Method of preventing collision of cars and apparatus for realising said method

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical radiation from vehicles moving on the same and opposite lanes is simultaneously received at a car; said optical radiation is converted to electric signals; the distance to vehicles on the same and opposite lanes is calculated; the approach speed of said vehicles is calculated; geometric dimensions of the vehicle moving in the same direction are determined. Based on said information, light signalling is issued to keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front and on possibility of overtaking in conditions when there is a vehicle in the oncoming lane. Also the maximum acceleration of the car given its current load and technical condition is determined; the longitudinal slope of the road is determined; the possibility of safe overtaking the vehicle in front is determined based on the distance travelled over the overtaking time. During overtaking, conformity of the current values of acceleration, speed of the overtaking car and distance to an oncoming vehicle with calculated is monitored and a light and audio signal is emitted to prevent overtaking if there is risk of collision, and also on a dangerous distance to the vehicle in front, based on the slope of the road.

EFFECT: group of inventions increase reliability of evaluating safety of overtaking and selecting a safe distance to the vehicle in front by taking into account such additional factors as slope of the road surface, the current and maximum possible acceleration of the car given the current load.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the automation systems using the self-radiation of objects and can be used to create equipment that serves to prevent vehicle collisions.

There is a method for preventing collision of vehicles, based on the reception of optical radiation of objects in a hazardous area, converting it into electrical signals, determining a distance to the obstacle, compared with the maximum allowable distance that is determined based on speed, and generation of a warning signal or a command for braking when the current distance is less than acceptable, and the received optical radiation filter, suppressing range with wavelengths of less than 3 μm, the reception and conversion of lead separately for n plots located one behind the other in a hazardous area, and the transform coefficients are chosen so that in the absence of obstacles signals from all stations are the same, the difference of the electrical signals from surrounding areas is judged on the presence of obstacles in these areas, all areas with detected obstacles is chosen near to the vehicle and the distance to take him as the current distance (RF patent No. 2050561, CL G01S 17/93, 1995).

This method is implemented by a device to prevent stolknovenii the second car, containing opto-electronic transducer comprising an optical focusing element, an optical filter, n sensing elements and the hood, the insulation covering the optoelectronic Converter from all directions, except the direction of reception, n additional resistances connected respectively with n sensors, switch the locator device connected in series across the first input of the block definition for a dangerous distance from the generator alarm, comprising a generator of sound signals, the schema OR speaker, the second input of the microprocessor is connected with the speed sensor, n additional resistances connected respectively with n sensors, connected in parallel with their free ends to one output of the power source to the other output of which is connected parallel free ends of the additional resistances, and (n-1) of the differential amplifier, the first input of the 1st and second input of the (n-1)-th of which are connected respectively to the common points of the first and n-th sensing elements and additional resistances, the second inputs of the odd-numbered differential amplifiers, excluding the (n-1)-th, and the first inputs of the even-numbered pairs connected respectively to a common point such as the even-numbered sensing elements and additional resistances, second input h is the shaft and the first input odd amplifiers, except for 1, are pairwise connected to a common point such as the odd-numbered sensing elements and additional resistances, and the outputs of the differential amplifiers are connected to the corresponding inputs of the switch is the determinant of the coordinates, with one of the sensing elements is located in the focus of the optical element, and the rest are placed one above the other above the focus.

The disadvantages of this method and device are the definition of acceptable distance to mini-forerunners of the vehicle without taking into account the slope of the road, affecting the length of the braking distance and the lack of information provided to the driver of the car, about the possibility of his passing in the presence of a vehicle on the opposite lane.

Closest to the present invention is a method of preventing collision of vehicles, namely, that receive optical radiation from the cars that are passing and oncoming lanes, convert them into electrical signals, determine the distance to vehicles passing and oncoming lanes, determine the speed of convergence with them, determine the geometrical dimensions of the mini-forerunners of the vehicle and based on this information, provide recommendations to the driver about keeping safe dis is Antii to mini-forerunners of the car and about the possibilities for maneuver in his overtaking in terms of an oncoming vehicle in the opposite lane (RF patent No. 2310922, CL G01S 17/93, 2007).

The method is implemented in the device to prevent collision of the cars containing the first and second opto-electronic Converter, the switch is the determinant of the coordinates, generator, alarm, calculator, switch enter information about the geometric dimensions of the vehicle moving along the strip of associated movements, the first, second, third and fourth light detectors.

Each of the opto-electronic converters comprises an optical focusing element, n sensing elements, hoods, optical filter, n incremental resistance, n-1 differential amplifiers, switch the locator device, the first transducer block contains the definition of hazardous distances and generator alarm, n additional resistances connected respectively with n sensors, some conclusions which are in parallel connected to a single power supply output to another output of which is connected conclusions incremental impedance, the first input of the first and the second input of the (n-1)-th differential amplifiers are connected respectively with the big points the first and n-th sensing elements and additional resistances, the second outputs of the odd-numbered differential amplifiers, in addition to (n-1)-th and the first inputs of the even-numbered pairs of compounds is s, respectively, with the total points of the same name even sensitive elements and additional resistances, the second inputs of the even and the first odd inputs of differential amplifiers, except the first, are pairwise connected to the common connection points of the eponymous sensitive elements and additional resistances, the outputs of differential amplifiers connected to respective inputs of the switch is the determinant of the coordinates, the output of which is connected through the first input unit definition of hazardous distances with the generator input of the alarm signal and the second input unit definition of hazardous distances connected to the output of the speed sensor of the vehicle, the outputs of the first and second optoelectronic transducers are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the transmitter, one of the sensing elements is located in the focus of the optical focusing element, and the rest are located one above the other above the focus.

The transmitter consists of blocks determine the speed of approaching vehicles moving on the strip passing and oncoming traffic, and the logic unit, and the output of the first opto-electronic transducer is connected both to the first input unit determine the speed of convergence with the vehicle moving along the strip passing traffic, and the first input of the logic block, the output of the second opto-electronic transducer is connected both to a second input the Ohm unit determine the speed of the approaching vehicle, moving in the opposite lane, and the fourth input of the logic block, the outputs of the blocks determine the speed of approaching vehicles is connected to the second and third inputs of the logic block, a fifth input connected to the output of the vehicle speed sensor, and the sixth group of inputs connected to the output of the switch information input geometric dimensions of the vehicle in the direction of associated movements, the first, second, third and fourth outputs of the logic unit are connected respectively to the first, second, third and fourth light detectors.

The disadvantages of the above method and device are:

not taking into account the longitudinal slope of the road when calculating the braking distance of the vehicle and determining a safe distance to mini-forerunners of the vehicle;

no consideration passed overtake the car in time overtaking;

the lack of early safety assessment of overtaking before using in the calculation the actual maximum achievable values of overtaking acceleration of the vehicle with regard to its technical condition, load, and road slope.

These circumstances define the mismatch adopted in this way the model of the overtaking vehicle safety requirements of the real process. In the prototype solution OBG the n is accepted only with regard to the current rate of uniform traffic overtaking vehicle, no forecast of its growth during the uniformly accelerated motion of the vehicle when overtaking. This makes it impossible for the adoption of a credible solution to pass before it starts, without going into the oncoming lane and speed, which creates conditions for the collision of cars. The decision on overtaking should be taken when overtaking a vehicle on his band, or with a small travel into oncoming traffic to assess the situation and determine the distance to an oncoming car, taking into account the dynamic characteristics of the overtaking vehicle, its current load, slope and determining the time required for overtaking, taking into account the forecast of the possible speed. By comparing the results of this time of collision with oncoming car decided to pass.

The aim of the invention is to increase the reliability of determining a safe distance from the mini-forerunners of the car and safety assessment overtake due to the additional consideration of the maximum possible acceleration of the vehicle in its present condition, and loading, and by taking into account the effect of longitudinal slope of the roadway for the length of the brake path and the current acceleration of the vehicle.

This is achieved by a method for preventing collision of the vehicle containing the I is that simultaneously receive optical radiation from the cars that are passing and oncoming lanes, convert them into electrical signals, determine the distance to vehicles passing and oncoming lanes, determine the speed of convergence with them, determine the geometrical dimensions of the vehicle in the direction of motion, in addition use the sensor longitudinal slope and the acceleration sensor of the vehicle and at the beginning of each trip, determine the maximum achievable acceleration of the used car, due to perform a specific test procedures, taking into account its current condition, and download and use this value when calculating safety overtaking maneuver to his beginning, considering the slope of the road, supervise the making overtaking the oncoming traffic, providing the issue of light and sound alarm in case of prohibition, and also in cases where the distance to mini-forerunners of the vehicle moving in the same direction, becomes less valid.

Testing current dynamic characteristics of the vehicle or estimate the maximum achievable they accelerate, given its technical condition and the current load is at the initial stage of the movement of cars is I, for example in third gear on a level section of road at a speed of 50 km/h, when you depress the accelerator pedal fully down for three seconds on the basis of the evidence mounted in the vehicle acceleration sensor (accelerometer), or by calculating the growth rate for a specified time.

The method is implemented in the device for preventing collision of a vehicle containing two opto-electronic transducer, the transmitter, consisting of a block determine the speed of approaching vehicles and the logic unit, the switch information input geometrical sizes of vehicles travelling in the same direction, light indicators, which included the evaluation unit dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, the acceleration sensor, the sensor longitudinal slope of the road and two buzzer, and the outputs of the sensors of acceleration, velocity and longitudinal slope of the road is connected to the input of the logic unit and an additional input of the evaluation unit dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, the output of which is connected to the input logic block, and inputs the sound signal devices connected to the output of the logic block.

Each of the opto-electronic converters comprises an optical focusing element, n sensing elements, hoods, optical filter, n amplifiers and switchboard the Torah is the determinant of the coordinates. Moreover, the n outputs of the sensing elements through the amplifiers are connected to the inputs of the switch is the determinant of the coordinates, the outputs of which are connected with inputs of block determine the speed of approaching vehicles, with one of the sensing elements is located in the focus of the optical focusing element, and the rest are located one above the other above the focus.

The transmitter consists of determining the speed of approaching vehicles moving on the strip passing and oncoming traffic, and logic block, it also includes the evaluation unit dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, and the output of the first opto-electronic transducer is connected both to the first input unit determine the speed of convergence with the vehicle moving along the strip passing traffic, and the first input of the logic block, the output of the second opto-electronic transducer is connected both to a second input of the block determine the speed of convergence with the vehicle moving in the opposite lane, and the fourth input of the logic block, the output block determine the speed rendezvous with the transport means is connected to the second and third inputs of the logic block, a fifth input connected to the output of the switch information input geometric size of the Ah of the vehicle in the direction of associated movements, the output of the sensor slope is connected to the sixth input of the logic block, the output of the vehicle speed sensor is connected to the seventh, and the output of the acceleration sensor with the eighth input of the logic block, the first, second, third and fourth outputs of the logic unit are connected respectively with the first and second light detectors and the first and second audible alarms.

The logic block is a device, where, according to defined parameters of the vehicle and road conditions, are calculated and assessed a safe distance to mini-forerunners of the car and the security of its overtaking in heavy traffic and presence in the oncoming traffic lane of the oncoming vehicle in accordance with a specified algorithm:

1. Is determined by the distance to the mini-forerunners of the car.

2. Is determined by the longitudinal slope of the road.

3. Is determined by the length of the braking distance based on the current speed and incline of the road.

4. A comparison of the stopping distance and the current distance to the mini-forerunners of the vehicle, and when the braking distance exceeds the distance, an alarm is released.

5. Is determined by the distance required to pass an overtaking vehicle when overtaking mini-forerunners of the vehicle, as the sum of the lengths of the two intervals of the security, the length being overtaken vehicle and the length of proide the aqueous them during overtaking path.

6. Is determined by the distance between overtaking and oncoming cars before overtaking.

7. Determines the rate of convergence of vehicles with regard to uniformly accelerated motion overtaking and uniform motion of the oncoming cars.

8. Is determined by the estimated time of collision of cars.

9. Determines the time necessary overtaking a car making overtaking.

10. Compared with the collision time with the time passing.

11. In the case when the time pass less time collision on the amount necessary for safe passing oncoming cars, overtaking is allowed, otherwise, the alarm sounds prohibition.

If there are no oncoming traffic oncoming car safety evaluation overtaking is not performed.

The evaluation unit dynamic characteristics is a device that allows you to determine the maximum possible acceleration of the vehicle with regard to its technical condition and load and calculate the maximum achievable speed for a preset time when using different gear ratios in the gearbox of the vehicle, according to the results of its measurement in moments of testing, and to convert the signals of the sensors slope, acceleration and vehicle speed in a digital form for transmission to the logic block.

Device is istwo (1, 2) to prevent the collision of the vehicle contains the first opto-electronic transducer 1, the transmitter 2, the switch 3 enter information about the geometric dimensions of the vehicle moving along the strip of associated movements, the first 4, second 5 light detectors, the second opto-electronic transducer 6, the vehicle speed sensor 7, it also includes sound detectors 8 and 9, the sensor longitudinal slope of the road 10, the acceleration sensor of the vehicle 11, the evaluation unit dynamic characteristics of the vehicle 12. The transmitter 2 (figure 2) contains a block for determining the speed of approaching vehicles 13, the logic block 14 and block to determine the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle 12. One of the outputs of the opto-electronic transducers 1 and 6 is connected to the unit, determine the speed of convergence with the transport means 13, and a second output connected to the input of the logic unit 14. The logic block is a computing device that implements the algorithm for solving the problem of safe overtaking car. In addition, the input of the logic block 14 is connected to the outputs of the sensor longitudinal slope of the road 10 speed sensor 7, the acceleration sensor of the vehicle 11 and the switch 3 enter information about the geometric dimensions of the vehicle moving along the strip passing traffic. The outputs of the block is lo the IKI connected with means light 4, 5 and the audio 8, 9 display. The input of the evaluation unit dynamic characteristics of the vehicle 12 is connected to the outputs of the speed sensors 7, the inclination of the vehicle 10 and the acceleration sensor of the vehicle 11, and the output connected to the input of the logic unit 14.

The device operates as follows.

When the vehicle is determined by the distance to the vehicles in the lanes passing and oncoming traffic. The determination of the distance is performed based on the reception and conversion of the radiation of the first 1 and the second 6 opto-electronic converters.

Information about the distance to vehicles passing and oncoming lanes comes from the block, determine the speed of convergence with the vehicle 13 in the logic block 14, where based on the data from the evaluation unit dynamic characteristics 12, such as current speed and the maximum acceleration of the vehicle, the longitudinal slope of the road before passing through a given algorithm is the calculation of the task of overtaking and evaluation of its safety. If you cannot pass safely, the logic block 14 outputs the signal light means 4 and audio 8 signaling. During the execution of overtaking compares the current motion parameters (speed and acceleration) from the settlement, and, when they mismatch, also activates light 4 and the alarm sound is new 8 alarm. Evaluation of the possibility of overtaking in the presence of a car traveling on the opposite lane, is based on the conditions that the difference between the traversed path of a car traveling in the opposite lane and overtaking car for one period of time will be more certain distance determined by the requirements of the safe manoeuvring speed of convergence of the cars.

The logic block 14, on the basis of information about the current longitudinal slope of the road and the vehicle speed, makes the calculation of its braking distance, issues recommendations on allowable distance to mini-forerunners of the car and holds its comparison with the current distance, and, in the case of any breach of security conditions, with unit receives an alarm light on 5 and 9 sound the alarms.

New features with significant differences according to the method are the following:

determination of maximum achievable acceleration of the vehicle depending on its current load and technical state;

determining the current longitudinal slope of the road;

safety assessment of overtaking mini-forerunners of the vehicle prior to its conduct with regard to patent them during overtaking the way;

the downgrade of the road when assessing the safety of overtaking mini-forerunners of the vehicle;

the downgrade of the road when an assessment is ke safety distance to mini-forerunners of the vehicle;

security control is executed overtaking taking into account the slope of the road.

1. The way to prevent collisions of vehicles, namely, that on the car simultaneously receive optical radiation from vehicles passing and oncoming lanes, convert them into electrical signals, determine the distance to vehicles passing and oncoming lanes, determine the speed of convergence with them, determine the geometrical dimensions of the vehicle moving in the same direction, and on the basis of this information provide light alarm about keeping a safe distance to the vehicle ahead and complete overtaking maneuver in terms of location of the vehicle on the opposite lane, characterized what determines the maximum achievable under the current loading and the technical condition of the vehicle, determine the longitudinal slope of the road, determine the ability to safely overtake the vehicle ahead prior to its implementation, with regard to patent them during overtaking path control during overtaking compliance with the current values of the acceleration, the speed of the overtaking vehicle and the distance to the oncoming vehicle cf is DSTV calculated values and give visual and audible signals on the prohibition of overtaking for oncoming traffic in the event of a threat of collision, and about the dangerous distance, taking into account the slope of the road until the vehicle ahead.

2. The device for implementing the method of preventing collision of vehicles according to claim 1, containing two opto-electronic transducer, the transmitter, consisting of a block determine the speed of approaching vehicles and the logic unit, the switch information input geometrical sizes of vehicles travelling in the same direction, the speed sensor and two light detector, and the outputs of the opto-electronic converters connected to the respective inputs of the block to determine the speed of approaching vehicles and the logic unit, the output unit determine the speed of approaching vehicles, and outputs the aforementioned switch input information and the speed sensor are connected to respective inputs of the logic block corresponding outputs of which are connected to the light detectors, characterized in that it introduced an acceleration sensor, the sensor longitudinal slope of the road and two sound signaling device, and the transmitter is supplied by the evaluation unit dynamic characteristics of the car, and the outputs of the sensors of acceleration, velocity and longitudinal slope of the road are connected to respective inputs of the evaluation unit dynamic characteristics of the car is obile, the output of the evaluation unit dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, and the outputs of the acceleration sensors and the longitudinal slope of the road connected to respective inputs of the logic block, the respective outputs of which are connected to the sound the alarms.



 

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