Braking effort control device

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in disc brakes. Proposed device comprises bearing structure running gear, braking unit, load pickup and control unit. Brake unit is arranged on bearing structure and allow transmitting braking force to friction surface of running gear rotating element. Load pickup is arranged on brake unit or on bearing structure and serves to measure friction force between brake unit and friction surface or resultant force. Control unit compares actual values of load from load pickup with preset values. Besides, control unit actuates brake unit to reduce its icing in case actual value deviates from preset value preferable for preset limit value. Proposed transport facility comprises bearing structure running gear, braking unit, load pickup and control unit. Proposed method consists in defining load in brake unit or is bearing structure of transport facility, particularly, railway vehicle, or between brake unit and bearing structure resulted from friction force transmitted from aforesaid friction surface to brake unit. Then, actual value is compared with preset one. Besides, control unit actuates brake unit to reduce its icing in case actual value deviates from preset value preferable for preset limit value.

EFFECT: better control over braking.

17 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to a device for controlling the braking action, and the device comprises a supporting structure, chassis, at least one brake unit mounted on the supporting structure and transmitting the brake force on the friction surface of the rotating element of the chassis, and at least one load sensor. In addition, the invention relates to a vehicle with a corresponding device and a corresponding method of controlling the braking action of the specified vehicle.

Rail vehicles traditionally equipped Shoe brakes, in particular drum brakes and newer vehicles - disc brakes.

Under Shoe brake should understand the mechanical brake, in which the corresponding wheel suspension is retarded by one or more brake shoes. Through the corresponding brake Shoe to the surface of the friction wheel, often on the roll surface, is the radial pressure. Typically, pressed two opposite brake Shoe. If pressed, only one brake pad, then talk about drum brake. The corresponding brake Shoe or brake pad through the rolling mechanism, the so-called brake lever PE is Adachi, connected with pneumatic, hydraulic, electric, mechanical or electromagnetic drive. As a rule, in rail vehicles used pneumopathie.

In disc brakes, the braking force is transmitted to the friction surface of the brake disc, is firmly connected to the axle of the corresponding wheel suspension, not radially and transversely, i.e. in the axial direction. Typically, for a deceleration of the wheel brake pads or brake linings are pressed against the brake disc on both sides. The brake pads are placed in the brake grip, also called brake saddle, which partially cover the brake disc. The brake piston is moved corresponding brake actuator transmits the braking force in the brake lever transmission brake ticks on the brake pads. Such a disk brake, a force of reaction that occurs directly as a friction force on the brake disk, and then as the sustaining force is perceived by one or more further details.

In the operation of rail vehicles in winter conditions, depending on the design, temperature, humidity, snow and wind conditions can cause accumulation of snow and ice brake lever transmission and surface the TEI friction brake blocks.

Compared to disc brakes traditional drum brakes are less prone to icing, because at least one participant of friction, namely the rolling surface of the wheel, with each of its turnover during contact with the rail may be free of ice. However, and Shoe brakes there is a danger of icing of the brake linkage.

Disc brakes are more susceptible to icing, because none of the participants friction cannot be automatically freed from ice. Under certain, unpredictable weather conditions, in particular, disk brakes, can be so severe icing brake lever gear that the action of the brake unit can significantly limit or even cease. This icing may relate to individual and all brake units of the rail vehicle. Such brake failures not detected in a timely manner and represent the most acute problem of security in the rail.

In the prior art brake units of the rail vehicle is insufficiently controlled while driving. In the extreme case provides electronic control of pressure in the brake cylinders through the control unit. Such control is known, for example, from EN 2298501 C1. If this is the case of the ice-covered or over-running brake lever gear or brake mites occurs however, the proper pressure in the brake cylinders. However, efforts in tight running brake rigging reduced, not reaching the appropriate braking action. In the case of the icy surfaces of friction is only a small effect, since the applied force with a relatively small coefficient of friction icy surfaces friction can cause a small slowdown. When this energy input is relatively small, so that the defrost icy surfaces occurs only over a relatively long time.

Also known pre-trial motion braking at low speed. Thus, it should be assessed, is there sufficient braking action. More important than the problem of subjective evaluation of the braking action, is the fact that the condition of the brakes during subsequent movement may worsen at any time and unpredictable.

As other security measures known performance during movement in a certain period of time short trial braking with electronic systems. Defines the deceleration of the vehicle, making it possible to diagnose the current deterioration of the braking action. However, as already mentioned, the condition of the brakes may deteriorate in the process d is leaseho motion at any time.

To avoid while driving a gradual freezing of the individual parts of the brake unit, in particular a brake linkage, brake blocks at regular intervals are driven by hand or electronically. Due to the motion of the individual parts must be prevented icing. To find an efficient algorithm actuation requires extensive field trials. Since the process of icing, however, depends on climatic conditions, the desired algorithm is also weather-dependent. In addition, frequent use of this method leads to increased energy consumption and violate schedule loss of time.

The objective of the invention is to provide a vehicle corresponding to the brake unit and ways to improve the control of the braking action.

This problem is solved in a device of the above kind due to the fact that at least one load sensor is located on the brake block or on a supporting structure so that it can measure the braking force between the brake unit and a friction surface of or resulting from this effect.

Due to the fact that the brake block there are several load sensors when the trial braking or during regular braking to measure load matched with the relevant parts of the brake unit, arising in response to a braking force which is transmitted to the friction surface of the rotating element, such as a brake disc or wheel. In addition to the friction force that can be, for example, supportive force in the details connected with the brake unit. This supporting force can act in a different direction than the force with which the brake block is pressed against the friction surface. Since the amount and nature of the particular load, i.e. forces, moments, strains, stress, etc. vary depending on the degree of icing brake unit, it is possible to compare the measured load with preset preset values and to judge them on the extent of icing and braking action. In other words, it is possible to detect when, despite having made the active force, the brake device is not valid, as really existing between the participants of friction the coefficient of friction is reduced partially or almost zero, which may be caused, for example, icing. In this same decision, the load sensor is located so that it is on the actual braking action or braking action can determine the resultant force of the reaction. This reaction force can be followed by, for example, the actual friction between the parts of the brake.

Another advantage of C is enabled in due to the actual values, you can detect unwanted behavior, such as vibration of the brake lever of the transmission and/or brake pads. Such undesirable behavior could indicate the wrong pair of friction or the achievement of the fatigue limit.

According to one variant of the proposed device, the load sensor is located on the brake rigging brake unit, since the brake lever transmission regardless of the type of brake receives and sends on a relatively large load due to the reaction forces when braking.

According to another variant of the proposed device, the brake block is part of a disk or Shoe brake, in particular drum brakes. In the case of disc brakes possible location of the sensor strain on the parts of the brake mites, in particular on the holder and/or at least one arm and/or at least one hinge. Alternatively or additionally it is also possible location of the load cell, at least one brake block brake block. The load sensor may be located between the brake block and the bearing structure containing, in particular, the bogie frame, for example, at the junction of the holder brake mites and RAM the truck. It is also possible location of the sensor load on the coupling element, for example on the screw connecting the braking unit and the load-bearing structure. All these details brake unit take the load in response to the braking force and, accordingly, are deformed or are changing their temperature. This reaction force can as the friction force acting on the brake unit and can be, for example, the supporting force. The latter may act in a different direction than the braking force, and at the expense of other dimensions may consequently differ from the braking force. Accordingly, it is possible to identify in these components of forces, moments, strains and/or mechanical stresses, in particular bending, and the resulting value of the reaction force to the load, the so-called actual value, is proof of how great the degree of icing brake unit and accompanies whether this reduction of the braking action.

As load cell, depending on the form of the measured load and the location sensor may be of different types. For example, the load sensor in the form of sensor stretching can be located on the surface of one of the monitored components, in particular the surface of the brake ticks, mainly on the holder and/or growling is E. It is also possible location between the separate parts of the torque washer, measuring anchor, the force sensor or pressure sensor. Torque washer may be located, for example, between the bearing structure, in particular cart frame, and the brake unit, in particular a holder brake ticks, so that the load cell is transmitted relative movement between the brake block and the bearing structure. In particular, as a load cell or its components can be used to wire strain gauge (DMS. Depending on the orientation of the strain gauge can distinguish between the measurement of active braking force and the measurement of reactive power, which arises as a consequence of the friction force and is in relation with the actual braking action.

According to another variant of the proposed device, each zatormazhivaetsja wheel suspension is provided, at least one load sensor. Preferably several parts of the brake unit is equipped with such a sensor load. Thus, each wheel suspension can be reliably controlled in respect of changes to its braking action.

According to another preferred variant of the proposed device, a control unit, which is designed in such a way that the can is t to compare the corresponding load sensor actual value with a pre-defined, in particular, stored in memory preset values. In particular, the control unit can receive and compare the actual values of the active braking force and the actual value of the reactive force of friction. The result of this comparison and/or the measured actual values can be displayed on the display device, for example in the cab, and predominantly activate emergency program, which allows you to conduct one or more audits braking and/or triggering of the brake linkage. No longer required prior to or during the movement of a regular trial braking or powering the brake lever transmission, as it happens, according to the invention, only if necessary, if the icing has exceeded a certain degree.

Regardless of the above types of control of the braking action can be additionally provided with other control systems, such as electronic control of pressure in the brake cylinders.

Also object of the invention is solved by a vehicle, in particular a rail vehicle, comprising the above-described device. It provides for control of the braking action of at least one load sensor, described in detail above.

In addition, the task izopet the deposits solved by way of the control of the braking action of the vehicle, in particular a rail vehicle, preferably includes the above-described device, the load in the brake unit or the supporting structure or between them is determined as a result of the friction force, which is transmitted by the friction surface of the rotating element of the chassis on its brake block.

Due to the fact that the brake block is determined by the load, which is a response to send to the friction surface of the brake force, and due to the fact that, of course, the amount and nature of the load depend on the degree of icing brake unit, ensures the timely detection of reducing the braking action of icing and, if necessary, can be carried out in response, for example one or more tests of inhibition or triggering of the brake linkage.

As mentioned above, according to one variant of the method, the load is determined by at least one, located on the brake block of the load cell. The specified sensor can be a sensor, strain, torque washer, measuring dowel, the force sensor or a pressure sensor. It is also possible the combined use of different types of sensors. Mainly as a load cell or part thereof used is the wire strain gauge (DMS. Note that depending on the orientation of the strain gauge can distinguish between the measurement of active braking force and the measurement of reactive power, which arises as a consequence of the friction force and is in relation with the actual braking action.

According to another variant of the method, the load cell transmits corresponding to the detected load actual value to the control unit, the control unit compares the actual value with a predefined, in particular stored in memory, a set value and determines the possible deviation. In particular, the control unit can receive and compare the actual values of the active braking force and the actual value of the reactive force of friction. Deviation and/or the actual value can be displayed and used to make, if necessary, non-icing measures, such as a trial or inhibition actuate the brake linkage. This emergency program is started, in particular, when the deviation between the actual and preset values is greater than a predetermined limit value, which, as the set values may be stored in the control unit.

There are many opportunities to perform and improvements proposed the th vehicle, brake unit and method, which are disclosed in the dependent claims.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, which presents the following:

figure 1 - an example of implementation is installed on a rail vehicle brake unit according to the invention;

figure 2 is a typical diagram during the brake control unit of figure 1.

Figure 1 shows a device for controlling the braking action of the rail vehicle (not shown). In this case, part of the supporting structure 2 of the vehicle, here on the frame 8 of the truck, by means of the coupling elements 15 mounted brake unit 4, and transmits the braking force on the friction surface 5 of the rotating element 6 partially shows the chassis 3 of the vehicle. Rotating element 6 is in this case the brake disc 9, is firmly fixed with the rotary shaft, resulting in a rotation of the wheel suspension 3.

The brake block 4 with the brake pliers 10, there are several load sensors 7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e, some of which are made in the form of strain gauges 18a, 18b, 18c, 18d and is formed with a torque washer 17.

This wire strain gauge (DMS 18a is located on the surface of the arm 12A of the brake 10 ticks, and the wire strain gauge (DMS 18b on the surface of their opposite arm 12b. other strain gauge 18c, 18d are located on the surface of the holder 11 of the brake 10 ticks, which by hinges 13A, 13b connected to the levers 12A, 12b.

Torque washer 17 is located at the junction of the frame 8 of the truck and brake 10 ticks or holder 11 around blooping the coupling element 15, which connects the brake clamp 10 with the frame 8 of the truck.

When braking both levers 12A, 12b of the brake 10 ticks through the cylinder node 19, which is fed into the pressure, converge, resulting arranged on the brake pads 14a, 14b are pressed on the friction surface 5 of the brake disc 6. Depending on the braking force with which the brake pads 14a, 14b are pressed on the friction surface 5 of the brake disc 6, there are loads in the individual parts of the brake 10 ticks, in particular in the levers 12A, 12b and the holder 11. Brake pliers 10 in response to a braking force to move relative to the frame 8 trucks, which leads to stresses in the zone of junction of the frame 8 of the truck and brake 10 ticks. In addition, depending on the reaction force, i.e. due to the friction force between the friction surfaces 5 and the brake disc 9, also there are loads in the individual parts of the brake 10 ticks and again in the levers 12A, 12b and the holder 11. These loads are usually a different direction than the load due to active braking force./p>

A separate load, i.e. the reaction forces are measured due to the fact that is equipped with a load sensor parts are deformed in accordance with transmitted to the brake disk brake force. Thus, the bending of the lever 12A as a result of the friction force is registered by the strain gauge 18a, and the bending of the lever 12b as a result of the friction force - resistance strain gage 18b and the corresponding detected load actual value is transmitted to the control unit 16. The bending of the holder 11 as a consequence of the friction force is registered by the strain gauges 18c, 18d, and the control unit 16 is also transmitted to the corresponding actual values. Torque washer 17 registers the force with which the brake pliers 10 are pressed against the frame 8 trucks, and also transmits to the control unit 16 corresponding to the actual value.

In the control unit 16 stores the set values, which are compared to actual values. Because the amount and nature of the loads as a result of the friction force changes in the individual parts of the brake 10 ticks with increasing degree of icing and more different from behavior at normal temperatures, as icing in the case of braking also change the measured values, which are determined by the load sensors and transmitted to the control unit 16.

The control unit 16 determines, for example, Rav is diversified intervals or on demand of the operator, by comparing the actual values with corresponding predetermined values possible deviation and displays it. If the detected deviation exceeds a predefined threshold value to reduce the degree of icing brake unit 4 is driven for a certain period of time one or more times.

Figure 2 schematically presents a chart that depending on the particular time shown braking action by using pressures in the brake cylinders (fig.2b))corresponding to the active braking force, on the one hand and with tension on the surface of the brake mites (figs), 2d)), the corresponding reactive force of friction, on the other hand.

On figa) depending on time (in seconds) shows the decrease in speed (km/h) rail vehicle when braking.

On fig.2b) shows the change in pressure (in bar) in the brake cylinder during braking, i.e. the active braking force. Thus, the dashed line shows the desired characteristic of the given value, and the solid the actual pressure change, i.e. the characteristic actual values. When comparing figa) and 2b) shows that at the beginning of the braking pressure in the brake cylinder increases sharply to a maximum value, and then during the whole time of braking remains is I constant until the stop rail vehicle. We can then see that the characteristic of the actual pressure corresponding to the characteristic of the optimum pressure and has no noticeable differences.

On figs) depending on time shows the change in strain (10-3mV/V) on the surface of the levers 12A, 12b as a result of the reactive force of friction, namely being registered by the strain gauges 18a, 18b. Respectively fig.2d) depending on time shows the change in the tension on the surface of the holder 11 of the brake 10 ticks.

On figs), 2d) shows that, despite not distinguish on fig.2b) deviation characteristics of the actual pressure from the characteristics of a given pressure, however, there has been a marked deviation in the nature of the stretching parts brake 10 ticks, which allows to judge the degree of icing details. In the icing has a lower coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces 5 and the brake disc 6, so there less friction and therefore less tension. So, figs), 2d) description the specified values are also indicated by the dashed line, and the characteristic of the actual value of the tension on the surface of the respective parts is a solid line. Thus at the beginning of the braking finds a relatively strong change in tension in response to the braking force, pricing the ideal case (characteristic set value), with no icing details, change more than in actual conditions (characteristic actual values). Until the stop rail vehicle reaction forces and thus the measured strain is almost not changed, however, when it stops again reduced to zero, since in this case no longer occurs a relative movement between the brake pads 14a, 14b and the brake disc 9.

Presented at Figo)-2d) graph shows that the control pressure in the brake cylinders is not suitable for display to reduce the braking action due to icing of the parts of the brake unit 4. The location of the load sensors on its parts visibly shows the difference between the strength of the reaction in ideal and force reactions in actual conditions. Thus, it is possible to take timely measures against icing, so in the long term remains optimal braking action.

1. The device (1)containing the load-bearing structure (2), chassis (3), at least one brake unit (4)mounted on the supporting structure (2) and configured to transmit braking force to the friction surface (5) of the rotating element (6) of the chassis (3), at least one load sensor (7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e), located on the brake block (4) is whether the bearing structure (2) and designed to measure the friction force between the brake block (4) and the friction surface (5) or resulting from this force, and the control unit (16), made with the possibility of comparison received from the corresponding load sensor (7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e) actual values with preset values, characterized in that the control unit (16) configured to, when the deviation between the actual and preset values, which is more preferably set limit value, the actuation of the brake unit (4) to reduce the extent of the icing.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the supporting structure (2) includes a frame (8) truck.

3. The device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the rotary element (6) made in the form of a brake disc (9) or the wheel.

4. The device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the load sensor (7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e) is located on the brake rigging brake unit (4).

5. The device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the brake unit (4) is an integral part of the disk or Shoe brake, in particular drum brakes.

6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the load sensor (7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e) is located on the parts of the brake ticks (10), in particular on the holder (11), and/or at least one lever (12A, 12b), and/or at least one hinge (13A, 13b).

7. The device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the load sensor (7a, 7b, 7C, 7d, 7e) is located, at least one brake Shoe (14a, 14b) of brake unit (4).

8. The device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the load sensor (7a, 7b, 7C, 7d, 7e) is located between the brake block (4) and the bearing structure (2).

9. The device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the load sensor (7a, 7b, 7C, 7d, 7e) is located on the connecting element that connects the brake block (4) with the bearing structure (2).

10. The device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the load sensor (7a, 7b, 7C, 7d, 7e) made in the form of sensor strain, torque washers (17), measuring anchor, the force sensor or pressure sensor, and contains, in particular, the wire strain gauge (DMS (18a, 18b, 18C, 18d).

11. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that each zatormazhivaetsja wheel undercarriage (3) has at least one load sensor (7a, 7b, 7C, 7d, 7e).

12. The vehicle containing the device according to any one of claims 1 to 11.

13. The way in which determine the load in braking unit (4) or in the supporting structure (2) of the vehicle, in particular rail vehicles, or between the brake block (4) and the bearing structure (2) as a consequence of the friction force transmitted from the friction surface (5) of the rotating element (6) of the chassis (3) braking unit (4) of the vehicle, and compare the corresponding detected load actual value with a predefined value, the tives such as those when the deviation between the actual and preset values that is greater than a predetermined threshold value, actuating the brake unit (4) to reduce the extent of the icing.

14. The method according to item 13, wherein the load is determined by at least one, located on the brake block (4) load cell (7a, 7b, 7C, 7d, 7e).

15. The method according to 14, wherein comparing the actual values with the specified value and the actuation of the brake unit (4) is carried out at the deviation between the actual and preset values that is greater than a predetermined limit value, through the control unit (16), for which the load sensor (7a, 7b, 7C, 7d, 7e) transmit the actual value.

16. The method according to any of PP-15, characterized in that the actual value and/or the deviation display.

17. The method according to any of PP-15, characterized in that the vehicle contains a device according to any one of claims 1 to 11.



 

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FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices providing automatic control of vehicle braking. Proposed vehicle wheel deceleration pickup has shaft kinematically coupled with wheel on which disk is rigidly secured, and flywheel installed for turning and provided with elastic coupling with disk in form of friction tape, planetary gear train, flywheel installed for rotation and switch placed in electric control circuit of antilocking device. Pickup is furnished additionally with second friction tape directed in opposite side along circumference of driven flywheel, drum rigidly coupled with disk lever-and-cam centrifugal mechanism with pressure spring and adjusting nut. Lever-and-cam centrifugal mechanism acts onto switch through release plate and pusher.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities of pickup, increased sensitivity, reduced mass and overall dimensions of pickup, provision of serviceability of pickup at reversing of vehicle.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; transport vehicles brake systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in vehicle brake systems and also at designing of brake mechanisms. Proposed brake contains brake member made in form of drum or disk, drive and brake shoes with friction layer. Brake shoes are made in form of calipers with movable members carrying friction layer. Movable members are installed on calipers for limited displacement. Brake torque meter contains displacement pickup installed inside brake. Said displacement pickup is made in form of ring with inductive sensor. Ring engages by one side with movable member carrying friction layer and by other side, with caliper. Method of measuring of brake torque includes measuring of displacements or displacements or deformations of parts or units of brake appearing in process of braking and conversion of said displacements into electric signal proportional to brake torque. Displacement of movable member carrying friction layer is measured relative to caliper.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of brake, provision of self-alignment of shoes and uniform wear of friction surfaces, possibility of getting signal corresponding to actual brake torque implanted by wheel.

4 cl, 8 dwg

The invention relates to transport machinery and is used in brake systems of vehicles to prevent locking of wheels during braking

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in anti-lock braking systems of vehicles, as well as in the design and calculations of brake mechanisms

The invention relates to vehicles and can be used in cars and other vehicles

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to brake control systems of wheeled vehicles. Braking path determination device is used to measure vehicle speed and to determine sign of acceleration. Negative acceleration is used to generate and memorise ''Braking start'' signal. Vehicle braking mode is selected by depressing brake pedal to output signals to full braking path indicator. Distance to ahead vehicle is determined to define safe approach distance. Safe distance variation dynamics and dangerous approach moment are determined to generate dangerous approach signal to indicator of dangerous approach and intensive braking signal to intensive braking indicator. Braking path determination device comprises speed transducer, computer, full braking path indicator, distance determination unit, dangerous approach determination unit, dangerous approach indicator and intensive braking indicator.

EFFECT: higher safety.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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