening of cavitation exposure. To evaluate the relative cavitation effects were used metal foil.

Thus, the proposed method cavitation treatment of liquid media and located in the environment of objects implementing and allows you to raise the efficiency with minimum energy consumption with the possibility of simultaneous processing at different frequencies.

LITERATURE

1. Bronin FA Study cavitation destruction and dispersion of solids in the ultrasonic field of high intensity. Author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of candidate of technical Sciences, MISA, 1967.

2. Worms VM, Odnako VG hydrodynamic and cavitation phenomena in rotary machines. - M.: Publishing house engineering, 2008.

3. Bergman L. Ultrasound and its application in science and technology. - M.: Foreign literature, 1956.

4. Sirotyuk MG Experimental study of ultrasonic cavitation. In kN. Powerful ultrasonic fields. Ed. by L.D. Rosenberg, 1968.

5. Margulis M.A. fundamentals of zvuchanie. Chemical reactions in acoustic fields. - M.: Higher school, 1984.

6. Khmelev V.N., Popova O.V. Multifunctional ultrasonic devices and their application in small industries, agriculture and at home: research monograph, Alt. GOS. Technology. Univ them I.I.Polzunov. - Barnaul: Publishing house of the Altai state technical University.

7. The top NS, the liner AB, Smirnov M.M. partial differential Equations of mathematical physics. M., publishing house of the Higher school, 1970.

8. Vibrations in engineering. The reference in 6 volumes, edited by V.N. Chelomei., M., engineering, 1979.

The method of ultrasonic cavitation treatment of liquid media and located in the environment of objects by placing them inside a mechanical oscillatory system, where the implemented mode acoustic cavitation due to resonance vibrations of the walls of the channel of rectangular cross-section and the addition of standing waves in the processing environment, characterized in that the oscillatory system with the liquid environment and the objects may have any shape, flowing or stationary, the driving mode of a liquid medium, each surface is fixed on the contour of the membrane, for example, on a rigid frame, having a natural frequency with regard to added masses of pathogen variation of the first harmonic, the radiation of ultrasonic waves in the liquid medium is carried out simultaneously from all membranes vibrating system, providing the processed volume effect of superposition of waves with the formation of a standing acoustic wave or multiple waves with different frequencies, the amplitude of the resonant oscillation of each of the membrane exceeds the threshold of acoustic cavitation for liquid placed in it the objects is, the oscillation frequency and phase characteristics of vibrations of the membrane are selected so that they can match or be different to obtain the maximum required cavitation effects, taking into account the characteristics of the treated environment.



 

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