Optoelectronic device for high-speed data transfer based on shift of distributed bragg reflector stop zone edge due to electrooptic effect

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: device includes at least one multilayer interference reflector and at least one resonator. In one version of the invention implementation the reflector works as a modulating element controlled by the voltage applied thereto. The stop zone edge is subjected to adjustment using electrooptic methods due to quantum-limited Stark effect in proximity to resonant mode which creates modulation of the reflector transmission factor thus entailing indirect modulation of light intensity. In another version of the invention implementation the optic field profile in the resonator represents the stop zone wavelength shift function, the device working as adjustable wavelength light radiator. In yet another version of the invention implementation at least two periodicities of refraction factor distribution are created in the reflector which enables suppression of parasitic optical modes and promotes high-speed direct modulation of intensity of light emitted by the device.

EFFECT: vertically integrated optoelectronic device serving for high-speed data transfer by way of direct or indirect modulation of emitted light intensity.

11 cl, 34 dwg

 

Reference to related applications

This application seeks protection for an invention which was disclosed in the application for a U.S. patent on the invention of US 11/453,979, filed on June 16, 2006, entitled "ELECTROOPTICALLY BRAGG-REFLECTOR STOPBAND-TUNABLE OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICE FOR HIGH-SPEED DATA TRANSFER", and provisional application for U.S. patent US 60/814,054, filed on June 16, 2006, entitled "RESONANT CAVITY OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICE WITH SUPPRESSED PARASITIC MODES".

Mentioned below applications included here as a reference.

The scope of the invention

The invention relates to the field of semiconductor devices. More specifically the invention relates to the field of high-speed optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes and laser diodes.

Description of the prior art

High-speed optoelectronic devices are widely used in modern data communication systems and telecommunications.

These devices can be divided into two categories: direct modulation by feeding current in the region of amplification and with external modulation. The advantage of direct methods of modulation is low cost.

Known from the prior art optoelectronic device, namely the laser edge emitting schematically depicted in figure 1(a). The active area is the area of the waveguide placed between two layers with a lower refractive index, and ensure that the surrounding total internal reflection waveguide for propagation of radiation. Such a device includes a substrate, a buffer layer, the lower cover layer for the layer waveguide with internal active medium, the upper cover layer and the metal contacts.

Structure (100) laser grown epitaxial method on a substrate of n-type (101). Further, the structure includes a coating layer (102) n-type waveguide (103), the coating layer (108) p-type and the layer (109) with the p-contact. The waveguide (103) includes a layer (104) of the n-type limiting layer (105) with the active area (106) inside the bounding layer and the layer (107) p-type. n-Contact (111) in contact with the substrate (101), and the p-contact (112) is placed on the layer (109) p-contact. Active area (106) generates light when the field is applied voltage forward bias (113). Profile of the optical mode in the vertical direction z is determined by the profile of the refractive index in the direction 2. The refractive index in the waveguide (103) is preferably larger than the refractive index in the coating layer (102) n-type and the coating layer (108) p-type. The profile of the refractive index preferably provides one optical fashion, closed inside the waveguide (103). Light in optical fashion undergoes total internal reflection from the boundary between the waveguide (103) and a top layer of n-type (102) and from the boundary between the waveguide (103) and a top layer (108) p-type. Thus, the light in the optical fiber is Russian fashion is trapped in the waveguide (103) and extends along the waveguide (103).

The waveguide (103) in the lateral plane is limited to the front face (116) and rear face (117). Propagating in optical fashion localized wave light can exit through the front face (116) and through the rear face (117). If on the rear face (117) apply special was highly reflective coating, the radiation (115) laser will come out only through the front face (116).

The substrate (101) is formed from any semiconductor material of group III-V or alloy semiconductor of groups III-V. for Example, this GaAs, InP, GaSb, GaP, or InP, which are typically used depending on the desired wavelength of laser radiation. In another embodiment, the sapphire, SiC, or [111]-Si is used as the substrate for lasers based on GaN, i.e. laser patterns, layers are formed of GaN, AlN, InN, or alloys of these materials. The substrate (101) doped with n-type or donor impurity. Possible donor impurities include, but are not limited to, S, Se, Te and amphoteric impurity, such as Si, Ge, Sn, while the latter are introduced under such technological conditions that they are pre-embedded in the cationic sublattice, to serve as donor impurities.

The covering layer (102) n-type is formed from a material approved by the lattice parameter or almost agreed on the lattice parameter with the substrate (101), which is transparent for tarirovannogo light and doped donor impurity. In the case of a GaAs substrate (101), the covering layer is n-type, preferably formed by a GaAlAs alloy.

Layer (104) of the n-type waveguide (103) obtained from a material approved by the lattice parameter or almost agreed with the substrate (101), it is transparent to the generated light, and doped donor impurity. In the case of a substrate of GaAs layer (104) of the n-type part of the waveguide is preferably formed of the alloy of GaAs or GaAlAs with Al content lower than that of the top layer (102) n-type.

Layer (107) of the p-type part of the waveguide (103) is formed from a material approved by the lattice parameter or almost agreed on the lattice parameter with the substrate (101), and it is transparent to the generated light, and doped with an acceptor impurity. Preferably the layer (107) of the p-type part of the waveguide is formed from the same material as the layer (104) n-type, but doped with an acceptor impurity. Possible type acceptor impurity includes, but is not limited to, Be, Mg, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn and amphoteric impurity type Si, Ge, Sn, while the latter are introduced under such technological conditions that they are pre-embedded in the anionic sublattice, to serve as acceptor impurities.

Coating layer (108) p-type consists of a material approved by the lattice parameter or almost agreed on the lattice parameter with the substrate (101), it is the pet is acnem for the generated light, and doped with an acceptor impurity. Preferably the coating layer (108) p-type is formed from the same material as the covering layer (102) n-type, but doped with an acceptor impurity.

The covering layer (109) p-type consists of a material approved by the lattice parameter or almost agreed on the lattice parameter with the substrate, it is transparent to the generated light, and doped with an acceptor impurity. The doping level is preferably higher than for the top layer (108) p-type. Preferably the metal contacts (111) and (112) are formed from multi-layer metal structures. Metal contacts (111) is preferably formed from structures, which include, but are not limited to, patterns of Ni-Au-Ge. Preferably the metal contacts (112) formed from structures that include, but are not limited to, patterns of Ti-Pt-Au.

Limiting layers (105) is formed from a material approved by the lattice parameter or almost agreed on the lattice parameter with the substrate, it is transparent to the generated light, and either religioun or lightly doped. Bounding layers are preferably formed of the same material as the substrate (101).

Active area (106) is placed inside the bounding layer (105) and is preferably formed by any insertion with a wide energy bandgap, which man is more than the width of the energy bandgap of the lower cover layer (102), or the layer (104) of the n-type waveguide (103)restrictive layer (105) of the waveguide (103)or layer (107) of the p-type waveguide (103), and the top coating layer (108). Possible variants of the active area (106) include, but are not limited to, a single layer or a multilayer system of quantum wells, quantum dots, or a combination of both. In the case of devices on a substrate of GaAs, examples of the active area (106) include, but are not limited to, a system of insertions of InAs, Ini-xGaxAs, InxGa1-x-yAlyAs, InxGa1-xAs1-yNyor similar materials.

Laser edge emitting can be applied, in principle, for data transmission with direct modulation.

Direct modulation of light can be realized also in a planar laser vertical cavity surface-emitting (VCSEL), also known as semiconductor vertically emitting laser (PITCHFORK). In figure 1(b) shows a schematic drawing of the known device VCSEL (PITCHFORK). The active area of the vertically oriented cavity bounded by two multilayer interference reflectors, usually distributed Bragg reflectors (CBR). The device includes a substrate, a buffer layer, a first distributed Bragg reflector, a resonator and storiespreteen Bragg reflector.

Known from the prior art VCSEL device (120) in figure 1(b) is placed in the cavity (123) active area (126), which is enclosed between the bottom mirror (122) n-type and the top mirror (128) p-type. The cavity (123) comprises a layer (125) n-type, undoped active element, which includes an active region (126), and layer (127) p-type. Preferably the aperture (124) of the oxide is introduced in order to determine the path through which current can flow. Bragg reflectors, each of which has a periodic sequence of alternating layers of low and high refractive index, are used as the bottom mirror (122) and the top mirror (128). The cavity (123) works as an element for generating light radiation. When the applied forward voltage drop (113)inside the cavity (123) active area (126) is generated light. The light goes out (135) through the optical aperture (132). The wavelength of the laser radiation from the VCSEL is determined by the length of the cavity (123).

Forming a bottom mirror (122) layers formed from materials that have been agreed by the lattice parameter or almost agreed on the lattice parameter with the substrate (101), is transparent to the generated light, doped donor impurity, and also have alternating high and low refractive indices. It is preferable to arrange the TBA VCSEL, grown on GaAs substrate, the mirror (122) is formed by the alternating layers of GaAs and GaAlAs or GaAlAs layers with varying aluminum content.

Layer (125) n-type resonator (123) is formed from a material approved by the lattice parameter or almost agreed on the lattice parameter with the substrate (101), which is transparent to the generated light, and doped donor impurity.

Layer (127) p-type resonator (123) is formed from a material approved by the lattice parameter or almost agreed on the lattice parameter with the substrate (101), which is transparent to the generated light, and doped with an acceptor impurity.

Forming a top mirror (128) layers formed from materials agreed by the lattice parameter or almost agreed on the lattice parameter with the substrate (101), which are transparent to the generated light, and doped with an acceptor impurity, and also have alternating high and low refractive indices. For VCSEL devices grown on GaAs substrate, the mirror (128) is formed by the alternating layers of GaAs and GaAlAs or GaAlAs layers with varying aluminum content.

Layer p-contact (129) formed of a material doped with an acceptor impurity. For VCSEL devices grown on GaAs substrate, the preferred material is GaAs. Preferably the level of the Les is investing above, than for the upper mirror (128). Layer (129) p-contact and metal (112) p-contact mytravelguide with the aim of obtaining an optical aperture (132).

Preferably placed in the cavity (123) active area (126) is formed by any insertion, the energy width of the forbidden zone which is narrower than the width of the energy bandgap of the lower mirror (122), and is narrower than the layer (125) n-type resonator (123), layer (127) p-type resonator (123) and the top mirror (128). Possible active region (126) include, but are not limited to, single-layer or multi-layer system of quantum wells, quantum wires, quantum dots and combinations thereof. In the case of a device on a GaAs-substrate, examples of the active region (126) include, but limited to, a system of insertions of InAs, In1-xGaxAs, InxGa1-x-yAlyAs, InxGa1-xAs1-yNyor similar materials.

When a forward bias (113) active area (126) generates optical gain. Then, the active region (126) emits light radiation, which paratragedy between the bottom mirror (122) and the top mirror (128). Mirrors have high reflectivity for light propagating in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the p-n junction, and the reflection coefficient for the bottom mirror (122) is higher than the reflection coefficient for the upper grain is Ala (128). Thus, the VCSEL device provides positive feedback for the light, which propagates in the vertical direction, and in the end leads to lasing. Radiation (135) laser goes through the optical aperture (132).

There are some disadvantages of using an existing VCSEL as a light source for direct modulation. The first problem is associated with a large number of parasitic modes that exist along with the vertical optical fashion, necessary for light emission. As in the case of laser edge emitting these parasitic fashion slow down VCSEL.

Secondly, high-speed modulation of the laser requires the creation of a very high density of photons in the cavity resonator. The core speed is determined by the so-called "-3dB" strip, which is approximately proportional to the frequency of the relaxation oscillations:

where gnmeans of differential reinforcement, ρ0- the average density of photons in the resonator and τpthe lifetime of a photon in the cavity.

The first way to increase the bandwidth of the laser radiation is to increase the pump current density, thereby increasing the population of photons in the resonator, for example, through reduction of the surface area of the device at the same current. When impulse-excited relaxation during the pulse mode, room temperature and applied voltage of 15 V was obtained frequency of 70 GHz. The problem of generation of direct modulation is overheating active region in the continuous wave and the associated saturation frequency of the relaxation oscillations. Another difficulty for direct modulation is the deterioration of the stability of the device. At very high current densities, the rate of deterioration may be unacceptably high.

Another serious problem in the direct modulation is the large differential capacitance of the device under forward bias voltage. Injected carriers reduce the effective thickness of the undoped layer in the p-n junction and increase capacity. Therefore, the implementation of ultra-high-speed VCSEL device is difficult. Similar problems arise when direct modulation using lasers emitting.

Another possibility of obtaining direct light modulation implemented in the laser with tilted cavity, which is described by the author of the present invention in the patent US 7,031,360 "TILTED CAVITY SEMICONDUCTOR LASER (TCSL) AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME", filed February 12, 2002, issued August 18, 2006 and patent application U.S. 10/943044 "TILTED CAVITY SEMICONDUCTOR OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICE AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME, filed September 16, 2004. Both incorporated herein by reference.

Shown in figure 2 laser (200) with a sloped cavity grown through the Yu epitaxy on the substrate (101) n-type and includes a multilayer interference reflector (m & e) (202) n-type, resonator (203), the top multilayered interference reflector (208) p-type and the layer (209) p-contact. Resonator (203) includes a layer (204) of the n-type limiting layer (205) and the layer (207) p-type. Restrictive layer (205) includes an active region (206). The laser structure (200) is limited to the front face (217) and rear face (216). Resonator (203) and a multilayer interference reflector (202) and (208) are arranged so that the resonant conditions for the resonator and multilayer interference reflectors are only inclined to the optical industry (220), light travels at a certain angle and has a certain wavelength. If the rear face (217) covered was highly reflective coating, laser radiation (215) enters only through the front face (216). Resonance conditions, which determine the optimal inclined fashion (220)set forth below. Resonator (203) has a first dispersion relation, which determines the wavelength for the inclined optical fashion as a function of angle. Each of the two m & e (lower m & e (202) and the top m & e (208)) is the dispersion relation, which determines the maximum bandwidth of the stop-zone (or "Bragg band reflection") in the region of the reflectance spectrum m & e for oblique incidence of light as a function of the angle of incidence of the radiation. Dispersion relations in the resonator (203), with one from the pile, and in m & e (202) and (208), on the other hand, are different. Preferably these dispersion relations coincide at one wavelength and, therefore, when one angle. It is at this wavelength and angle held in the cavity (203) optical fashion will greatly impact the bottom IOI (202) and the top m & e (208) and to exhibit a low level of losses. This wavelength is optimal. For wavelengths other than the optimum, the dispersion relations are already not the same, and optical fashion inside the resonator (203) is only weakly reflected from at least one m & e (lower m & e (202) or the top m & e (208)) or from both IOI. Then the optical mode has a high level of losses to the substrate and/or contacts. In this case, implementing a device with stabilized wavelength or the laser with tilted cavity, or light emitting diode. This device can be radiating from the surface, radiating from a face or provides the option of output radiation in the near zone.

In this approach, the minimum loss occurs for only one fashion at only one wavelength. However, this wavelength is not a suppression of parasitic modes. The device may have a lot of spurious modes, and only a small part of the radiation falls within the desired interval of angles, unless taken special constructive measures. In the whole is, laser with tilted cavity can be considered as a laser emitting with a specific wavelength is controlled by configuring multilayer interference reflector selective losses. Thus, the need to mitigate for the largest possible number of spurious modes (and associated lacheisserie recombination).

The effective weight of the different optical modes and their role in optoelectronic devices associated with the radiation pattern of the light for the light source. Figure 3 schematically shows the semiconductor structure (300), comprising a plane (336) optical oscillators, emitting light with a certain photon energy, which corresponds to a particular wavelength λ0in a vacuum. Plane (336) placed in the cavity (330)that is placed between the first semiconductor material (310) and the second semiconductor material (320). In practice, when the two semiconductor materials (310) and (320) is one material which is optically isotropic, which is the case for GaAs and other semiconductor materials of the III-V groups, the radiation of such oscillators is isotropic and spreading light (345) in all directions. Whatever the desired direction of light emission, Oder is DNA semiconductor environment supports a large number of spurious modes in the light radiation.

To reduce the number of spurious modes, requires a structured environment. One of the existing solutions is the application of the template to the surface in the form of a 3-dimensional pattern that prevents the propagation of light in a wide range of angles, choosing only the radiation to the desired angle and wavelength. This approach uses optical crystal structure with side processing. The disadvantage of this approach is the need for etching, which increases cost, reduces thermal conductivity and the amount of current flowing through the plate-carrier. To solve the necessary comprehensive epitaxy.

The figure 4 shows the diagram of distribution of radiation is depicted in figure 1(b) the device prototype. In addition to the radiation in the vertical optical fashion (135), light can be emitted in various inclined optical modes (455). Thus, there are many modes of radiation for VCSEL and devices with resonant cavity, in addition to the useful vertical or quasi-vertical fashion.

In figure 5(a) shows the schematic diagram of the device of the prototype is similar to the device (120) in figure 1(b) in relation to three groups of radiation. The device (500) is processed in such a way that it turns out mesostructure (520), as usually happens for optoelectronic devices with a vertical resonator. Izlucheniya consists of three groups of optical modes: study in vertically-optical fashion (135), the radiation modes in the plane of the waveguide propagation (565) and radiation inclined mod (455).

The idea suppress the most dangerous parasitic modes in the emission of light has been previously applied in the laser radiation from the surface of the vertical resonator with incremental Antimonopoly resonator. The patent application U.S. 11/099360 entitled "OPTOELCTRONIC DEVICE BASED ON AN ANTIWAVEGUIDING CAVITY"filed on 5 April 2005 by the authors of the present invention and incorporated herein by reference, discloses an optoelectronic semiconductor device comprising at least one resonator and one multilayer interference reflector. Preferably, the resonator is designed to have properties actualnode cavity. The resonator has a refractive index lower than the refractive index of the distributed Bragg reflector (CBR), so that the fundamental optical fashion device in the cavity is not localized. None of the optical modes with a significant overlap with the active medium is not able to spread in the transverse plane. Existing optical fashion are the modes propagating in the vertical direction or in a direction slightly inclined relative to the vertical, the angle of inclination less than the angle of total internal reflection at the boundary surface is poluprovodnikov-air, and the light in such optical modes may go through the right surface or through the substrate. Such a device reduces the parasitic optical fashion and improves the characteristics of optoelectronic devices, including the following types of devices: a planar laser is a vertical cavity laser with tilted cavity and radiation through the upper surface or the substrate, the photodetector with a vertical or sloping resonator, an optical amplifier with a vertical or sloping cavity light-emitting diode and other options. In this invention for the case of planar laser vertical cavity surface-emitting (VCSEL) most dangerous fashion are fashion, which can propagate in the plane along the oxide aperture, or so-called fashion "whispering gallery", which may be of sufficient quality to produce significant amplification of stimulated emission and the shortening of the radiative lifetime, however, such a dangerous fashion is prohibited. Fashion "whispering gallery", which are formed due to external mesogenic VCSEL and that are of good quality, filling the mesostructure from the outer border to ~R/n where R is an external mesoregion and n is the effective refractive index planar waveguide, also affect the performance of the device and can even cause the laser generation is savulescu, if ~R/n is within the size of the oxide aperture of the device.

Figure 5(b) shows a schematic diagram of the intensity distribution of the modes in the device Antimonopoly resonator. You can see that with this design is a large part of the emitted light is directed in directions which are inclined to the surface and is lost for laser generation. The important point figure 5(b) is the fact that the parasitic radiation is concentrated in a narrow range of angles in which the intensity of fashion effectively overlap with the active region.

Figure 5(C) shows a schematic diagram of the intensity distribution of the modes in the device with a waveguide resonator. In this case, the relevance inclined fashion weaker, however, about 35-50% of the radiation can be concentrated in the parasitic waveguide fashion that creates many problems for the device due to the formation vysokoemkih of whispering gallery modes that are associated with the oxide aperture or external diameter of the Mesa of the VCSEL device. Once the population reached, can begin a sharp increase in the rate of radiative recombination, which reduces yield and causes a higher current density to achieve vertical laser generating additional heat and, potentially, samulili device and/or increased noise.

Antiva Novotna design optoelectronic devices still have problems, associated with parasitic modes. In the transverse plane are fashion whispering gallery, interconnected with inclined vertical fashion, which can also be dangerous. Even if you can avoid it, other parasitic fashion continue to contribute to radiative losses, overheating of the device, albeit on a smaller scale due to the low q-factor.

Now, as for the spurious modes, there is a need in the way of approaches epitaxy, which would help to further reduce the parasitic modes, compared with the conventional VCSEL and antimonotone VCSEL structures.

Another problem with the use of directly modulated VCSEL for high speed data associated with the need for very high power density. This problem can be overcome if, instead of direct modulation to use indirect modulation. Indirect modulation with the use of opto-electronic effects when the reverse bias voltage has long been successfully applied in ultra-high-speed transfer devices operating at 40-60 GB/s for Example, the chart of "open eyes" was demonstrated at 40 GB/s in the case of electropolishing modulator after the transfer of 700 km

Because there is no need to direct modulation, this makes it easier to work with high-speed signal. The prior art known the dot diode photodetectors 60-100 GHz, using large megaprimer, and other devices.

Patent US 6,285,704, "FIELD MODULATED VERTICAL CAVITY SURFACE-EMITTING LASER WITH INTERNAL OPTICAL PUMPING", issued September 4, 2001, describes a VCSEL with fotonica. This VCSEL device can be modulated using an external electric field applied perpendicular to the active layer, that is, using the stark effect for intentionally altering the band gap of the active layer, thereby changing the wavelength of the radiation in the direction of resonance (and back) with an optical resonator placed between the upper and lower mirrors.

Therefore, the optical output is modulated by the electric field, and not injected charge carriers. However, because the active area of the device is given the constant population inversion, the application of reverse voltage to change the width of the forbidden zone may cause a very strong photocurrent that impoverishes pumped active region.

Patent US 5,574,738, "MULTI-GIGAHERTZ FREQUENCY - MODULATED VERTICAL-CAVITY SURFACE EMITTING LASER", issued November 12, 1996, discloses a saturable absorber placed in the distributed Bragg reflector in the VCSEL structure, which can be independently configured during manufacture or operation. Under controlled operating conditions saturable absorber, with the correct size and placement, zastavlyaa the VCSEL to self-pulsate (GHz frequencies) with the speed related to the local intensity, absorption, lifetime, carrier density in this saturable absorber. In one embodiment of the invention the efficiency of the saturable absorber can be controlled quantum-limited stark effect. However, the synchronization mode waves are usually very sensitive to the operating conditions of the device and achievable in a rather narrow range of conditions.

Patent US 6,396,083 OPTICAL SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE WITH RESONANT CAVITY TUNABLE IN WAVELENGTH, APPLICATION TO MODULATION OF LIGHT INTENSITY", issued may 28, 2002, discloses a device with a resonant cavity. The resonant cavity is limited by the two mirrors and at least one superlattice placed in the cavity and formed of a piezoelectric semiconductor layers. The device also includes means for injection of charge carriers in the superlattice. One disadvantage of this device is the necessity of using piezoelectric materials. Piezoelectric semiconductor layers are grown epitaxial techniques on a substrate of Cd0.88Zn0.12Te and include structure consisting of a layer Cd0.91Mg0.09Te layer and Cd0.88Zn0.12Te, each of which has a thickness of 10 nm. This structure is repeated about a hundred times. The device according to this patent is a bipolar device. Division n the bearers of charge on the piezoelectric superlattice creates great times to reduce population levels. The modulation wavelength and intensity modulation in this patent are always linked.

An electro-optical modulator based on quantum-confined effect of the Blind (QCSE) in the VCSEL device was disclosed by the authors of the present invention in the patent US 6,611,539, "WAVELENGTH-TUNABLE VERTICAL CAVITY SURFACE EMITTING LASER AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME", issued August 26, 2003, included here as a reference. The device includes an active medium that is suitable for generating growth and providing laser generation of this device, and dependent on the position of the region of the electro-optic modulator. The application of voltage to the modulator causes a shift in the wavelength of the laser generation. The absorption in the region of the modulator remains low. First of all, this device is applicable for data transmission with high speed when using the modulation wavelength.

Patent US 7,075,954 "INTELLIGENT WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING SYSTEMS BASED ON ARRAYS OF WAVELENGTH TUNABLE LASERS AND WAVELENGTH TUNABLE RESONANT PHOTO DETECTORS", issued July 11, 2006 inventors of the present invention and is incorporated here by reference, discloses a high-speed data transmission system, based on the conversion of the modulation wavelength in the radiation intensity. In this approach VCSEL laser with adjustable wavelength works in conjunction with selective wavelength photodetector on the side of the receiver. Modulation of donivan in VCSEL is converted into a modulation current of the photodetector.

Patent application US US 11/144482 "ELECTROOPTICALLY WAVELENGTH-TUNABLE RESONANT CAVITY AND OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICE FOR HIGH-SPEED DATA TRANSFER", filed July 2, 2005 by the authors of the present invention and is incorporated here by reference, discloses a high-speed data transfer system based on a device that has at least one element with adjustable wavelength controlled by the applied voltage, and at least two resonant cavity.

The figure 6 shows the schematic diagram of the planar laser with a vertical resonator and electronic intensity modulated radiation developed by the author of the present invention (US 11/144482). The device (600) includes a resonator with adjustable wavelength, which has a modulating element and the resonator with Svetogorsk element. The device (600) includes a substrate (101), preferably n-type, the first distributed Bragg reflector (122), preferably n-type, and sitosterolemia element (123), and the first conductive p-layer (134), the second distributed Bragg reflector (128), preferably undoped, the second conductive p-layer (663), filter element (652), which introduced the modulating region, the first conductive n-layer (664) and the third distributed Bragg reflector (658), which preferably religioun. Filter the second element (652) includes low-alloy layer is p-type or undoped layer (655), the area modulation (656) and low-alloy layer is n-type or undoped layer (657). Forward bias (113) attached to sitosterolaemia element (123) through the n-contact (111) and p-contact (612). Reverse bias (643) is attached to the modulating region (656) through the p-contact (641) and n-contact (642). Aperture (124) for the current injected between the first distributed Bragg reflector (122) and sitosterolin element (123), and between Svetogorsk element (123) and the first conductive p-layer (134). Aperture (654) for the current injected between the second conductive p-layer (663) and filter element (652), and between the filter element (652) and the conductive n-layer (664). Laser (635) exits through the third distributed Bragg reflector (658).

Part of the device, comprising a substrate (101), the first distributed Bragg reflector (122), sitosterolemia element (123) and the second distributed Bragg reflector (128)is planar laser is a vertical cavity. In addition, the device includes a filter element (652).

Preferably the layers of the modulating element (652) made of any material that has been agreed upon by the lattice parameter or almost agreed on the lattice parameter with the substrate and is transparent to the generated laser radiation.

The modulator is th region (656) includes one or more quantum pit one or more layers of quantum wires or quantum dots, and their combinations. In the private embodiment of the device according to Fig.6, the modulator operates at the application of the reverse bias (643).

7 schematically shows the functioning modulatory element (652) is shown in Fig.6 device (600). The operation of the modulator based on the quantum-confined stark effect. When you change the offset is changed and applied to the modulator electric field. Then the position of the peak of the optical absorption peak of the absorption shown by the solid line, is shifted to the position shown by the dashed line) is shifted due to the stark effect, as shown in Fig.7(a). According to the ratio of Kramers-Kronig relations between the real and imaginary part of the dielectric function of the medium, the shift in the peak absorption gives rise to a modulation of the refractive index of the modulator, as shown in Fig.7(b), where the curve of the refractive index, shown by the solid line, is shifted to the position shown by the dotted line. This leads to a shift of the resonance wavelength for the spectrum of reflection in the fashion vertical resonator depicted in Fig.7(C) position 7(d) (dashed line). This offset results in a match of the wavelength corresponding to the transparency of the modulator, the wavelength of the generated laser radiation is occurring and thereby to increase the output power of the device.

In another embodiment known from the prior art device region of the modulator operates under forward bias. The application forward bias leads to effect bleaching of the exciton, which further leads to alteration of the refractive index in the area of the modulator.

On Fig shows the principles of operation shown in Fig.6 planar laser with a vertical resonator and electronic tuning of the wavelength. On Fig(a) shows a simplified diagram of a device according to Fig.6, showing only the main components. Shows the elements include a substrate, a first distributed Bragg reflector, the first resonator (which includes the active region), the second distributed Bragg reflector, the filter section with the electro-optic modulation and the third distributed Bragg reflector.

On Fig(b) shows the spatial profile of the resonant optical fashion device when switching modulator in a resonant state. On Fig(b) graphically displays the absolute value of the electric field intensity in the mode of the optical industry. In the resonant state, the laser generates light at a wavelength of which corresponds to the resonant wavelength of the filter. Therefore, the resonant optical mode of the laser is a related fashion, which has a high intensity, as the first resonator, and in the filter. Therefore, the output power of the light is proportional to the field intensity in the air is high.

In figure 8(C) graphically shows the spatial profile of the resonant optical fashion device, when the modulator is switched to the non-resonant state. On Fig(C) graphically presents the absolute value of the electric field intensity in the mode of the optical industry. In the non-resonant state, the laser generates light at a wavelength that is different from the resonant wavelength of the filter. Therefore, the optical mode of the laser resonant wavelengths is fashion with a high intensity in the first cavity and a low intensity in the filter. Therefore, the output optical power, which is proportional to the field intensity in the air is low.

The change applied to the modulator bias voltage switches the device between the resonant state and some selected non-resonant condition. Output power, respectively, is changed between high and low intensity.

The resonant wavelength of the custom element is preferably configured electrooptical method using a quantum-limited stark effect. The setting is around the resonance wavelength of the other cavity or cavities that bring the modulation bandwidth of the system. Preferably the light-emitting medium is introduced into one of the resonators optoelectronic devices as light-emitting diode is intensity-modulated, or diode laser for the application of the injection current. Preferably the device comprises at least three electrical contact for the application forward or reverse bias, and can work as a planar laser with a vertical resonator, or as a modulator or as a light emitter (modulator) with a sloped cavity. However, such devices have problems that are associated with the requirements of very high precision when growing structures, because the device is very sensitive to the spectral position of the cavity modes in a resonant cavity with adjustable wavelength relative to the fashion of the VCSEL cavity. Assuming uneven growth for different materials used in the manufacture of the modulator and sections of the VCSEL device, there is heterogeneity in the working parameters of the device on the square plate. Another disadvantage is the fact that the power output is non-monotonic function of the applied voltage. In the absence of applied voltage (cavity are out of resonance) device has low power. Power becomes high when neko is the EOS voltage (cavity resonance) and again becomes low at higher bias voltages (cavity out of resonance).

Since the standard devices for data transmission and long-distance transmission of signals operating in the mode of "on-off", this non-monotonic nature of the dependence is highly undesirable.

Thus, there is a need to fully epitaxial structures for reliable ultra-fast way of modulating the intensity of the light radiation coming from the optoelectronic device. The necessary decisions as to direct and indirect modulation.

Summary of invention

Described vertically integrated optoelectronic device, which allows for ultra-fast data transfer using direct modulation of the intensity of light radiation, and conduct indirect modulation of the intensity and/or wavelength of light radiation, and a combination of these techniques. In one embodiment of the invention the device comprises at least one multilayer interference reflector with setting wavelength controlled by the supplied voltage, and one resonator. Multilayer interference reflector or part of the work as a modulating element so that the wavelength region of the stop zone of the multilayer interference reflector with adjustable wavelength is preferably subjected to electro-optic tuning is ice using quantum-limited stark effect near the resonance mode (or compound cavity mode), which leads to the modulation bandwidth functions multilayer interference reflector. Sitosterolemia element containing the active region, preferably introduced into the cavity or into one of the cavities, which allows the optoelectronic device to function as a light-emitting diode is intensity-modulated diode or laser when applying the injection current. Preferably the device comprises at least three contact for independent application forward or reverse bias on sitosterolemia element and modulating element and can operate as a planar light emitter vertical cavity or modulator or as an end of the light emitter or modulator.

Another variant of implementation of the present invention includes vertically integrated optoelectronic device with a multilayer interference reflector that contains the custom section, which allows the device to operate as a laser with adjustable wavelength, custom laser or photodetector with the resonant cavity for tuning the wavelength, provided that the optical profile in the active resonator or resonators is a function of the offset wavelength edge of the stop zone. Adding additional sections of the modulator allows the use is use in semiconductor optical amplifiers, the frequency converters or synchronous optical amplifiers.

Another variant implementation of the present invention includes vertically integrated optoelectronic device with at least one multilayer interference reflector in the vertical direction, which has at least two periodic dependence in the distribution of refractive index. At least one of periodicity or quasi-periodicity of the refractive index prevents the light emitted in the interval of angles, tilted relative to the specially selected direction, for example direction perpendicular to the layer planes. Preferably sitosterolemia element that emits light in a certain range of angles entered in one of the layers. Then the light is directed in the desired interval of angles. The device may also contain a cavity. Second periodic function in the distribution of refractive index preferably is selected to provide a high reflection in the vertical direction, which creates an first-class plane vertical cavity lasers (vertically emitting lasers). Effective suppression of spurious modes creates a high-speed mode of the device with a direct intensity modulation of light.

For another version of the OS the implement of the present invention is selected double periodicity in the distribution of refractive index to provide light emission in deviating from the vertical direction. Vertically integrated optoelectronic device with a multilayer interference reflector and the two periodicities works as a light-emitting diode, sverhdominantom diode, laser diode, single photon emitter or emitter of the associated photons. Double periodicity in the distribution of refractive index provides a high angular selectivity of the light emitted.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1(a) shows a schematic drawing known from the prior art device with the front radiation.

Figure 1(b) shows a schematic drawing known from the prior art planar laser with a vertical resonator.

Figure 2 shows a schematic drawing of a device operating in the fashion of high order, for example laser with tilted cavity.

Figure 3 shows a schematic graph of the distribution of radiation known in the prior art device depicted in figure 1(b).

Figure 4 schematically shows the semiconductor structure, which includes the plane of the optical oscillator emitting at a specific wavelength of light in vacuum or in an isotropic medium. The radiation of such oscillators is isotropic.

Figure 5(a) shows a schematic drawing of the device according to figure 1(b) in relation to three classes of radiation: radiation type, the vertical resonator, planar waveguide radiation and an inclined radiation.

Figure 5(b) shows a schematic graph of the intensity distribution to fashion a device with a waveguide resonator.

Figure 5(C) shows a schematic graph of the intensity distribution for fashion in the device Antimonopoly resonator.

Figure 6 shows a schematic drawing known from the prior art planar laser with a vertical resonator electronic modulating the intensity, which includes the resonator with adjustable wavelength with modulating element and the resonator with Svetogorsk element.

Figure 7(a) shows a schematic graph of the spectrum of optical absorption for resonance-absorbing element included in the known from the prior art device exciter resonator at zero and reverse voltage. Quantum-limited effect of the Shutter causes a red shift of the maximum absorption and broadening of the peak.

Figure 7(b) shows schematically the modulated spectrum of the refractive index for resonance-absorbing element included in the known from the prior art device exciter resonator at zero and reverse voltage. There is a strengthening of the refractive index at a particular wavelength (dashed vertical line), which can the be wavelength laser generation for planar laser with a vertical resonator.

7(C) shows the failure in the graph of the reflection coefficient for the resonator modulator with zero offset.

7(d) shows the dip in the reflection coefficient for the resonator modulator with reverse bias. Note that the transparency laser-modulator has increased. However, further increase in bias can reduce the opacity on the same wavelength.

On Fig(a) shows a schematic drawing is presented on Fig.6.

On Fig(b) shows a schematic graph of the absolute value of electric field intensity for the laser of the optical industry for a device according to Fig.6, when the modulator is in a resonant state.

On Fig(C) shows a schematic graph of the absolute value of electric field intensity for the laser of the optical industry for a device according to Fig.6, when the modulator is in a non-resonant state.

Figure 9 shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices, namely laser with surface radiation and modulation in intensity, which according to one variant of the present invention includes sitosterolemia element and a distributed Bragg reflector with adjustable bandgap, while the modulator is placed within a distributed Bragg reflectors for safe d who I am. Light emission can be carried out both from the surface and from the side of the substrate. It is also possible reverse option for the vertical orientation of the reflector with adjustable bandgap and the laser resonator. Can also be used aperture limited by the oxide.

Figure 10(a) shows a schematic graph of the absorption spectrum for resonance-absorbing element, integrated in the modulator-resonator device at zero and reverse bias. Quantum-limited effect of the Shutter causes a red shift of the maximum absorption and broadening of the peak.

Figure 10(b) shows a schematic graph of the refractive index for resonance-absorbing element, integrated in the modulator-resonator device at zero and reverse bias. There is a strengthening of the refractive index at a particular wavelength (dashed vertical line), which can be wavelength laser generation for planar laser with a vertical resonator.

Figure 10(C) shows the reflection spectrum of the modulator resonator at zero offset.

Figure 10(d) shows the reflection spectrum of the modulator resonator under reverse bias. Note that the transparency laser-modulator has increased. Further increase in voltage will reduce the transparency on the same wavelength.

On phose possible position wavelength laser generation in comparison with the modulated edge of the forbidden zone in the multilayer interference reflector.

On Fig(a) shows the schematic drawing shown on Fig.9.

On Fig(b) shows a schematic drawing of the profile of the absolute value of electric field intensity for laser optical fashion device according to Fig.9, when the modulator is in the state, providing a low reflection coefficient for the edge of the stop zone of the multilayer interference reflector.

On Fig(C) shows a schematic drawing of the profile of the absolute value of electric field intensity for laser optical fashion device according to Fig.9, when the modulator is in the state, providing a high reflection coefficient for the edge of the stop zone of the multilayer interference reflector.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices, namely laser with surface radiation and modulation in intensity, which according to another variant of the present invention includes sitosterolemia element and a distributed Bragg reflector with adjustable stop area, while the modulator is placed within a distributed Bragg reflector. To ensure a very low capacity section of the modulator can be used proton bombardment or ion implantation into the top of the Mesa modulator.

On Fig showing the n schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices, namely laser with surface radiation and modulated in intensity according to another variant embodiment of the invention.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices, namely laser with surface radiation and a sloped cavity and modulated in intensity, which includes sitosterolemia element and the multilayer interference reflector with adjustable bandgap, while the modulator is placed inside the multilayer interference reflector.

On Fig shows a view in cross section of the laser edge emitting and electro-optic modulation, comprising sitosterolemia element, the multilayer interference reflector with adjustable bandgap. Modulation absorption causes modulation of the light intensity on the output waveguide.

On Fig shows a view in cross section of the device according Fig in the perpendicular plane of the cross section.

On Fig schematically shows the principle configuration of the wavelength planar laser with a vertical resonator of the present invention with custom electro-optical bandgap and the Bragg reflector.

On Fig(a) schematically shows a device in which the second Bragg is Triatel switched to the opaque state.

On Fig(b) schematically shows the electric field for the resonant optical fashion device, while the second CBR switched to the opaque state.

On Fig(C) schematically shows a device in which the second Bragg reflector is switched to the transparent state.

On Fig(d) schematically shows the electric field for the resonant optical fashion device, while the second CBR switched to a transparent state.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices, namely laser with surface radiation and optoelectronic modulation wavelength according to another variant of the present invention.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices, namely the photodetector with the resonant cavity and optoelectronic modulation wavelength according to another variant of the present invention.

On Fig(a) shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices, namely slotted laser edge emitting, optoelectronic modulation according to another variant embodiment of the invention, while the multilayer interference reflector is switched to the transparent state.

On Fig(b) show the n schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices, namely slotted laser edge emitting, optoelectronic modulation according to another variant embodiment of the invention, while the multilayer interference reflector is switched to the opaque state.

On Fig(a) schematically shows an optical oscillator, emitting light with a certain photon energy corresponding to a certain wavelength in vacuum λ0when this optical oscillator placed in a medium with a modulated refractive index, so that the radiation is allowed in some areas, while the radiation in other directions is prohibited.

On Fig(b) schematically shows a periodic layered structure with the known spectra of reflection, which is shown in figures 22(C) 22(f).

On Fig(c)-22(f) shows the known from the prior art optical reflection spectrum for periodic layered structure as a function of the angle of incidence of light from the environment.

On Fig(C) shows the known from the prior art optical reflection spectrum for periodic layered structure according Fig(b) when the angle of light incidence θ=65°. The selected wavelength of light λ0looks to be located in the center of the forbidden zone of reflection at this angle.

On Fig(d) shows the known from the prior art optical reflection spectrum for peri is legal layered structure according Fig(b) when the angle of light incidence θ=55°.

On Fig(e) shows the known from the prior art optical reflection spectrum for periodic layered structure according Fig(b) when the angle of light incidence θ=40°.

On Fig(f) shows the known from the prior art optical reflection spectrum for periodic layered structure according Fig(b) at normal angle of incidence (θ=0°).

On Fig schematically shows the distribution of the optical field for one of the inclined fashion according to figure 5(b), with the highest intensity in the active region. You can see, in particular, that this mode has a maximum in the active region. For oblique modes of low intensity in the active region of the restriction factor is small and the corresponding radiation is weak. Thus, only a certain interval of angles causes high parasitic radiation losses.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic device according to another variant of the present invention. CBR in this device have two periodicity. The first frequency provides the CBR in the VCSEL structure to support vertical laser generation, and the second frequency provides Smoking area for light emission in the corresponding interval of the angles.

On Fig(a) schematically shows the profile of the refractive index for CBR with one paragraph what riodically in the standard prototype of the VCSEL device.

On Fig(b) schematically shows the profile of the refractive index for CBR with double periodicity in the device according to yet another variant embodiment of the invention, the second frequency is implemented with increasing refractive index for components with a low refractive index. Shown in Fig(b) dual frequency provides large-scale period containing eight small-scale pair of layers. Four pairs of layers of eight form a so-called frequency number 1, and the other four couples form a so-called frequency number 2.

On Fig(C) schematically shows the profile of the refractive index for CBR with double periodicity in the device according to yet another variant embodiment of the invention, the second frequency is implemented with decreasing refractive index for components with a high refractive index. Shown in Fig(C) dual frequency provides large-scale period, consisting of eight small-scale pair of layers. Four pairs of layers of eight form a so-called frequency number 1, and the other four couples form a so-called frequency number 2.

On Fig(d) schematically shows the profile of the refractive index for CBR with double periodicity in the device according to yet another variant embodiment of the invention, when this is m second periodicity is realized by changing the relative thickness in CBR, maintaining the same level of small-scale periodicity. Shown in Fig(C) dual frequency provides large-scale period, which consists of eight pairs of small scale. Four pairs of layers of eight form a so-called frequency number 1, and the other four couples form a so-called frequency number 2.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic device according to another variant embodiment of the invention, the additional part of the lower distributed Bragg reflector (CBR) added to the alternative implementation of the device according Fig and this additional part of the CBR has an excellent profile of refractive index compared to CBR on Fig.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of the device according to yet another variant embodiment of the invention, the device is optimized for directional study of resolved components of the light.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic device according to another variant embodiment of the invention, with a single frequency CBR prevents stray radiation losses at high tilt angles.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices solenoide one variant of the invention, this double periodicity of the multilayer interference reflector is optimized for light propagation in the plane and prevents radiation in vertical and oblique directions.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic device according to another variant embodiment of the invention, both CBR have two periodicity and one of the layers in each pair of layers in one of the periodic sequences formed of GaAlAs or AlAs and further oxidized with the formation of partially oxidized layers GaAlO or AlO.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic device according to another variant embodiment of the invention, the device according to the variant implementation pig is then processed so that the partially oxidized layers GaAlO or AlO mytravelguide for formation of air gaps.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic device according to another variant embodiment of the invention, using intracavity contacts, both CBR have two periodicity and one of the layers of each pair of layers in one of the periodicities is formed of GaAlAs or AlAs and further oxidized with the formation of fully oxidized layers GaAlO or AlO.

On Fig shows nematicheskii drawing vertically integrated optoelectronic device according to another variant of the present invention, both CBR have two periodicity and one of the layers of each pair of layers in one of the periodicities is formed of GaAlAs or AlAs and further oxidized with the formation of partially oxidized layers GaAlO or AlO, is then processed so that part of the oxide layers mytravelguide with the formation of air gaps, and the processing is carried out asymmetrically, so that air gaps are formed in the Central part of the device.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices, namely custom electro-optical planar laser vertical cavity and Bragg reflector according to another variant embodiment of the invention. The device is set up to modulate the wavelength of emitted light. Double periodicity is introduced in one of the Bragg reflectors for suppression of spurious modes. Thus, the device according Fig enables you to independently modulate the wavelength and intensity of the emitted light, and this can be done with high speed.

Detailed description of the invention

The present invention provides ultrafast modulation of the light intensity emitted by the optoelectronic device. In the invention disclosed vertically integrated optoelectronic device, the crucial problem sverhbystro the modulation of light intensity.

Figure 9 shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic devices, namely planar laser (900) with a vertical resonator electro-optic modulation according to a preferred variant embodiment of the invention. Modulator integrated with a multilayer interference reflector, for example, in the form of a distributed Bragg reflector (CBR). Varying applied to the modulator voltage, you can change the refractive index. Then the forbidden zone CBR is shifted to the wavelength of the laser radiation, and this prevents the penetration of radiation through the top CBR patterns. Thus, the output intensity of the device is modulated. Thus, the device operates as a planar laser with a vertical resonator (or a vertically emitting laser, FORK) and the electronic configuration of the wavelength for the edge of the stop zone CBR, which allows you to modulate the intensity of the generated laser light.

Shown in the figure 9 embodiment, the device (900) grown by epitaxy preferably on a substrate (901) p-type and includes a first, or lower, CBR (922), preferably p-type, sitosterolemia element (923) and the second, upper, CBR (960). Preferably the upper CBR (960) includes a first part (961), preferably n-type, and the second hour is ü (962), preferably undoped, and the third part (963), preferably p-type. Sitosterolemia element (923) preferably includes low-alloy (p-type) or non-alloy layer (925)active area (926) and the layer with low doping (n-type) or non-alloy layer (927).

Active area (926) formed by any insertion, or a combination of inserts, including a double heterostructure, quantum pit, the set of quantum wires, set of quantum dots, or combinations thereof. The active region generates light, if through the p-contact (911) and n-contact (912) applied positive displacement (913). In this embodiment, propagating along n-layer current is formed (972) between the first part (961) upper CBR (960) and the second part (962) upper CBR (960). Aperture (924) for the current injected between the lower CBR (922) and light-emitting element (923) and between Svetogorsk element (923) and the upper CBR (960).

The second part (962) upper CBR (960) works as a modulatory element. Reverse bias (993) applied to non-alloy parts (962) upper CBR (960) through the n-contact (912) and the p-contact (991). Preferably the modulator includes a single or multiple quantum insert (966) in the form of a single or group of quantum wells, single or multiple layers of quantum wires, single or multiple layers of quantum t is a check or combinations thereof.

Figure 10 schematically explains the operation of the device. When reverse bias is applied to the quantum inserts in the area of the modulator, the electric field causes the quantum-confined stark effect. This leads to a shift of the spectral position of the peak absorption. According to the ratio of Kramers-Kronig relations between the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric functions, the change in absorption spectrum is accompanied by a corresponding variation of the refractive index. The change in the refractive index of the modulator leads to a shift of the wavelength corresponding to the edge of the forbidden zone of the modulator. Therefore, applying different values of reverse bias, it is possible to shift the wavelength region of the stop zone in the filter element. This allows through modulatory element transfer device in the "closed" position (the minimum intensity of light emitted from the device). Alternatively, it may be used CBR with the edge of the forbidden zone, which leads to a red shift of the wavelength of the laser radiation.

The functionality of the devices according to the present invention is based on the electro-optical effect, namely, the change of refractive index in the presence of an electric field. If an electric field is applied perpendicular to the layers, the conduction band and valence semiconductors is the first device is inclined due to the potential of the external field, which produces a shift of the energy levels. This creates a smaller energy absorption, and the absorption edge shifts to longer wavelengths. This effect in the bulk material is known as the effect of the Franz-Keldysh (I. Galbraith, B. Ryvkin "Empirical determination of the electroabsorption coefficient in semiconductors", J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4145 (1993)). The change in the absorption coefficient Δα (electropolishing) changes the refractive index Δn (electrorefractive). The latter value can be calculated through the conversion of Kramers-Kronig relations (see D.S. Chelma et al. "Room Temperature Excitonic Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Structures", IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol.QE-20 (3), pp.265-275 (1984)):

where the symbol P means that it should calculate the principal value of the integral, and C is the speed of light.

The phenomenon of quantum-limited structures type of quantum wells, quantum wires or quantum dots, generally referred to as quantum-limited stark effect. For real electric fields in the range from zero to several hundred kV/cm, electrorefractive described as the sum of the linear electro-optic effect (the effect Pokes) and quadratic electro-optic effect (Kerr effect) (see J.E. Zucker, T.L. Hendrickson, and S. Burrus, "Electro-optic phase modulation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well waveguides", Applied Physics Letters, Vol.52 (12), pp.945-947 (1988)):

where F is the tension ele the electric field, n0the refractive index at zero electric field, and r and s are the linear and quadratic electro-optic coefficients.

In the structures of GaAs/GaAlAs quantum well structures quadratic electro-optic effect dominates when an electric field of about 50 kV/cm (see J.S. Weiner et al., "Quadratic electro-optic effect due to the quantum-confined Stark effect in quantum wells", Applied Physics Letters, Vol.50 (13), pp.842-844 (1987), and J.E. Zucker et al. "Quaternary quantum wells for electro-optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55 um", Applied Physics Letters, Vol.54 (1), pp.10-12 (1989)). Moreover, the quadratic electro-optic coefficient s in GaInAs/InP, GaInAsP/InP and GaAs/GaAlAs quantum-pit structures is inversely proportional to the detuning Δω between the energy of an exciton in a zero electric field and the photon energy is below the energy gap, which is considered the refractive index,

Here n is the so-called q-factor, which is measured as the value of the order of 3×10-5mew cm2kV-2. Behavior (equation (4)) was originally studied for quantum wells with a width of from 6 to 10 nm and a pitch difference of up to 40 mew. Electrooptical effect decreases with larger detuning (from 40 to 140 mew) is much faster than using equation (4) (see MR Earnshow and D.W.E. Allshop, "Electrooptic Effects in GaAs-AlGaAs Narrow Coupled Quantum Wells", IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol.37 (7), pp.897-904, ibid. Vol.37 (8), p.1103(2001)).

Although the peak absorption of the exciton seriously reduces the I when application of the electric field (see L. Chen, ..Rajkumar, and A. Madhukar "Optical Absorption and Modulation Behavior of Strained InxGal-xAs/GaAs (100) (x<0.25) multiple quantum well structure grown via molecular beam epitaxy", Applied Physics Letters, Vol.57 (23), pp.2478-2480 (1990)), the line width of the exciton increases accordingly. The integral absorption of the exciton in proportion to the force of the oscillator, which is roughly estimated as the amount directly proportional to the product of the peak of absorption at the line width of the exciton, and this value decreases much more slowly or even remains unchanged.

The strength of the exciton oscillator in a fairly narrow quantum well remains independent of the applied electric field, if the width of the quantum well is less than half Borowski radius of the exciton (see Feng et al. "Exciton energies as a function of electric field: quantum Confined Stark effect", Physical Review B, Vol.48 (3), pp.1963-1966 (1993)). For InGaAs-quantum wells in GaAs, this means preferably a width of 7 nm or less. Constant power oscillator assumes a constant integral absorption for exciton. In addition, there are reports of increasing electro-optic effect in the associated narrow quantum wells.

When choosing a particular quantum wells for the modulator in the present invention and the determination of the specific values of the detuning and the electric field it is important to consider electro-optical effects and their theoretical models, which are known from the above-mentioned publications. These publicatieblad as references.

In various embodiments of this invention field of the modulator operates under forward bias. This causes the effect of bleaching of the exciton, which changes the peak optical absorption and, thus, affects the refractive index of the modulator.

In yet another embodiment of the invention light-emitting diode with the resonant cavity includes an electro-optic modulated Bragg reflector. Applying the offset to the Bragg reflector or part thereof, may modulating the intensity emerging from the light-emitting diode light.

In yet another embodiment of the invention sverhdominanta diode includes an electro-optic modulated Bragg reflector. Applying the offset to the Bragg reflector or part thereof, it is possible to modulate the intensity of light emitted from sverhdominantom light-emitting diode.

Figure 10 shows the principle of operation of planar laser with a vertical resonator and electro-optically configurable wavelength according to Fig.9. Figure 10(a) schematically shows the position of the peak optical absorption, which according to the stark effect shifts due to the applied voltage. According to the ratio of Kramers-Kronig relations between the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function of the medium, the shift of the peak absorption of p is aswedit modulation of the refractive index of the modulator, as shown in Fig.7(b). Modulation of the refractive index of the modulator leads to a wavelength region of the stop zone modulating sections CBR from the position shown in figure 10(C), to the position shown in dotted lines in figure 10(d). This shift leads to the suppression of transparency of the modulator and, thus, to lower the output power of the device.

There are various ways of carrying out the invention, which provide an edge shift of the stop zone in CBR. Let the CBR consists of alternating layers having at zero offset, the refractive indices n1and n2. Then in one of the embodiments of the invention are selected quantum insert, so that the application of the reverse bias leads to an increase of the refractive indices in both layers.

that then leads to a shift of the long wavelength edge of the stop zones towards greater wavelengths. In another embodiment, quantum insert is sized so that when the applied reverse bias the coefficients of both layers are changed in opposite directions and the optical contrast increases

that also leads to a shift of the long wavelength edge of the stop zone towards larger wavelengths.

In yet another embodiment, the present invention uses the light output through p is daiku. If the upper CBR in the opaque condition, has transparency, comparable or below the transparent bottom CBR, then the power light coming through the bottom CBR and the substrate is modulated. Thus, the device will operate in both directions, but the state of "on" and "off" will be converted. Namely, the switching of the upper CBR mode "off" leads to an increase of light output through the bottom CBR, and Vice versa.

In yet another embodiment, the present invention modulates the transparency of the bottom CBR. The output power of the light through the bottom CBR and the substrate is also modulated.

For another variant of implementation of the present invention modulates the transparency of the bottom CBR, and the output light through the upper CBR modulated reverse way.

In another embodiment of the invention field of the modulator operates under forward bias. Forward bias has the effect of bleaching of the exciton, which in turn leads to a change of refractive index region of the modulator and the shift of the bandgap Bragg reflector in the opposite direction.

Figure 11 illustrates the fact that the transparency of the CBR can be modulated in both directions. Application to the modulator reverse bias causes a shift of the spectral characteristics towards larger wavelengths. It shows what and 11, where the ratio of the optical reflection CBR, shown in a solid line, is shifted to a new spectral position shown in dotted lines. If the laser wavelength is chosen as λ1or λ2the shift of the reflectance spectrum for CBR leads to increased reflection from the CBR and CBR becomes less transparent. If the laser wavelength is selected to be λ3the shift of the reflectance spectrum for CBR leads to the reduction of reflection from the CBR, and then CBR is becoming more transparent.

Figure 12(a) shows a schematic diagram of the device according to figure 9 in a simplified form, showing only some elements. Shows the elements include a substrate, a first distributed Bragg reflector, the first resonator including an active region), the second distributed Bragg reflector and the third "modulating" a distributed Bragg reflector (which includes modulatory elements) and the contact area, or the fourth distributed Bragg reflector.

In figure 12(b) shows the spatial profile of the resonant optical fashion device, in which the modulator is switched to the state in which the reflection coefficient bandgap CBR does not overlap with the wavelength of laser operation. Figure 12(b) shows the graph of the absolute value of tension electr the economic field in an optical fashion. Since the attenuation of the optical wave in the modulator CBR missing, then the intensity of the field in this area significantly cannot be altered. Therefore, the output power of the light is proportional to the field intensity in the air is high.

Figure 12(C) shows the spatial profile for the resonant optical fashion device, in which the modulator is switched to the reflective, or opaque state. Figure 12(C) causes the graph of the absolute value of electric field intensity in an optical fashion. To reflect the status CBR laser generates light at any wavelength, which does not meet the transparency mode to CBR. Thus, the optical mode of the laser will fade within CBR. Therefore, the output power of the light is proportional to the field intensity in the air, will be weak.

By changing applied to the modulator bias voltage can be switch between transparent and opaque state. Because the edge of the forbidden zone, you can do whatever you like steep, there can be realized a significant depth of modulation. An additional advantage is the fact that for optical transverse modes of high order with wavelengths shorter than the main fashion corresponding to the edge of the forbidden zone, the wavelength also shifts to Corot the fir waves, that ensures reliable operation for multimode devices. The power of the output light varies between high and low intensity.

To ensure the operation of the device at high frequencies, preferably you should take some measures in order to reduce parasitic capacitance region of the modulator. The figure 13 shows a schematic drawing of the electro-optical modulating the planar laser with a vertical resonator (1300) according to another variant of the present invention. Preferably, the area under the top p-contact (991) is subjected to proton bombardment, which leads to the formation of the field (1380) with a high concentration of defects and low conductivity. Thus, the region (1380) formed from areas originally n-type or p-type, and they behave as their own, that is semi-insulating, semiconductor. For application of bias (993) to the quantum insertions (966) inside the modulator, the diffusion of Zn is preferably located underneath the top p-contact (991) (1385). Thanks to the diffusion of Zn, part politology region becomes highly conductive region is p-type, allowing you to make the offset from the p-contact (991) to the quantum insertions (966). The modulated laser radiation (1335) goes through the upper CBR (960).

In yet another embodiment, izopet the deposits at the upper CBR (960) there is no third part (963).

In yet another embodiment of the present invention at the upper CBR (960) is missing the first part (961).

In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the offset (993) applied to the entire upper CBR (960).

Modulatory element (962) figure 9 and Fig contains n-i-p structure. In another embodiment of the present invention, the modulator comprises n-i-n structure. In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the modulator contains a p-i-p structure. Here the symbol "i" means the area of the "intrinsic" (internal) or with a low doping level.

The figure 14 shows a schematic drawing of planar laser (1400) with a vertical resonator electro-optic modulation according to another variant embodiment of the invention. Device (1400) has four contact that allows you to do part of the upper CBR unalloyed, which reduces optical loss due to light absorption by free charge carriers. Device (1400) is grown by epitaxy method on a substrate (901) p-type and includes a bottom CBR (922), which is preferably p-type, sitosterolemia element (923) and the upper CBR (1460). Preferably the upper CBR (1460) includes a first part (1461), which preferably religioun or lightly doped, the second part (1462), which preferably religioun, and rubs the second part (1463), which preferably religioun or lightly doped.

Forward bias (913) active area (926) is applied in sitegenerated element (923) through the first p-contact (911), which is the lower contact, and through the first n-contact (1412), which is the intracavity contact. The first conductive layer (1434) to disseminate current, which is the layer for the n-current, placed between the aperture current (924) and the first part (1461) upper CBR (1460). The first layer (1434) to distribute current preferably has a heavy doping with n-impurities. The first n-contact (1412) deposited on the first conductive layer (1434).

The second part (1462) upper CBR (1460) is a modulator. Reverse bias (1493) is applied to the quantum insertions (966) through the second n-contact (1492), which is made in the form of intracavity contact and the second p-contact (1491), which is made in the form of intracavity contact. The second conductive layer (1472), which is the second layer for the n-current, is placed between the first part (1461) upper CBR (1460) and the second part (1462) upper CBR (1460). The second conductive layer (1472) is preferably heavily doped with n-impurities. The second n-contact (1492) placed on top of the second layer (1472) n-current. The third conductive layer (1473), which serves to distribute the R-current, which is placed between the second part (146) upper CBR (1460) and third part (1463) upper CBR (1460). The third conductive layer (1473) preferably heavily doped on the p-impurity. The second p-contact (1491) placed over the third conductive layer (1473).

To ensure the high-frequency mode of the device (1400) preferably should be some measures taken to reduce the parasitic capacity region of the modulator. Preferably, the area under the second p-contact (1491) is subjected to proton bombardment, which leads to the formation region (1480) with a high concentration of defects and low conductivity. Thus, the region (1480) formed from areas originally n-type or p-type, and they behave as their own, that is semi-insulating, semiconductor. To enable the application of bias (1493) to the quantum insertions (966) inside the modulator, the diffusion of Zn in lying under the top p-contact (1491) area (1485). Thanks to the diffusion of Zn, part politology region becomes highly conductive region is p-type, which allows to apply the offset from the p-contact (1491) to the quantum insertions (966).

The modulated laser radiation (1435) goes through the upper CBR (1460).

In a similar way can be custom built laser with tilted cavity. Figure 15 shows a schematic drawing of the electro-optical modulating the planar laser (1500) with a sloped Rezo what ATOR according to another variant of the present invention. Electro-optical modulating the planar laser (1500) with a sloped cavity grown by epitaxy on the substrate (901), which is preferably fabricated on p-type. The device includes a first multilayer interference reflector, m & e (1522), which preferably is a structure p-type, sitosterolemia element (1523) and the second (top) m & e (1560). Top m & e (1560) preferably includes a first part (1561), which preferably religioun or lightly doped n-type, the second part (1562), which preferably religioun, and the third part (1563), which is preferably non-alloy or low-alloy on the p-type. Sitosterolemia element (1523) preferably includes low-alloy on the p-type or undoped layer (1525), active region (1526), low-alloy n-type or undoped layer (1527).

Active area (1526) is formed by inserts or combinations of inserts, including a double heterostructure, quantum pit, the combination of quantum wires, the combination of quantum dots, or combinations thereof. The active region generates light when forward biased (913) applied through the first p-contact (911) or the first n-contact (1412). In this embodiment, the conductive n-layer (1434) formed between Svetogorsk element (1523) and the top m & e (1560). Second is I'm part of (1562) top m & e works as a modulatory element. Reverse bias (1493) applied to the second part of (1562) top m & e through the second n-contact (1492) and the second p-contact (1491). Preferably the modulator includes a single or group of quantum insert (966), which can be single or group quantum wells, a single or group of quantum wires, single or multiple layers of quantum dots, or combinations thereof.

Sitosterolemia element (1523) forms an inclined cavity. Inclined resonator, the first m & e (1522) and the second m & e (1560) is chosen in such a way that among the different optical modes of fashion with a minimum of losses in the substrate and contacts is inclined optical fashion (1590), in which the light in the cavity extends in a direction inclined to both planes of the p-n junction and normals conducted to the plane of the p-n junction. Light slanted optical fashion (1590) extends through the second m & e (1560), and exits the device in the form of oblique light (1535).

In yet another embodiment of the invention, the light emerges from the electro-optic adjustable-tilt resonator in a planar laser in the form of a vertically propagating light.

Figures 16 and 17 show a schematic diagram of the end of the laser (1600) with electronically modulated intensity of light in two mutually perpendicular transverse pleskot the x according to another variant embodiment of the invention. The figure 16 shows the cross-section in a vertical transverse plane that is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of laser radiation in the end the emitter. The figure 17 shows the cross-section in a vertical longitudinal plane parallel to the direction of propagation of laser radiation in the end the emitter. Active resonator (1523), the first (lower) m & e (1522) and the second (top) m & e (1660) is chosen so that only one inclined optical fashion (1590) has a high optical factor retention in the active region (1526) and low loss. Active resonator (1523) associated with the output waveguide (1630) through the top m & e (1660). The output waveguide (1630) is limited to the second m & e (1660) and the third reflector (1640), which is preferably discontinuous reflector. Due to the different coefficients of reflection in the active resonator (1523) and the output waveguide (1630), a single combined optical mode has different effective angles in the active resonator and the output waveguide. This is shown schematically in the form of directions of the optical mode with different angles of inclination by means of a solid line (1690) in the output waveguide (1630) and the same optical fashion, schematically shown by a closed line (1590) in the active resonator (1523). Thus, the light can exit through the ox is the gadfly (1630), avoiding the effect of total internal reflection at the lateral ends of the laser. The application of reverse bias (1693) to the second m & e (1660) through the second p-contact (1691) and n-contact (1412) causes the application of an electric field in the area of quantum insertions (966). This changes the refractive indices of the inserts and thus may strengthen or weaken the penetration of laser radiation into the output waveguide (1630), thus, to increase or decrease the intensity of the laser radiation (1635). In a preferred variant was highly reflective coating (1616) printed on the reverse face, and the antireflective coating (1617) printed on the front face, so that the laser light is emitted only through the front face.

In another embodiment, the invention generates a laser with distributed feedback, i.e. in the output waveguide (1630) introduces diffraction sieves to stabilize the device on the wavelength.

A similar approach can be obtained a light-emitting diode with electronic modulation intensity as another variant embodiment of the invention.

Figure 18 shows schematically the possibility of building a custom wavelength laser-based electro-optical modulating a distributed Bragg-reflector (CBR). Figure 18(a) schematically shows the main elements of the Azer, namely, the first CBR, the resonator with an active region, the second CBR, consisting of custom sections and non-configurable section. If the second CBR switched to the opaque state, the wavelength emitting laser is determined by the thickness of the resonator D1. Figure 18(b) shows the spatial profile of the resonant optical fashion, namely the absolute value of the electric field.

In figure 18(C) schematically shows the same device, but here the second CBR switched to a transparent state. Then the custom section of the CBR is transparent and can qualitatively be considered as part of the resonator. Thus, the device provides an effective resonator with a thickness of D2>D1and the wavelength of the laser radiation will be determined by the modified effective thickness of the resonator. In figure 18(d) schematically shows the spatial profile of the resonant optical fashion, namely the absolute value of the electric field.

When such a device modulates the wavelength of the laser radiation, it is preferred separation modulation wavelength and the modulation intensity and prevent the latter. Therefore, shown in Fig variant of the invention, it is preferable to have the first CBR weaker than the second CBR in the state of the transparent the particular so, the main output of the radiation passed through the first CBR and the substrate. Because when modulating the transparency of the second CBR first CBR does not change, the intensity of the laser radiation will not be changed. Maybe a different arrangement of the sections relative to the substrate, and therefore can be implemented as devices with radiation through the top and through the bottom.

A similar approach can be used for custom wavelength light-emitting diode with resonator as another variant implementation of the invention.

Figure 19 shows a schematic drawing of planar laser (1900) with a vertical resonator and electronic configuration of the wavelength according to another variant of the present invention. The operation of the device (1900) clarified on Fig. The second CBR (1960) includes a custom section (1962) and non-configurable section (1963). Applying the offset (993) to custom sections (1962) second CBR (1960), it is possible to adjust the wavelength of the laser radiation (1935), emitted through the substrate.

The figure 20 shows a schematic drawing of the photodetector (2000) with electronic tuning wavelength and the resonant cavity according to another variant of the present invention. Zero or reverse bias (2013) applied to the p-n junction in the active resonator (2023). Incident on the device external light (2050) is absorbed by the p-n PE what Ecodom (2026), that generates a pair of electron-hole, and, thus, generates a photocurrent can be measured by a microammeter (2080). The application of bias (993) to custom sections (1962) upper CBR (1960) adjusts the resonant wavelength of the resonant cavity photodetector (2000).

The figure 21 shows a schematic drawing of the laser (2100) with a leak on the basis of the Bragg reflector and custom-Smoking area according to another variant embodiment of the invention. Figure 21(a) shows the laser (2100) leakage, which includes an active waveguide (2110) with an active area (2112), sandwiched between the bottom reflector (2102) (which preferably is a reflector with a fading field or lakirovannym layer) and a custom multilayer interference reflector (2160). The laser generates radiation in the fashion optical leak that leaked into the substrate (2101) and is reflected back from the far side of the substrate (2181), forming an inclined optical fashion (2191) inside the substrate. The light goes out (2115) from the device, preferably forming lobe beam. The necessary conditions for lasing is constructive interference of the laser radiation propagating from the active zone through the substrate to the opposite surface of the substrate and back to the active zone. These conditions are fulfilled for certain wavelengths, is shown in the form of peaks on Fig(C). The spectral interval between the peaks is a function of the angle of the leak. Varying the refractive index in the layers m & e (2160), changes the reflection coefficient for the m & e framework. This changes the angle of the leak. In figure 21(b) shows the state of the device with a small angle leaks showing the optical mode in the substrate (2192) and radiation (2165) for this case. The corresponding range of the allowed optical modes shown in Fig(d). In a preferred embodiment, the decrease in the transparency of the m & e (2160) leads to a weaker confinement of the optical mode in the active waveguide (2110) and, thus, greater corner leakage. Thus, figure 21(a) and 21(C) correspond to the opaque state m & e (2160)and figure 21(b) and 21(d) correspond to the transparent state of the m & e framework.

Light-emitting diode leakage on the basis of the Bragg reflector with a custom-Smoking area can be constructed in the same way as another variant implementation of the invention.

In the manufacture of any optoelectronic device of the present invention, which allows modulation of the radiation, it is possible to control the intensity of the emitted light radiation. This control method includes two steps: calibration and process control.

A method of calibrating the device includes the following steps:

a) the inclusion is of microampermeter in the same electrical circuit, in which region of the modulator is attached to the offset, while the ammeter capable of measuring the photocurrent generated in the modulator by applying a reverse bias

b) independent application of bias to the modulator and to sitosterolaemia element through the electrical contacts,

c) electro-optical tuning the wavelength of the reflective region of the stop zone of the multilayer interference reflector relative to the resonant wavelength of the resonator,

d) the variation of the optical transparency of the device, so that the optical output power ranged,

e) measuring the photocurrent in the electric circuit section of the modulator under reverse bias and the measurement of the output power of the device

f) obtaining calibration curves light-photocurrent.

When the device is calibrated, can be used a method of controlling the output power, the method includes the steps:

a) independent application of bias to the modulator and to sitosterolaemia element through the electrical contacts,

b) electro-optic tuning of the wavelength region of the stop zone of the multilayer interference reflector relative to the resonant wavelength of the resonator,

(C) the variation of the optical transparency of the device, so that the output optical power of variables is,

d) measurement of the photocurrent in the electric circuit section of the modulator under reverse bias and the measurement of the output power of the device, and

e) adjusting the control current in the circuit of the active element to maintain the desired power output of the device using the calibration curves of the light-photocurrent.

Can be made of various modifications. For better control of the mod and the best efficiency of the output light can be used light crystals. Can be designed device with surface radiation, which operate at large angles relative to the normal. Can be applied to various designs multilayer interference reflector is used as a Bragg reflector. Can be entered multiple sections. The photocurrent section of the modulator can be used to control the problems or to adjust the power.

Supplement additional modulating sections allows use in semiconductor optical amplifiers, frequency converters or synchronous amplifiers.

Further embodiments of the present invention relate to a vertically integrated device, in which there are means for suppressing parasitic optical modes. These vertically integrated devices can be used is La direct and indirect modulation of the intensity of the light beam. The idea of suppression of spurious modes refers to the optical properties of multilayer structures at oblique or oblique incidence of the light. This basic approach is illustrated on Fig. In figure 22(a) shows the semiconductor structure (2200), in which the optical oscillator (2260)emitting light with a certain photon energy corresponding to the wavelength of light in vacuum, λ0placed in the environment (2250) with a modulated refractive index, that is, in the multilayer structure. Multilayer structure (2250) are chosen so that light may enter (2235) in some areas, while it can't go in other directions (2265).

Figure 22(b) no 22(f) illustrate prevent light transmission through the multilayer structure in some selected areas. In figure 22(b) shows a schematic representation of a periodic multilayer structure (2270)placed between the first environment (2230) and the second environment (2240). Light (2221) falls on a periodic multilayer structure (2270) at an inclination of 9, it is partially reflected back (2222) and partially skipped. The angle 6 is defined relative to the direction (2225), normal to the planes of the layers of the multilayered structure (2270). Figure 22(C) 22(f) show known from the prior art calculated range of the reflection coefficient for the periodic multilayer structure for a case is s different angles extending transverse electric (TE) electromagnetic waves, as described in the work of A. Yariv, P. Yen "Optical Waves in Crystals. Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation", Wiley, 1984, Chapter 6, which is included here as a reference. Light comes from the environment (2230) with a refractive index of n2=3,6, and this structure consists of 15 periods, each period further includes a single layer with a thickness of λ/2 and the low refractive index of n2=3,4 and one layer with thickness equal to λ/2, and with a high refractive index of n2=3.6V. Environment (2240) for a periodic structure (2270) also has a refractive index n2=3.6V. The reflection coefficient pending on the graph as a function of 1/λ, where λ is the wavelength for electromagnetic waves in vacuum. Figure 22(C) 22(f) reproduce the known from the prior art graphics from source A. Yariv and P. Yen (Optical Waves in Crystals. Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation. Wiley, 1984, Chapter 6), where the reflectance spectra of were deferred as a function of frequency ω of the electromagnetic wave, and ω=C/λ, where C is the speed of light in vacuum.

The basic properties of the reflectance spectra shown in figures 22(C) 22(f)are as follows. At normal incidence (θ=0), as shown in Fig(f), the spectrum of the reflection coefficient detects narrow picky with small amplitude. With increasing angle θ of picky shifted toward shorter wavelengths, the amplitude of pickow increases, and picky become wider. This can be seen in Fig(e) for θ=40° and Fig(d for θ=55°. Broadened picky constitute a prohibited area with close to 1 reflection coefficient. This can be seen in Fig(d) for θ=55° and, more explicitly, on Fig(C) for θ=65°.

Let the selected wavelength λ0will be in the center of a well identified bandgap of the reflectance spectrum of a multilayer structure (2270) at some angle, say θ=65°, as shown in figure 4(f). When the light at this wavelength is almost completely reflected back the light transmission through the structure is almost completely prohibited. Referring again to the oscillator (2260), inserted in a multilayer structure (2250), as shown in figure 4(a), the following should be noted. Basic properties of multilayer structures remain the same in the case when the light source, that is, the optical oscillator (2260), inserted in a multilayer structure. This suggests that the passage of light through a multi-layer structure may be prohibited in some areas, as shown in figure 4(a).

The approach, which enables the suppression of spurious modes in antimonopole embodiment, VCSEL, associated with the angular distribution of the modes shown in figure 5(b). Figure 23 schematically shows the distribution of the optical field for one of the inclined fashion according to figure 5(b), which has the highest intensity in the active region. You can see that this mode has the maximum intensity in the active region is ti. For oblique modes with low intensity in the active region of the retention factor is small and the corresponding radiation is weak. Therefore, only a certain interval of angles causes the most spurious radiation losses. As soon as having a significant intersection with the active area of fashion suppressed, the level of radiation losses can be substantially reduced.

On Fig shows a schematic drawing of a vertically integrated optoelectronic device according to another variant embodiment of the invention. Device (2400) includes sitosterolemia element or resonator (123)formed between the lower distributed Bragg reflector (CBR) (2422) and the upper CBR (2428). As the lower CBR (2422), and the upper CBR (2428) have two periodicity of refractive index that allows you to integrate a number of substructures. Presented at Fig embodiment of the invention two time periods for refractive index implemented as follows. Bottom CBR (2422) and the upper CBR (2428) have large-scale period (2420). Each large-scale period (2420) includes several pairs of layers (2411)forming a first periodicity, and several pairs of layers (2412)forming a second periodicity. In the private embodiment of the invention according Fig lane is the first periodicity is realized from the four pairs of layers (2411), and the second periodicity is realized by another set of four pairs of layers (2412). The first frequency provides for CBR (VCSEL structure) to support vertical generate light (2435), and the second frequency provides Smoking area for radiative recombination radiation in a certain range of angles. In addition to radiation in a vertical fashion (2435), the device (2400) capable of emitting light in an oblique fashion (2455) in the narrow range of angles close to the direction normal to the surface. The General appearance and the geometry of the contacts of such devices can be similar to those available to the known from the prior art device according to figure 1(b). Prohibition of spurious modes increases the efficiency of extraction of light and differential gain in this device, which also enables high-speed operation mode direct modulation of the light intensity.

In another embodiment of the present invention, only the upper CBR has a double periodicity in the distribution of refractive index. In yet another embodiment, the present invention only the lower CBR has a double periodicity in the distribution of refractive index.

The number of pairs, which form the first frequency and the second frequency may differ among themselves, and also be different from four. Preferred the considerable number of pairs in each frequency, forming a large-scale period within the CBR, may be between two and ten pairs. Alternatively, another implementation of the present invention, when one of the periodicities contains only one period. Thus, for example, a large period can contain several small periods corresponding to the first frequency, and one period corresponding to the second frequency. In yet another embodiment, the present invention is possible that large-scale period contains one period corresponding to the first frequency, and one period corresponding to the second frequency.

Double periodicity can be implemented in various ways. Figure 25 presents a few examples that you can continue even further. For comparison, figure 25(a) schematically shows the profile of the refractive index in the CBR with a single frequency standard, known from the prior art VCSEL device. In figure 25(b) schematically shows the profile of the refractive index in CBR with double periodicity shown in Fig device, where the second frequency is realized through the increase of the refractive index layer with a relatively low refractive index. In figure 25(C) schematically shows the profile of the refractive index in the CBR with the double-frequency shown for Fig device, in which the second frequency is implemented through the lower refractive index layer with a relatively high refractive index. In figure 25(d) schematically shows the profile of the refractive index in CBR with double periodicity shown for Fig device, where the second frequency is realized by changing the relative thickness of the layers CBR while maintaining the same small-scale periodicity.

Other embodiments of the present invention includes a triple or multiple periodicity in CBR.

Figure 26 shows a schematic drawing of an optoelectronic device (2600) according to another variant implementation of the invention. In addition to the device according Fig, the device (2600) includes a bottom CBR (2642), containing also the first section (2422) with double frequency and a second section (2622)having a different profile of the refractive index. This part (2622) can be used to further suppress inclined fashion or, alternatively, to provide high reflectivity vertical fashion and itself can have dual or multiple frequency. Preferably the device (2600) is selected to emit light in a vertical fashion (2635) and in inclined fashion (2655) in the narrow range of angles close to the direction normal to the surface.

N the figure 27 shows a schematic drawing of an optoelectronic device (2700) according to another variant implementation of the invention. Device (2700) includes a cavity (123), placed between the bottom multilayered interference reflector (m & e) (2722) and the top m & e (2728). Lower m & e (2722) and the top m & e (2728) have two periodicity. Two periodicity implemented as follows. Lower m & e (2722) and the top m & e (2728) have large-scale period (2720). Each large-scale period (2720) includes several pairs (2711) layers, forming a first periodicity, and a few pairs (2712) layers, forming a second periodicity. In partial version (2700) implementation shown in Fig, the first frequency is formed by four pairs (2711) layers, and the second periodicity is composed of four pairs (2712) layers. As the first frequency and the second frequency are optimized for directional radiation permitted component (2765). In addition to radiation in the optimal direction (2765), emission takes place (2775) in a certain range of angles around the optimal direction. This design can be advantageous for devices working in fashion inclined resonator. If the radiation has a maximum intensity in a direction inclined relative to the direction (2791), held normal to the plane surface, the light usually has a multilobe character, depending on the shape of the optical Aper the URS in the plane of the surface. If the optical aperture on a flat surface has a rectangular shape, the shape of the radiation in the far zone has a lobe or four-petalled picture, and the petals are inclined at the same polar angle relative to the direction (2791), held normal to the plane of the surface but at different azimuths. If the optical aperture on a flat surface has a rounded shape, the shape of the radiation in the far zone preferably has a conical shape that corresponds to the emission of light at a particular polar angle and evenly distributed in all directions.

The figure 28 shows a schematic drawing of an optoelectronic device (2800) according to another variant implementation of the present invention. Device (2800) includes a cavity (123), placed between the bottom CBR (2842) and upper CBR (2828). Bottom CBR (2842)further includes the first part (2832) and the second part (2822). The first part (2832) lower CBR (2842) has a single frequency. The second part (2822) lower CBR (2842) has one frequency. The first part (2832) lower CBR (2842) is chosen such as to suppress spurious radiation loss at the inclined angles. Additional, second, part (2822) lower CBR (2842) is used to obtain a high reflectance optical fashion, extending in a vertical reflection. the ve part of the lower CBR (2842) can be considered as different implementations of the double periodicity. Light radiates from the device (2800) in a vertical fashion (2835). Some oblique fashion (2855) also radiate at low or moderate angles of inclination relative to normals, carried out on a flat surface.

For specialists in this field based on the above description it will be obvious that the optoelectronic device with a cavity formed between the two CBR or two m & e, at least one of the CBR or m & e has two periodicity, can be implemented in many different ways. In one embodiment of the invention, the radiation light can pass through the substrate. In yet another embodiment of the present invention, light may exit through the output mirror of the near zone. However, all possible modifications serve the purpose of suppressing parasitic inclined fashion by the use of special structures with periodic or quasi-periodic distribution of refractive index.

The figure 29 shows a schematic drawing of an optoelectronic device (2900) according to another variant implementation of the invention. Device (2900) includes a cavity (123), placed between the bottom multilayered interference reflector (m & e) (2922) and the top m & e (2928). As the lower m & e (2922), and the top m & e (2928) have two periodicity. These two periodicity implemented the following clicks the zoom. As the lower m & e (2922), and the top m & e (2928) have large-scale period (2920). Each large-scale period (2920) includes several pairs of layers (2911)forming a first periodicity, and several pairs of layers (2912)forming a second periodicity. In a specific embodiment, (2900), shown in Fig, the first frequency is formed of four pairs (2911) layers and the second periodicity is formed of four pairs (2912) layers. This double periodicity of the multilayer interference reflector is optimized for propagation of radiation in the plane, and the prohibition of radiation in the vertical or oblique direction. Thus, the radiation is suppressed in the vertical and inclined (2955) directions, and the radiation is only for planar optical fashion (2995). Suppression of vertical and inclined fashion is particularly advantageous for devices with edge radiation, such as laser diodes are edge emitting and can lead to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the threshold current, temperature stability and differential reinforcement.

Another variant of implementation of the present invention includes a laser edge emitting and distributed feedback. Another embodiment of the present invention is an optoelectronic device that works as a compound is about laser edge emitting.

The figure 30 shows a schematic drawing of an optoelectronic device (3000) according to another variant implementation of the invention. Device (3000) includes a cavity (123) between the bottom CBR (3022) and upper CBR (3028). The substrate (101) in contact with the bottom CBR (3022) opposite to the cavity (123) side. The bottom contact (111) deposited on the back side of the substrate (101), i.e. on the side opposite to the bottom CBR (3022). The top contact layer (3029) adjacent to the upper CBR (3028) on the side opposite to the cavity (123). The upper contact (112) is applied to the top contact layer (3029) on the side opposite the upper CBR (3028). Active area (126) is located inside the cavity (123). Forward bias (113) served on active area (126) through the lower contact (111) and the upper contact (112). In the embodiment of the invention according Fig substrate (101) and lower CBR (3022) are preferably n-type, and the bottom contact (111) is the n-contact. Upper CBR (3028) and the upper contact layer (3029) are preferably p-type, and the upper contact (112) is the p-contact.

As the lower CBR (3022), and the upper CBR (3028) have large-scale period (3020). Each large-scale period (3020) includes several pairs (3011) layers, which form a first periodicity, and several pairs of layers (3012), which form the second PE is iodinate. In the private embodiment (3000), shown in Fig, the first frequency is formed of four pairs (3011) layers and the second periodicity is formed of four pairs (3012) layers. Device (3000) grown epitaxial method on a substrate (101)and the lower layers CBR (3022) and upper layers CBR (3028) grown epitaxial method from materials selected from the group consisting of GaAs, AlAs, and alloy semiconductors GaAlAs. The second periodicity is formed of pairs (3012), containing one layer of each pair formed of AlAs or GaAlAs with a high content of Al, preferably higher than 90%. Grown by epitaxial technology and processing device is further oxidized so that the AlAs layers is partially oxidized and the outer part of these layers forms layers of AlO, and GaAlAs layers with high Al content is partially overcome with the formation of layers GaAlO. The oxides form the external part (3063) of the oxidized layer, while the semiconductor layers (3062) in the Central part of the structure remain unoxidized. Oxides GaAlO and lO are dielectrics, and the current flows through the non-oxidized part (3062) layers.

The main effect of the introduction of oxide layers associated with their refractive index. The contrast in the refractive index for CBR for a pair of semiconductor/oxide is much higher than for the case of CBR only from a semiconductor. So, for a wavelength close to 980 nm, adjusted ient of refraction of GaAs equal 3,53, and AlAs equal 2,97. At the same time, the refractive index oxide AlO approximately equal to 1.6. The introduction of periodicity in CBR with high contrast in refractive index increases control the angular distribution of the light beam. In the device (3000) oxide layers in CBR suppress the radiation of light in oblique directions (3065), and therefore the light is preferably emitted in the vertical direction (3035).

There is one more variant of implementation of the present invention, in which GaAlAs layers with high Al content have different contents of Al. Then the rate of oxidation of the layer with a higher Al content is higher and the depth of oxidation will be more. Such layers have a wider zone of oxidation. This creates additional opportunities for controlling the angular radiation optoelectronic devices.

The figure 31 shows a schematic drawing of an optoelectronic device (3100) according to the following alternative implementation of the present invention. In this embodiment, the device bottom CBR (3122) and upper CBR (3128) have large-scale period (3120). Each large-scale period (3120) includes several pairs (3111) layers, forming a first periodicity, and few pairs of layers (3112)forming a second periodicity. In the private embodiment (3100), shown in Fig, is erva periodicity is formed of four pairs (3111) layers and the second periodicity is formed of four pairs (3112) layers. Device (3100) grown on technology epitaxy on the substrate (101)and the lower layers CBR (3122) and upper layers CBR (3128) grown by epitaxy from materials from the group consisting of GaAs, AlAs, or alloy semiconductors GaAlAs. The second frequency is formed by pairs (3112) layers, with one layer formed from a pair of AlAs or GaAlAs with a high Al content, preferably above 90%. Grown by epitaxy and processed, the device further subjected to oxidation, so AlAs layers is partially oxidized and the outer part of these layers forms layers of AlO, and GaAlAs layers are partially oxidized, and the external part of these layers forms layers GaAlO. The oxides form the external part of the oxidized layers, while the semiconductor layers (3162) in the Central part of the structure remain unoxidized. Next, the oxidized outer layers are subjected to etching for forming air gaps (3163). Since the refractive index of air is close to 1, then the introduction of air gaps increases the contrast in the refractive index in the CBR even compared to CBR type semiconductor/oxide according Fig. Thus, the introduction of air gaps (3163) enhances control the angular distribution of the light beam. In the device (3100) air gaps (3163) CBR suppress the radiation of light in oblique directions (3165, and light is emitted preferentially in the vertical direction (3135).

Figure 32 shows a schematic drawing of an optoelectronic device (3200) according to another variant implementation of the invention. In this embodiment, the oxidized layers CBR oxidized completely, CBR electrically isolated, and the offset to the active region is supplied through the internal contacts. Device (3200) includes a cavity (123)in which the active region (126). The cavity (123) is placed between the bottom CBR (3222) and upper CBR (3228). The first conductive layer (3271) n-type placed between the cavity (123) and lower CBR (3222). The second conductive layer (3272) p-type placed between the cavity (123) and the upper CBR (3228). Current aperture (3273) is placed between the cavity (123) and the first conductive layer (3271) and between the cavity (123) and the second conductive layer (3272). First contact (3291), which is the n-contact is deposited on the first conductive layer (3271) n-type. The second contact (3292), which is the p-contact is deposited on the second conductive layer (3272) p-type. Forward bias (3293) is applied to the active region (126) through the first contact (3291) and second contact (3292). Preferably the cavity (123) religioun or lightly doped. Current injection flows through the first conductive layer (3271) n-type via cavity (123) with active what blasto (126) and a second conductive layer (3272) p-type. Bottom CBR (3222) and upper CBR (3228) preferably delegirovali to reduce absorption losses caused by the absorption of the media. The current through the active area of the current injection generates optical gain in the active region. Thus, in the active region generates light. Bottom CBR (3222) and upper CBR (3228) is chosen in such a way as to control the angular emission of light.

Bottom CBR (3222) and upper CBR (3228) have large-scale period (3220). Each large-scale period (3220) includes several pairs (3211) layers, forming a first periodicity, and a few pairs (3212) layers, forming a second periodicity. In the shown Fig private embodiment (3200) the first frequency is formed by four pairs of layers (3211) and the second frequency is formed by four pairs of layers (3212). Device (3200) grown by epitaxy on the substrate (101)and the lower layers CBR (3222) and upper layers CBR (3228) grown by epitaxy from materials selected from the group consisting of GaAs, AlAs, and alloys semiconductors GaAlAs. The second frequency formed by the pairs (3212) layers contains one layer in each pair formed of AlAs or GaAlAs with a high content of Al, preferably higher than 90%. Grown technology epitaxy and processed properly, the device can then be OK is sliney, so AlAs layers become fully oxidized and form layers of AlO and GaAlAs layers with high Al content are fully oxidized and form the layers GaAlO. Oxide layers (3263) have a high contrast in refractive index with the adjacent semiconductor layers, which increases the ability to control the angular distribution of the light beam. In the device (3200) oxide layers in CBR suppress radiation in inclined directions (3265), and therefore the light is preferably emitted in the vertical direction (3235).

The figure 33 shows a schematic drawing of an optoelectronic device (3300) according to another variant implementation of the invention. The cavity (123) with an active region (126) placed between the bottom CBR (3322) and upper CBR (3328). As the lower CBR (3322), and the upper CBR (3328) have large-scale period (3120). Each large-scale period (3320) includes several pairs (3311) layers, forming a first periodicity, and a few pairs (3312) layers, forming a second periodicity. In the shown Fig private version (3300) the first frequency is formed by four pairs (3311) layers and the second frequency is formed by four pairs (3312) layers. Device (3300) grown by epitaxy on the substrate (101), and the lower layers CBR (3322) and upper layers CBR (3328) grown by epitaxy from the mother of the crystals of the group, consisting of GaAs, AlAs, or alloy semiconductors GaAlAs. The second frequency is formed by pairs (3112) layers, with one layer in each pair formed from components AlAs or GaAlAs with a high content of Al, preferably higher than 90%. Grown by epitaxy and processed, the device further subjected to oxidation, so that the layers of AlAs were partially asymmetrically oxidized on one side of the device (3300), forming layers of AlO, and GaAlAs layers with high Al content partially asymmetrically oxidized on one side of the device (3300), forming layers GaAlO. The oxides formed on the side where the device (3300) is subjected to oxidation, as well as in the Central part of the device (3300). The oxidized portion of the layer is further subjected to etching for forming air gaps (3363). Mechanical unity device (3300) is supported through the non-oxidized and neprotivleniya parts (3362) layers. These oxygenated and neprotivlenie part (3362) layers provide the current passing through the active region (126). Since the refractive index for air is close to 1, then the introduction of air gaps increases the contrast of refractive indices in CBR, as well as promotes the development of vertical optical fashion. Therefore, the introduction of air gaps (3363) increases the ability to control the angular distribution of light) is implemented. In the device (3300) air gaps (3363) CBR suppress the radiation of light in oblique directions (3365), and the light thus emitted preferentially in the vertical direction (3335).

In another embodiment of the present invention an optoelectronic device with asymmetrically placed air gaps can be chosen so that light is emitted preferably in an inclined direction. In this case, due to the lack of symmetry can be obtained dnorepository picture of radiation. In yet another embodiment, the present invention optoelectronic device is subjected to the oxidation of unsymmetrical manner and not subjected to etching. Asymmetrically located oxide layers can be used to produce light in an oblique direction in the form of odnolistovoy picture of the radiation in zone Frown of Hofer.

Various embodiments of the present invention are possible in connection with different ways of manufacturing the conventional VCSEL. The active medium implemented in the form of quantum wells with a single-layer or multilayer structure, the combination of quantum wires, the combination of quantum dots and combinations thereof, can contain layers with mismatched lattice.

In another embodiment of the invention, the entire device structure grown on metamorphic (with plastic relaxation) buffer, to which that has inconsistent lattice constant relative to the substrate. Upper CBR or top m & e can be obtained from the semiconductor or dielectric layers, or any combinations thereof. In the existing technology known various combinations of materials (e.g., Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Design, Fabrication. Characterization, and Applications by CW. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, L.A. Coldren (editors), Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp.193-232, the article is incorporated herein by reference). Further, the optoelectronic device may contain one intracavitary contact or two intracavitary contact. At least one layer comprising CBR is a dielectric layer, and the corresponding pin must be in-band contact, as shown for the device (3200) option on Fig. If all layers are semiconductor layers, intracavitary contacts can be used as an additional option.

It is important to note the large difference between the optoelectronic device according to the invention with CBR, m & e and double the frequency, and the laser with tilted cavity, which was presented by the authors of the present invention in the patent application U.S. "TILTED CAVITY SEMICONDUCTOR OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICE AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME", the application for the grant of a U.S. patent 10/943044 filed H. Ledentsov and B. Shchukin 16 September 2004. Laser with tilted cavity (TCL), including laser with a sloped and flat resonator, designed to work with stabilizer the bathroom wavelength, implemented through the development of the desired optical loss. The optimal wavelength for TCL is determined by the intersection of the dispersion relations for the resonator and dispersion relations for m & e. The wavelength at which intersect these two curves corresponds to the minimal optical losses. Lasing occurs when this optimal wavelength, and the laser TCL is stable wavelength. Double periodicity can be used in m & e in one of the embodiments of TCL as a means of designing optical loss and to filter unwanted wavelengths from the desired optimum wavelength.

On the contrary, the optoelectronic device is a light emitting diode or a laser diode according to the present invention does not include the task of designing losses. The stabilization of the wavelength is not the purpose of this invention. Optoelectronic device of the present invention can operate without the stabilization of the wavelength. In other embodiments of the invention, the stabilization of the wavelength of emitted light for the described device can be achieved not by the criterion of minimal losses in the epitaxial structure, and by the usual mechanisms applicable in existing VCSEL, for example via the end side of the oxide aperture (similar what about the aperture (3273) in the device (3200)).

In other embodiments, implementation of the present invention CBR or m & e with electrooptical modulation, on the one hand, and CBR or m & e with double periodicity, on the other, can be combined to further improve the operation of such devices. Figure 34 shows a schematic drawing custom planar laser with a vertical resonator and q modulated wavelength according to another variant implementation of the invention. Device (3400) refers to the above-described variant of implementation of the present invention, shown in Fig. Compared with the device (1900), the device (3400) includes a bottom CBR (3422)having two periodicity. Two periodicity carried out as follows. Bottom CBR (3422) has a large period (3420). Each large-scale period (3420) includes several pairs of layers (3411)forming a first periodicity, and a few pairs (3412) layers, forming a second periodicity. In the private embodiment of the invention (3400), shown in Fig, the first frequency is formed by three pairs (3411) layers and the second periodicity is formed of three pairs (3412) layers. And the first frequency and the second frequency is optimized to generate vertical radiation permitted component light (3435) and suppression of n is stronger optical modes.

One of the possible operating modes of the device (3400) is the following. Suppression of parasitic optical modes is provided with a double periodicity in the lower CBR (3422), which allows fast, direct modulation of the active resonator (923). Thus, modulates the intensity of the radiation. Modulatory section (1962) allows rapid modulation of the emission wavelength, as was also previously described for the device (1900). Therefore, when there is a special need can be rapid modulation as the intensity and wavelength of radiation.

In another embodiment, the present invention double periodicity is introduced into the electro-optic modulated CBR or IOI. Double periodicity can be used for one of pmodulename parts electro-optical modulating CBR or IOI. For another implementation of the present invention the double periodicity is introduced into the modulator. It is also possible alternative embodiment of the invention, in which the double periodicity is introduced in all the sections of the electro-optical modulating CBR or IOI. According to another variant implementation of the invention the double periodicity is introduced in all CBR or MI reflectors device.

In yet another embodiment, the present invention optoelectronic device is istwo contains no resonator, and the active area is placed in one of the layers CBR or IOI. CBR or m & e has a dual frequency prohibiting the emission of light in the range of angles of the inclined relative deliberately chosen direction of light radiation.

From the above it becomes clear that certain features of the invention, which for clarity have been described in the context of separate embodiments of the invention may also be provided in the form of combinations of these features in a single embodiment. Conversely, various features of the invention, which, for brevity, described in the context of one variant of the invention, can be provided separately or in any suitable combination.

Although the invention has been described in connection with specific variants of its implementation, it is obvious that various alternatives, modifications and variations will be clear to the person skilled in the art. Thus, under disclosure of the invention includes all such alternatives, modifications and variations that correspond to the spirit and broad framework of the subsequent claims. All publications, patent and non-patent references are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety into the specification to the same extent as if a separate publication, patents, and patent applications were individually noted the ENES incorporated by reference. In addition, quotes or to identify the link should not be construed as an admission that such reference is included in the scope of prior art for this invention.

This invention should not be construed as limited to the above specific cases, but includes all possible embodiments of the invention within a certain range and equivalents of the various features set forth in the claims. Therefore, it should be understood that embodiments of the invention are given only to illustrate the application of the principles of the invention. Links to details of explanatory variants of the invention do not limit the scope of protection of the claims, which causes these symptoms, which is important for the invention.

The following patent and non-patent references are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety:

1. Semiconductor electronic device (900), containing:
a) at least one resonator (923);
b) at least one first reflector (960);
c) at least one second reflector (922); the first reflector (960) is a multilayer interference is targetelem; when this resonator (923) is sitosterolemia element; a resonator (923), in turn, contains
d) gain (926), which emits light upon application to the field of amplification (926) forward bias (913); and the resonator (923) has at least one resonant wavelength; multilayer interference reflector (960), in turn, contains
e) at least one modulator (962), such that the modulator (962) has a range of optical reflection, so that the spectrum of the optical reflection contains the stop zone, such that the stop zone has a stop edge zone; a modulator (962) can modify the spectrum of the optical reflection upon the application of bias (993) to the modulator (962), so that the change in the spectrum of the optical reflection includes the edge shift of the stop zone relative to the resonant wavelength of the resonator (923); so that the edge shift stop area reflection spectrum of the optical modulator (962) switches the modulator (962) between transparent and opaque States in such a way that the optical transmittance of the modulator is rebuilt; however, changing the spectrum of the optical modulator is due to the electro-optic effect;
f) at least three electrical contacts, which are independently serves the offset to the modulator (962) and svetove ryuumaru element (923), when this setting is through the variation of the optical transmittance of the multilayer interference reflector.

2. Semiconductor optoelectronic device (900) according to claim 1, in which the electrooptical effect is realized in the form of quantum-limited stark effect by applying a reverse bias to the modulator (962).

3. Semiconductor optoelectronic device (900) according to claim 1, in which the electrooptical effect is implemented as a fading of the exciton through the injection of nonequilibrium carriers by applying a forward bias to the modulator (962).

4. Semiconductor optoelectronic device (900) according to claim 1, in which the electro-optical effect through the injection of electron-hole plasma by applying a forward bias to the modulator (962).

5. Semiconductor optoelectronic device (900) according to claim 1, in which the modulation of the optical transmittance of the modulator (962) leads to a modulation of the output optical power.

6. Semiconductor optoelectronic device (900) according to claim 1, in which the forward bias (913) applied to the field of amplification (926) so that the gain exceeds the total loss, allowing laser generation.

7. Semiconductor optoelectronic device according to claim 6, in which the device is selected from the group consisting of:
a) a vertically emitting laser;
b) La the EPA edge emitting;
c) laser edge emitting and distributed feedback;
d) multi-section laser with butt-rays; and
e) laser with tilted cavity.

8. Semiconductor optoelectronic device according to claim 1, in which at least one element of the device is formed of materials selected from the group consisting of:
i) semiconductor materials of the III-V groups; and
ii) alloys based on semiconductor materials of the III-V groups; however, the semiconductor materials of the III-V groups selected from the group of binary compounds of element a selected from the group of chemical elements Al, Ga and In, and the element selected from the group of chemical elements N, P, As and Sb.

9. Semiconductor optoelectronic device (1900) according to claim 1, in which the multilayer interference reflector (1960) also contains:
i) at least one tunable section (1962); and
ii) at least one neperestavaya section (1963) on the side of the at least one tunable sections (1962), opposite to the resonant cavity (923); the setting of the variable optical transmittance of at least one tunable sections (1962) multilayer interference reflector (1960) that vary the wavelength of the laser light.

10. The method of controlling the intensity of the laser radiation emitted by the semiconductor opto is Elektronnyi device, contains
A) at least one resonant cavity; and
B) at least one multilayer interference reflector;
C) at least one sitosterolemia element, which emits light when a forward bias;
D) and at least three electrical contacts,
when this multilayer interference reflector, in turn, contains at least one modulator such that the modulator has a range of optical reflection, so that the spectrum of the optical reflection contains the stop zone, such that the stop zone has a stop edge zone; however, the modulator can change the spectrum of optical reflection with the application of bias to the modulator so that the change in the spectrum of the optical reflection includes the edge shift of the stop zone relative to the resonant wavelength of the resonant cavity; so that the edge shift of the stop-zone spectrum optical modulator switches the modulator between transparent and opaque States in such a way that the optical transmittance of the modulator is rebuilt; however, changing the spectrum of the optical modulator is due to the electro-optic effect; the control method includes the following steps:
a) calibration, the calibration consists of the following steps:
i) installation mi is reanimate in the same electrical circuit, in which the bias applied to the modulator, and the ammeter configured to measure the photocurrent generated in the modulator by applying reverse bias;
ii) independent application of bias to the modulator and to sitosterolaemia element through the electrical contacts;
iii) electro-optic tuning of the wavelength region of the stop zone of the multilayer interference reflector relative to the resonant wavelength of the resonator;
iv) the variation of the optical transmittance of the device, so that the optical output power varies;
v) measuring the photocurrent in the electric circuit of the modulator under reverse bias and the measurement of the output power of the device;
vi) obtaining calibration curves radiation-photocurrent; and
b) a control device consisting of the steps:
i) independent application of bias to the modulator and to sitosterolaemia element through the electrical contacts;
ii) electro-optic tuning of the wavelength region of the stop zone of the multilayer interference reflector relative to the resonant wavelength of the resonator;
iii) the variation of the optical transmittance of the device, so that the optical output power varies;
iv) measuring the photocurrent in the electric circuit of the modulator under reverse bias; and
v) adjusting the control current in the circuit active the element to maintain the desired output power of the device by means of calibration curves and radiation-photocurrent.

11. Semiconductor photodetector (2000) with the resonant cavity containing:
a) at least one resonant cavity (2023);
b) at least one first reflector (1960);
c) at least one second reflector (922);
the first reflector (1960) is a multilayer interference reflector; a resonant cavity (2023), in turn, contains
d) at least one light-absorbing element (2026), which absorbs light and generates a photocurrent when applying to the light-absorbing element (2026) zero or reverse bias (2013), in which the resonant cavity (2023) has at least one resonant wavelength; in which the multilayer interference reflector (1960), in turn, contains
e) at least one modulator (1962), such that the modulator (1962) has a range of optical reflection, so that the spectrum of the optical reflection contains the stop zone, such that the stop zone has a stop edge zone;
however modulator (1962) can modify the spectrum of the optical reflection upon the application of bias (993) to the modulator (1962) so that the change in the spectrum of the optical reflection includes the edge shift of the stop zone relative to the resonant wavelength of the resonator (2023) so that the edge shift of the stop-zone spectrum optical modulator (1962) switches the modulator (962) between transparent and opaque States thus the optical transmittance of the modulator is rebuilt; however, changing the spectrum of the optical modulator is due to the electro-optic effect;
f) at least three electrical contacts through which the offset is independently applied to the field of modulation of the modulator (1962) and the light-absorbing element (2023); when this setting varies the resonant wavelength of the device.



 

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3 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: fiber-optic transmission systems.

SUBSTANCE: optical multilayer filter has N dielectric layers made of materials with different refractivity. Optical thickness of any layer equals to λ/4, where λ average wavelength of transmission band of optical filter. Optical multilayer filter is composed of input optical transformer, selective part and output optical transformer. Level of signal distortions is reduced till preset value for wide range of frequency characteristics of decay of filter within preset transmission band and decay is improved within delay band till preset value.

EFFECT: widened area of application.

5 dwg

FIELD: narrowband filtration covers.

SUBSTANCE: narrowband filtration cover contains two systems of alternating dielectric layers with different refraction coefficients and equal optical thickness λ0/4, in the form of high reflection mirrors, and a dielectric layer dividing them. In accordance to the invention, structure of high reflection mirrors additionally features dielectric layers with intermediate value of refraction coefficient and dividing layer has optical thickness λ0 or one divisible by it, and sequence of layer alternation has form (CBCABA)KD(ABACBC)K with nA<nB<nC, where refraction coefficient of dividing layer nD is not equal to nA (for example, nD=nC) and k≥1 is an integer number, where: λ0 - maximal filtration cover throughput wave length; A, B and C - dielectric layers with values of refraction coefficient nA, nB and nC respectively, and D - dividing layer.

EFFECT: increased selectivity due to expansion of high reflection bands on the sides of pass band.

5 dwg

FIELD: optical instrument engineering.

SUBSTANCE: optical filtering device can be used for building devices for spectral filtration of optical images, for example, for wavelength re-tune optical filters, IR imagers working within specified narrow spectral ranges. Filtering device being capable of re-tuning within preset wavelength range is based upon interferometers. Interferometers are disposed along path of filtered radiation flow at different angles to axis of flow. Reflecting surfaces of plates of any interferometer, which plates are turned to meet one another, are optically polished and they don't have metal or interference mirror coatings. To filter selected wavelength of λm; the following distances among reflecting faces of interferometers: d1=(λm/2)k, k=1 or k=2, dn=(n-1)d1 or nd1. Filtering device is equipped with different filters which cutoff radiation outside borders of range to be filtered, including filters which are made of optical materials being transparent within band of spectral characteristic of sensitivity of consumer's receiver, which receiver registers filtered radiation. Filter cutting off short wavelength radiation is made of materials, which form border with positive derivative of dependence total internal reflection angle depending on wavelength. Filter cutting off long wavelength radiation is made of materials which form border with negative derivative of angle of total internal reflection depending on wavelength.

EFFECT: improved stability of parameters; increased transmission ability in maximal points of bands and reduction in number of transmission bands; increased relative aperture; higher quality of filtration; reduced number of side maximums.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for getting image from space, including surface of Earth, from space and from different sorts of air carriers. Device has at least one information channel which channel has objective, filter and multi-element receiver. Filter is made of two lenses, which lenses form flat-parallel plate. Lenses are made of the same material with equal radiuses of curvature of their spherical surfaces. Interference coatings are applied onto spherical surfaces, which coatings form, together with material of lenses, spectral range of device. Filter can be installed between objective and radiation receiver. In this case the first lens is made flat convex, the second one is flat concave. Center of radius of curvature of spherical surface of flat-convex lens is brought into coincidence with center of exit pupil of objective. Filter can be installed in front of objective.

EFFECT: constancy of borders of spectral sensitivity and of level of transmission within total area of angle of view; improved precision of measurement.

7 cl, 3 dwg

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