Multilayer plate

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multilayer plate. Proposed plate comprises inner layer including one or several layers of kraft paper, decorative layer of decorative paper sheet, particles with Mohs' hardness of 8, binding system containing one binding agent in hardened state. Note here that said binding system has inner layer and decorative layer. Note also that hardened binding layer is applied onto decorative layer with aforesaid particles. Mind that brilliance of multilayer plate makes 80 GE. Note also that multilayer plate surface formed by binding layer features decrease in brilliance after loading in brilliance decrease test GR500 of not over 7%. Particles feature average grain size of 5-100 mcm. Loading multilayer plate with said particles, in terms of plate surface, makes 21-35 g/m2. Note that registration of decreased in brilliance is performed in compliance with DIN 67530 at light incidence angle of 60°.

EFFECT: higher wear resistance and stability of brilliance.

8 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a multilayer plate and the panel, which includes a multilayer plate.

Multilayer boards, also known as plate laminate or laminate, is used today in many fields for standard and decorative purposes. They are used, for example, in the interior decoration for facing Windows, stairs and floors, and for covering furniture in both the private and the industrial area.

Multilayer boards are usually composed of a number of different paper sheets that are impregnated with curable synthetic resin, are laminated one above the other, and when exposed to heat and high pressure by means of pressure plates (often also referred to as pads press) are pressed to each other. As the core of such multilayer boards is usually a system of several sheets of Kraft paper, which typically is a sheet provided with a pattern or paint decorative paper. Finally, on a sheet of decorative paper can be applied generally transparent protective film (overlay=overlay). Made in a similar manner laminate (high pressure laminates, HPLs=laminates obtained under high pressure) are implemented, for example, under the trade name "Resopal".

Multilayer boards are often processed in the panel, for example olavie plate, which are used as flooring in the internal or external areas of the buildings. The floor tiles are used as a standing surface for walking and standing, and therefore are subjected to high mechanical loads.

On this basis, laminate, it is when they are processed in the floor tiles must have a high resistance to mechanical loads, in particular durability. In the European standard EN 13329 Annex E defines the test to determine the durability of laminate flooring and classification of the tested laminate flooring classes wear from AC1 (sredneskorostnyh in the case of home use) to AS (speed in commercial areas).

High wear resistance of the surfaces of the multilayer Board or, respectively, having such a multilayer plate laminate flooring is achieved primarily by the fact that in multi-layered plates are particles of corundum, which by their nature are characterized by high hardness. Durability can be controlled, in particular by the size and number of used particles of corundum.

To increase the durability of laminate surfaces in EP 0329154 features resin-impregnated and coated with solid particles of paper to stick together with gr is nowym layer laminate. Paper sheet, on at least one side shall be fitted with solid particles in an amount of from 2 to 20 g/m2preferably from 3 to 12 g/m2. According to this publication, when the quantities of solid particles of more than 20 g/m2you may experience unacceptable whitish (Matt bloom).

Another decisive criterion for the quality of multilayered plates along with durability is the degree of surface gloss. Typically, the desired user-gloss surface is largely determined by the type located on the surface of the multilayer plate hardened binder. Further, for example, from EP 0826790 it is known that the degree of surface gloss laminate also depends on the quality of the surface, used for crushing of sandwich plates of the pressure plate. So, with a smooth, high gloss (mirror) of the pressure plate can also be manufactured of laminated plates with surfaces with specular high Shine.

However in the prior art there is the problem that, although multi-layer boards, which have a high gloss, by selecting the appropriate contributing to Shine a binder, or by applying pressure plates with having a high gloss surface can easily be made, but this Shine with regular mechanical is kOhm loading such multilayered plates quickly fades. In the case of applications in the field of floor coverings such rapid discoloration helps to create the impression of excessive wear and tear, which is not desirable for the user and thus unacceptable.

To increase the stability of gloss laminate surfaces in EP 0136777 an external region of the laminate surface to provide mineral particles that have a size of from 5 to 100 nm. Although the surface is made in a similar manner laminate has superior resistance Shine, but the surface due to the use of such relatively small particles gives high wear resistance.

EP 0219769 B1 describes a decorative laminate and method of manufacturing such a laminate. Decorative sheet of the laminate is covered with a granular abrasive material with higher hardness than the hardness of the silica. The abrasive material is applied in an amount of 0.2-10 g/m2preferably 4-6 g/m2. Damage done is more than 10 g per square meter can cause a dull appearance of the surface. Resistant laminate surfaces against scratching was tested by measuring the loss of gloss (tarnishing) after abrasive loading. Loss of gloss after abrasion with 10 double passes using the abrasive sheet material of 3M Scotch Brite type 8A was 4%.

At 40807 E opisyvaetosobennosti by heating and pressure decorative laminate, moreover, the external surface of the laminate contains particles of mineral substances, which have a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 5 and is contained in a quantity in the range of 0.5-25 g/m2. At higher concentrations of particles of mineral matter laminates often become dull and lose their Shine. Loss of gloss after abrasion with 10 double passes using the abrasive sheet material of Scotch Brite type 8A was approximately 5%.

DE 103555180 A1 relates to a decorative laminate, plate decorative laminate and method of manufacturing a decorative laminate. Decorative laminate comprises a decorative layer and rigidly connected with the decorative layer of the protective layer, which consists of a mixture of at least one thermosetting resin, solids (hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 5) and at least one wax. The addition of wax, in particular, in the manufacturing process, has a positive effect on the voltage of the instrument. In addition, described one preferred variant implementation, which does not contain any solid particles in the decorative band or, respectively, the covering sheet. Through this you can achieve better optical impression of the pattern. There have been no tests for wear and abrasion.

EP 0875399 A2 relates to decorative Lamy the ATA with a wear resistant surface coating. In wearing protective layer is divided particles of solid material, such as corundum. The wear layer contains a load of corundum 69 g/m2. This is achieved by means of special additives in the matrix resin. But here there is no data on Shine and resistance gloss laminates.

DE 19710619 A1 relates to melamine resin coated particles of a rigid body, and the hardness of the solid particles on the Mohs scale is at least 7. Further, the invention relates to aqueous impregnating solutions that contain these coated particles of solids and other substances that are common in solutions that are suitable for the manufacture of protective and decorative films, and actually made their protective and decorative films. But here there is no data on Shine and resistance gloss laminates.

WO 2005/042644 A1 describes a decorative paper filled with wear resistant particles. Protective and decorative paper preferably reduced and compressed so that the wear-resistant particles form the intermediate layer. Here there is no data on Shine and resistance gloss laminates.

DE 1629426 AND describes a wear-resistant, decorative laminates extruded materials, which are characterized by the fact that the resin mass over ostogo layer contains fine material with hardness, at least 9 on the Mohs scale of hardness. But here there is no data on Shine and resistance gloss laminates.

Thus, the prior art multi-layer plates, the surfaces of which show increased resistance or increased resistance Shine.

However, still could not be made of laminated plates, the surfaces of which had as excellent wear resistance and excellent resistance Shine.

Therefore, the basis of the present invention have the task of providing a multi-layer plate, the surface of which is characterized by excellent resistance gloss and high durability.

This problem is solved according to the first inventive concept through a laminate comprising an inner layer, a decorative layer, particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, a binder system, which includes the mentioned inner layer and said decorative layer and which forms located on the decorative layer, bonding layer, which contains the above-mentioned particles, and (i) formed of the binder layer surface of the laminate is reduced gloss after processing by abrasion in the test for reduction GR500gloss at most 7%, and the initial gloss with what is, at least 80 GE, (ii) particles have an average grain size of 5-100 μm, and (iii) loading a multilayer plate particles, calculated on the surface of the laminate is in the range of 21-35 g/m2.

This task is solved according to another idea of the invention by a multilayer plate containing inner layer, a decorative layer, a protective layer (overlay layer), particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, a binder system, which includes the mentioned inner layer, referred to the decorative layer and said protective layer and which forms located on the protective layer bonding layer, which contains the above-mentioned particles, and (i) formed of the binder layer surface of the laminate is reduced GR500gloss at most 7%, and the initial gloss is at least 80 GE, (ii) the particles have an average grain size in the range of 5-100 μm, and (iii) loading a multilayer plate particles, calculated on the surface of the laminate is in the range of 21-35 g/m2.

In the inner layer corresponding to the invention a multilayer plate contains one or more sheets of Kraft paper.

Used in the present invention Kraft paper is a according to DIN 6730 paper, which is the predominant way which consists of Kraft pulp, to which may be added the Kraft pulp and paper, and which has high strength, in particular high tensile strength and high resistance. Kraft paper is usually made at least 90 percent of the fresh, preferably unbleached sulphate pulp (Kraft pulp). Next, Kraft paper, along with the pulp still contains starch, alum and/or adhesive, to achieve, for example, certain surface effects and increase strength. For the purposes of the present invention as particularly defined preferred Kraft paper weighing 150-300 g/m2in particular 220-270 g/m2. Preferred Kraft paper is a sodium Kraft paper, which is familiar to a person skilled in the field of HPL.

The number of used sheets of Kraft paper depends essentially on the desired thickness of the inner layer or multi-layer plate. Preferably the multilayer plate according to the present invention contains from one to eight leaves, preferably 3-7 sheets and, in particular, 4-6 sheets of Kraft paper.

The weight used according to the invention Kraft paper additionally is not restricted. It depends, in particular, on the number of used sheets Kraft paper and, thus, the desired thickness of the laminate. According to one site titlename option exercise weight used sheets of Kraft paper lies in the range from 125 to 250 g/m 2preferably 140-230 g/m2.

According to one preferred variant implementation of finite thickness corresponding to the invention of the laminate is in the range from 0.75 to 0.85 mm In this case, it may be preferable if you use 4 sheets of Kraft paper, which have a weight of from 125 to 175 g/m2, preferably 150 g/m2. On the other hand, this can also be used 3 sheets of Kraft paper, which have a weight in the range from 200 to 240 g/m2, preferably in the range from 215 to 240 g/m2.

According to a another preferred variant implementation of finite thickness corresponding to the invention of the laminate is in the range from 0.95 to 1.05 mm, preferably of 1.0 mm In this case, it may be preferable if you use 5 sheets of Kraft paper, which have a weight of from 125 to 175 g/m2, preferably 150 g/m2. On the other hand, this can also be used 4 sheets of Kraft paper, which have a weight in the range from 200 to 240 g/m2, preferably in the range from 215 to 240 g/m2.

According to another preferred variant implementation of finite thickness corresponding to the invention of the laminate is in the range from 1.15 to 1.25 mm, preferably of 1.2 mm In this case, it may be preferable if you use sheets of Kraft paper, which have a weight of from 125 milking 175 g/m2, preferably 150 g/m2. On the other hand, this can also be used 5 sheets of Kraft paper, which have a weight in the range from 200 to 240 g/m2, preferably in the range from 215 to 240 g/m2.

On one side is made of Kraft paper inner layer corresponding to the invention laminate applied decorative layer, which includes a sheet of decorative paper.

Through this layer of decorative paper corresponding to the invention a multilayer plate receives its appearance. In accordance with this decorative layer is deposited on the inner layer by layer, the pattern of which can be visually differentiated by the observer.

Used herein, the term "decorative paper" refers to any material that is suitable for connection to the underlying inner layer and, if necessary, lying over him with a protective layer and which can play a decorative finish. The preferred material for the decorative paper is a paper. However equally under the concept of "decorative paper" can also be covered by a film, such as a polymeric film, or plywood. "Plywood" is a wooden sheets, which typically have a thickness of from 0.1 to 3 mm and which can PR is to give a decorative layer appearance of the tree, for example, the intricacy of the wood.

Usually a decorative finish is applied to the decorative layer by a printing process. So, for example, through a phototechnical reproduction may be made of any motif is applied on the decorative paper method of gravure printing. Mentioned motif may consist of, for example, from wood, stone, ceramic, colored and/or fantasy pattern. In addition, the above-mentioned motif also can be implemented by obmazyvanija decorative paper one or more colors.

The weight used decorative paper additionally unlimited. Preferably the weight is in the range from 40 to 120 g/m2more preferably in the range of from 60 to 100 g/m2in particular 70 to 90 g/m2.

Between the inner layer and the decorative layer, if necessary, may be located in other layers, such as, for example, the underlying layer. This underlayment is used, for example, to prevent bending of laminated plates or to reduce electrostatic charges. Preferably, the underlying layer includes one or more sheets of Kraft paper.

If a multilayer plate has a protective layer, it preferably forms a coating layer corresponding to the invention of laminated plates and put the n on the decorative layer. The protective layer includes one or more sheets of preferably fibrous material.

The weight used for the protective layer sheets optional unlimited. The preferred way he lies in the range from 12 to 40 g/m2more preferably in the range from 20 to 35 g/m2and even more preferably in the range from 25 to 32 g/m2.

The protective layer preferably has a high resistance against chemical, thermal and mechanical stress. If for the manufacture of protection (overlay) is used fibrous material, this fibrous material preferably contains bleached vegetable fibers, in particular cellulose, for example α-cellulose. The protective material is preferably such as to ensure that lying under the protection of the motif layer of decorative paper is visible after crushing in corresponding to the invention a decorative, multi-layered composite material. Consequently, the protection/protective layer preferably has a high degree of transparency.

Contained in the relevant invention multilayer plate of the particles have a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, preferably at least 8.5 and more preferably at least 9.

Preferably in the case of particles we are talking about is the astitsy of corundum (aluminum oxide), silicon carbide, boride aluminum, boron carbide, or a mixture thereof. Especially preferred are particles of corundum, in particular particles of white electrocorundum. Particles of corundum can be, for example, predominantly with sharp edges or cubic and can be preferably predominantly cubic.

These particles can be known to a person skilled manner superficially treated. For example, the particles may have a coating wilanowie connections. However, the preferred way mentioned particles are uncovered.

Particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 preferably have a certain distribution of grain size, which is registered under FEPA-standard 42-2:2006. In this standard, among other things, set d3-value, d94-values and D50-values, and D50-value gives the average grain size of the particles. The average grain size is the grain size at which 50 percent of the particles have a grain size smaller and 50 percent of the particles have a grain size larger than the average grain size.

The average size D50 grain used particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 is in the range from 5 to 100 μm, more preferably in the range of from 5 to 75 μm, even more preferably in the range from 12 to 75 μm, in particular in the range from 45 to 75 μm, for example 68 m is m

Maximum d3-value preferably lies above the average grain size of the particles, for example, 1.4-2.2 times, more preferably 1.5-2.3 times, more preferably 1.5-2.0 times, and, in particular, 1.5-1.8 times larger than the average size of the particles. For example, the maximum d3-value may lie in the range from 10 μm to 156 μm, more preferably in the range from 10 μm to 118 μm, even more preferably in the range from 23 μm to 118 μm, in particular in the range from 72 to 118 μm μm.

Minimum d94-value preferably lies below the average value of the grain particles and is, for example, from 0.20 to 0.68, more preferably from 0.23 to 0.65, more preferably from 0.34 to 0.65, and, in particular, of 0.60 to 0.65 times the average grain size of particles. For example, the minimum d94-value may lie in the range from 1 μm to 65 μm, more preferably in the range from 1 μm to 50 μm, more preferably in the range from 5 μm to 50 μm and, in particular, in the range from 25 μm to 50 μm.

In accordance with the invention may be preferred particles have an average size D50 grain in the range from 45 μm to 75 μm, preferably in the range from 63 to 73 μm μm, in particular of 68 μm. Maximum d3-value can in this case be in the range from 70 μm to 120 μm, more preferably in the range of 96 μm to 115 μm and, in particular 105 μm. Minimum d94-Velicina in this case may preferably be in the range from 28 μm to 49 μm, more preferably in the range from 40 μm to 48 μm, in particular of 44 microns. Therefore, for example, can be used particles of the type ZWSK 220, and the following after "ZWSK" the number is to indicate the size of the grain in sacks.

The truth can also be preferred particles have an average grain size in the range of 42 μm to 50 μm, more preferably in the range from 45 μm to 50 μm and, in particular, and 47.5 μm. In this case, the maximum d3-value may preferably be in the range from 65 to 78 μm μm, more preferably in the range of from 70 μm to 78 μm, and, in particular, 74 microns. Minimum d94-value in this case may lie in the range from 25 μm to 31 μm, more preferably from 28 μm to 31 μm, and in particular 30 μm. Therefore, can be used, for example, particles of type ZWSK 240.

Can also be preferred particles have an average grain size of particles in the range from 35 μm to 40 μm, more preferably in the range of 37 μm to 40 μm, and, in particular, and 39.9 μm. In this case, the maximum d3-value may preferably be in the range from 56 μm to 65 μm, more preferably in the range from 60 μm to 64 μm, and, in particular, 64 μm. Minimum d94-value in this case may lie in the range of the e from 20 μm to 26 μm, more preferably in the range of 22 μm to 26 μm, and, in particular, 26 μm. Therefore, can be used, for example, particles of type ZWSK 280.

One other option may also be preferred particles have an average grain size of particles in the range of 27.5 to 33.5 μm μm, more preferably in the range from 30 μm to 33 μm, and, in particular, is 32.8 μm. In this case, the maximum d3-value may preferably be in the range from 46 μm to 55 μm, more preferably in the range of 49 μm to 55 μm, and, in particular, 54 μm. Minimum d94-value in this case may lie in the range from 14.5 μm to 20 μm, more preferably in the range from 17 to 19.5 microns microns, and, in particular, to 19.5 microns. Therefore, can be used, for example, particles of type ZWSK 320.

One other option may also be preferred particles have an average grain size of particles in the range of 21 μm to 27 μm, more preferably in the range of 24 μm to 27 μm, and, in particular, to 26.7 μm. In this case, the maximum d3-value may preferably be in the range from 37 μm to 47 μm, more preferably in the range of 42 μm to 47 μm, and, in particular, 46 μm. Minimum d94-value in this case may lie in the range of from 9 μm to 15.5 μm, more preferably in the range from 12.5 μm to 15.0 μm, and, in particular, 14,5 MK is. Therefore, can be used, for example, particles of type ZWSK 360.

In addition, can also be used mixtures of the aforementioned types of corundum particles.

Vistarenni the size of the particles, in particular, then preferred, when appropriate to the invention a multilayer plate should be used for use in the genital surfaces.

If relevant to the invention laminated plate is used in other areas, particularly where the desired wear-resistant surface, as, for example, in the case of tables or working panels, the average grain size of the particles preferably lies in the range from 12.5 μm to 28 μm, and particularly preferably in the range of from 17 to 27 μm. Maximum d3-the value is preferably in the range of 24 μm to 48 μm, and particularly preferably in the range of 31 μm to 47 μm. Minimum d94-the value is preferably in the range from 5 μm to 15.5 μm, and particularly preferably in the range from 7.5 μm to 15.5 microns.

Therefore may be the preferred particles have an average grain size of particles in the range of 21 μm to 27 μm, more preferably in the range of 24 μm to 27 μm, and, in particular, to 26.7 μm. In this case, the maximum d3-value may preferably be in the range from 37 μm to 47 μm, more preferably in the range of 42 μm to 47 μm, and, in particular, 46 the km Minimum d94-value in this case may lie in the range of from 9 μm to 15.5 μm, more preferably in the range from 12.5 μm to 15.0 μm, and, in particular, of 14.5 microns. Therefore, can be used, for example, particles of type ZWSK 360.

Can also be preferred particles have an average grain size of particles in the range of 16.3 μm to 22 μm, more preferably in the range from 17 μm to 22 μm, and, in particular, to 21.4 μm. In this case, the maximum d3-value may preferably be in the range from 30 μm to 40 μm, more preferably in the range from 32 μm to 40 μm, and, in particular, 37 microns. Minimum d94-value in this case may lie in the range from 7 μm to 12 μm, more preferably in the range from 8 μm to 12.0 μm, and, in particular, 21 μm. Therefore, can be used, for example, particles of type ZWSK 400.

Can also be preferred particles have an average grain size of particles in the range of 11.8 μm to 17.5 μm, more preferably in the range of from 12.5 to 17.5 microns microns, and, in particular, 17,14 μm. In this case, the maximum d3-value may preferably be in the range from 23 μm to 33 μm, more preferably in the range of 24 μm to 33 μm, and, in particular, is 31 μm. Minimum d94-value in this case may lie in the range from 4 μm to 8.5 μm, more preferably in the range from 4.5 μm to 8.0 μm, and h is particularly 7.5 μm. Therefore, can be used, for example, particles of type ZWSK 500.

Corresponding to the invention the multi-layer plate has a connecting system, which includes the inner layer and the decorative layer and which forms located on the decorative layer, a binder layer (binder layer), which contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8.

Corresponding to the invention the binder system contains at least one, but preferably at least two different binders in dry condition. Through this, at least one of the cured binder separate sheets of Kraft paper are connected to each other and formed from sheets of Kraft paper inner layer and a decorative layer with each other. This decorative layer is deposited on the formed from sheets of Kraft paper inner layer. On the decorative layer, in turn, imposed cured bonding layer that contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8.

According to one preferred variant implementation of the binder, which in dry condition connects one below the other sheets Kraft paper and formed from sheets of Kraft paper inner layer with a decorative layer is a thermosetting resin (polymer). Preferred swazey the s are liquid or soluble resin, which of themselves alone or with reagents such as fixers or accelerators, without removal of volatile components otverzhdajutsja by polymerization or step polymerization with crosslinking reactions in thermosets. As a particularly preferred are phenolic resins. Phenolic resin according to DIN 16916, Part 1 and ISO 10082 defined as condensation products of phenols and aldehydes. Unsubstituted phenol and formaldehyde are the main raw material for the manufacture of phenolic resins. For details of the chemistry of phenolic resins, reference should be made to the following literature: A.Gardziella, L.A. Pilato, A.Knop, "Phenolic Resins", Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokio, 1999; A.Gardzielle, H.G.Haub, "Phenolharze": Kunststoff Handbuch, Band 10, "Duroplaste", S.12-40, Carl Hanser Verlag, München, Wien, 1988; P.Adolphs, E.Giebeler, P.Stäglich, "Houben-Weyl, Methods der Organischen Chemie", Band E20, Teil 3, S. 1974-1810, 4.Auftrage, Georg Thieme Vertrag, Stuttgard. According to one particularly preferred variant implementation as a binder for sheets of Kraft paper is used phenol-formaldehyde resin.

A binder, which is in dry condition, connects the decorative layer with the inner layer and forms a bonding layer that contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, preferably is a thermosetting resin. For the purposes of the present invention in this case had the ü preferred application of aminos. The aminos are a polycondensation product of carbonyl compounds, preferably aldehydes, such as formaldehyde, or ketones, and containing NH-groups of compounds, such as urea, melamine, urethane, cyan or, respectively, landinig, aromatic amines and sulfonamides, which are associated with each other according to the type of reaction manniche and using harden in thermosets. Preferred aminos are urea-formaldehyde resin, melamine resin, urethane resin, cyan or, respectively, cantilenae resin, anilinopiperidine tar and sulfa resin. As a particularly preferred was the use of melamine-formaldehyde resins. Under this you need to understand curable condensation products of melamine and formaldehyde. Hereinafter, may also be preferred melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin.

According to one other variant implementation of the multilayer plate according to the present invention includes a protective layer, which is located on the decorative layer. In this embodiment, bonding layer that contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, not formed on the decorative layer and the protective layer. In this case, it is preferable if a binder, in which hole the experimental condition connects the protective layer with a decorative layer and forms a bonding layer, which contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, represents one of the above-described thermosetting resins, particularly preferably one of the above aminos, such as melamine-formaldehyde resin or melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin. This is preferred if the connection of the decorative layer and the inner layer, for connection of the protective layer with a decorative layer for formation of the binder layer that contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, uses the same binder, preferably one of the above-described thermosetting resins, particularly preferably one of the above aminos, such as melamine-formaldehyde resin or melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin.

If between the inner layer and a decorative layer provided underlayment, then a binder, which optionally connects the underlying sheets under each other, the inner layer with the underlying layer and the underlying layer with a decorative layer, preferably represents one of the above-described thermosetting resins, particularly preferably one of the above aminos, such as melamine-formaldehyde resin or melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin.

Aspecialist is clear, what, in particular, on the boundary surfaces of the individual layers, as for example, the boundary surface between the inner layer and the decorative layer may be mixing the binder used, and the boundaries between the individual layers are set, at least not at the expense of the binder used, and primarily through the most external, forming separate layers of leaves.

Download contained in a binder system corresponding to the invention laminate bond coat particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, is calculated on the surface of the laminate is in the range from 21 to 35 g/m2, preferably in the range of from 22 to 32 y/m2and even more preferably in the range of from 23 to 29 g/m2. Unexpectedly it was found that despite this high load multi-layer plate particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 does not actually expected voleobrazovanii (whitish, the appearance of matte plaque) on the visible surface of the multilayer plate.

Corresponding to the invention laminated plate obtained due to the fact that produce a structure that contains sheets of Kraft paper, sheets of decorative paper and, if necessary, a protective sheet, or particles and a suitable binder system, put the system between elliniki pressure plates and tighten, and here, the binding system of cure.

The term "binder system according to the invention is a separate suitable binder or combination of suitable binder. The term "suitable binder" refers preferably the same binder, which were described above as preferred for the compounds of individual contained in a multilayer slab layers or, respectively, for compounds forming these layers of leaves.

Although the discussion below concentrates on the sheet of decorative paper or protective (overlay) sheet only in the singular, expert it is clear that depending on the desired properties of the laminate can also be used several sheets of decorative paper or, respectively, the protective sheets. The structure of the multilayer plate or, respectively, contained several sheets of decorative paper or, respectively, the protective sheet is for a specialist for granted subsequent embodiments.

According to the invention described above, particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 are applied to the (top) sheet of decorative paper, or if desired a protective layer (the top) of the protective sheet. While the application of the particles is constant, at least on the outer side is at the top of the sheet of decorative paper or if there is, at least on the outer side of the upper protective sheet. Used here, the outer side of the sheet" means the same surface of the above sheet, which is not in contact with any other sheet structure. Used herein, the term "the top" in connection with the named sheet means the same sheet of the considered layer, which is then just removed from the inner leaves of paper.

Deposition of particles can be performed by one of ordinary in the prior art methods, such as the way to "wet on wet" (i.e. the coating without intermediate drying) (see, for example, EP 122396, EP 693030), the method of "dry for wet" (see, for example, EP 1011969, EP 837771, US 4940503) or a way to "dry for wet". In the case of the method of "wet on wet" suspension, which, along with the aforementioned particles contain a suitable binder or water, is applied on the outer side of the upper impregnated with a suitable binder sheet of decorative paper or, respectively, the protective sheet. In the case of the method of "dry for wet" particles in the dry state without addition of a binder is applied on the outer side of the upper binder impregnated sheet of decorative paper or, respectively, the protective sheet. In the case of the method of "wet on dry" suspension, which, along with the aforementioned particles, t is the train contains a suitable binder, is applied on the outer side of the upper, dry, not soaked sheet of decorative paper or, respectively, the protective sheet.

Weight subject material particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 is determined according to the desired load laminate these particles and is according to this 21-35 g/m2preferably 22-32 g/m2and even more preferably 23-29 g/m2in terms of the surface of the multilayer plate.

Covered with the said particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 and impregnated with a suitable binder decorative sheets can be used directly for manufacturing the above-described structures. However, covered by the said particles decorative sheet can first be subjected to drying to obtain a so-called prepreg.

For manufacturing the above-mentioned structure of individual sheets, preferably all the leaves, different layers of the preferred image impregnated with a suitable binder.

According to one preferred variant implementation of the latter structure includes several sheets of Kraft paper, preferably from three to six sheets of Kraft paper. On the top sheet of Kraft paper is a sheet of decorative paper. On this sheet of decorative paper can be applied, as the description is of higher particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8. If applicable protective (overlay) layer, then the particles can be applied to a sheet of decorative paper, and this protective (overlay) sheet. In this case, the coated particles of the protective sheet is located on the sheet of decorative paper.

According to a another preferred variant implementation, in which the protective sheet is not provided, placed on the top sheet of Kraft paper sheet of decorative paper is a prepreg of decorative paper, a suitable binder and located on the surface of the decorative paper particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8.

According to still one another preferred variant implementation, which provides a protective layer that is applied on the covering sheets Kraft paper sheet of decorative paper protective sheet is a prepreg of the protective sheet, a suitable binder and located on the surface protective sheet of the particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8.

According to still one another preferred variant implementation for the structure for producing corresponding to the invention of the multi-layer plate, which contains a protective layer, a first pre-soaking the protective sheet melamine-formaldehyde is Mola. For this preliminary impregnation is used preferably 40-60 weight percent, particularly preferably 50-55 weight percent intended for impregnation of the protective sheet amount of binder, the preferred way, melamine-formaldehyde resin. Then the suspension, which has to be application of particle hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 and the remaining amount prescribed for the impregnation of the protective sheet melamine-formaldehyde resin (that is, preferably 60-40 percent by weight, especially preferably 50-45 percent by weight provided for impregnation of protective sheet amount of binder, the preferred way, melamine-formaldehyde resin) is coated on the protective sheet. This covered the said particles of the protective sheet is superimposed on impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin decorative sheet, said particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 on the outer side of the protective sheet, i.e. in accordance with this are not in contact with the decorative sheet. Then the corresponding structure of the decorative sheet, the protective sheet and particles is applied to the top of impregnated with a suitable binder, preferably a phenol-formaldehyde resin, sheets of Kraft paper so that the decor of the active sheet is in contact with a sheet of Kraft paper.

In accordance with the invention it is essential that the particles are located on the outer side of the upper decorative sheet or, respectively, the upper protective sheet.

According to a another preferred variant implementation of the existing structure sheets Kraft paper is preferably impregnated with phenol-formaldehyde resin. The binder content in the impregnated sheet of Kraft paper preferably lies in the range from 25 to 40 weight percent, more preferably in the range of from 28 to 36 weight percent, and still more preferably in the range from 34 to 34 weight percent. Available in this structure, a sheet of decorative paper is preferably impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin or melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin. The binder content in the impregnated decorative sheet depends among other things on the motif of the decorative sheet. In the case of monochrome decor binder content in the impregnated decorative sheet lies preferably in the range of from 35 to 65 weight percent, more preferably in the range from 42 to 60 weight percent, and still more preferably in the range from 48 to 55 weight percent. In the case of multi-color created by the pattern or otherwise printed decorative motifs binder content in the impregnated decorative the sheet preferably is in the range from 35 to 65 weight percent, even more preferably in the range from 37 to 50 weight percent, and still more preferably in the range of from 40 to 45 weight percent. The content of the binder in available if required in the structure of the protective sheet preferably lies in the range from 60 to 90 weight percent, more preferably in the range from 65 to 86 weight percent, and still more preferably in the range from 70 to 83 weight percent.

Then prepared (soaked) according to the invention the structure is introduced between the two pressure plates and pressed. For pressing are preferably used pressure plate with a smooth, mirror and wear-resistant surface, which is coated with titanium diboride, zirconium diboride, hafnium diboride, molybdenum diboride, tantalum diboride, tungsten diboride or vanadium diboride. Floor like diborides is preferably in the system for coating by magnetron sputtering and preferably has a Vickers hardness of at least 2000. As proved to be especially suitable pressure plates, which are disclosed in EP 0826790.

The crushing structure preferably is carried out at a temperature in the range from 110 to 140°C., particularly preferably in the range from 120°C to 150°C and at an elevated pressure of, preferably, is about the least 4 N/mm2especially preferably at least 5 N/mm2. The pressing time is preferably in the range from 40 to 90 minutes, particularly preferably in the range from 50 to 80 minutes.

Simultaneous application of heat and pressure allows the current and subsequent curing of the binder.

Obtained after crushing the above-mentioned structure and the cured resin product is then called as a multilayered plate.

The finished multi-layer plate, depending on the selected structure, has a different thickness. The usual thickness range from 0.5 mm to 2 mm, preferably in the range from 0.6 mm to 1.5 mm, and particularly preferably in the range of from 0.8 to 1.2 mm, However, it is also possible to produce multi-layered plates with much greater thickness, as for example, in the range from 2 mm to 20 mm

If a multilayer plate includes a protective layer, then its thickness preferably ranges from 80 to 120 μm, particularly preferably in the range of from 80 to 110 μm. At the same time as the thickness of the protective layer is understood to mean the distance between facing away from the outer side of the decorative layer containing particles with a Mohs hardness of at least 8 of the binder layer and the outer side in contact with a protective layer of a sheet of decorative paper. The thickness of the decorative layer prepact the tion lies in the range from 65 to 140 μm, particularly preferably in the range of from 65 to 80 μm. The thickness of the decorative layer refers to the distance between in contact with the protective layer of the outer side of the sheet of decorative paper and the outer side in contact with the decorative layer sheet of Kraft paper inner layer. The thickness of the inner layer may vary depending on the desired thickness of the laminate, and preferably lies in the range from 250 to 1900 μm, particularly preferably in the range from 500 to 1500 microns.

If a multilayer Board does not contain a protective layer, then the thickness of the decorative layer also preferably lies in the range from 65 to 140 μm, particularly preferably in the range from 80 to 140 μm. In this case, the thickness of the decorative layer is defined as the distance between facing away from the outer side of the inner layer containing particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale, at least 8 of the binder layer and the outer side in contact with the decorative layer sheet of Kraft paper inner layer. The thickness of the inner layer - regardless of the presence of the protective layer - lies, for example, in the range from 250 to 1900 μm, particularly preferably in the range from 500 to 1500 microns.

The final weight corresponding to the invention of the laminate depends on several factors, such as the er, the thickness of the laminated plate, the weight of the components used and the number of used sheets. Preferably the weight of the laminate is in the range from 1.2 to 1.6 kg / m2the surface of the laminate (kg/m2), particularly preferably in the range of from 1.3 to 1.5 kg/m2for example 1.4 kg/m2.

Educated binder layer surface of the laminate, which contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 has a reduced GRXor GRSXgloss after loading the abrasion test to reduce the gloss level that does not exceed the maximum value.

In accordance with the invention for determining reduce gloss gloss is measured before and after a given loading abrasion. Test for the determination of reducing the gloss is called in accordance with the invention as a test for reducing gloss.

The determination of the degree of gloss is carried out in the framework of the invention consistently according to DIN 67530 at an angle of incidence of 60°. The obtained values reflectometer at 60° the fall of light (measuring geometry) are correlated with black, polished glass standard with a given refractive index. For this standard measured value is calibrated to 100 gloss unit (100 GE).

According to defined the th initial gloss refers to the degree of surface gloss laminate, which is obtained before loading by abrasion during the test to reduce gloss. This initial gloss is at least 80 GE, preferably at least 85 GE, and particularly preferably 90 GE.

Loading the abrasion under test to reduce the gloss level is as follows:

Rails, on the lower side of which is mounted a specified abrasive tool with a uniform linear motion with weight load of 0.5 N/cm2go along section 220 mm the surface of the multilayer plate. Then linear motion occurs in a direction which is opposite to the first direction. By definition, a "double move" means a fully completed movement in one direction and in opposite to this direction direction, so that the carrier is the same plot for a double move passed twice (movement back and forth). In the test for reducing gloss loading the abrasion is carried out by the specified number of double strokes, and in contact with an abrasive area of the site on the surface of the laminate is determined by the first dual stroke and during the whole loading abrasion remains unchanged.

By definition, to obtain reduce GRX(or, accordingly, estwenno, GRSX) gloss after loading the abrasion during the test to reduce the gloss level is determined by the difference between the initial gloss and gloss after loading the abrasion during the test to reduce gloss with X double strokes and calculated the ratio between this difference and the initial gloss. The obtained value is multiplied by 100 percent and is called as a reduction in gloss after loading the abrasion during the test to reduce Shine, GRX(or, respectively, GRSX). In accordance with this to calculate this value use the following formula:

The decrease in the degree of luster, GRX(or, respectively, GRSX), [%] ={[(initial gloss) (gloss after loading the abrasion × the number of double strokes)]/[(initial gloss)]}×100%.

In accordance with the invention, the loading by abrasion during the test to reduce the gloss to detect loss GRXextent is due to the use of abrasive paper type R as abrasives. In this case the parameter "R concerns defined by international standard ISO 6344-1: 1999 characteristics of the grain. According to this, the particles of corundum have ds0-the value of a maximum of 58 μm, ds3-the value of the maximum 29,7 MK is, the average grain size (ds50-value) of 15.3±1,0 µm and ds95-the minimum value of 10.2 μm, measured US-sedimentometer according to ISO 8486-2. The content of corundum used in grinding paper is 24.3 g/m2. The weight used sanding paper 250 g/m2.

In accordance with the invention for determining losses GRXgloss after loading the abrasion during the test to reduce the gloss level is 500 double strokes. In accordance with this, the obtained value of reducing the gloss referred to as "GR500".

Educated binder layer surface of the laminate, which contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 has a reduced GR500gloss after loading the abrasion during the test to reduce the gloss level at most 7%, preferably at most 6%, more preferably at most 5%, and even more preferably at most 4%.

However, it is also possible decrease in GRXgloss after loading the abrasion during the test to reduce the gloss to be measured with a different number of double strokes. For example, for applying the abrasion may also be 250 double strokes. Defined thus, the magnitude of the reduction in gloss is referred to as GR250.

About the broken off the binder layer surface of the laminate, which contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, preferably has a reduction in gloss after loading the abrasion during the test to reduce gloss with 250 double moves, GR250at most 5%, preferably at most 4%, more preferably at most 3% and in particular at most 2%.

According to one other variant of the implementation used for applying the abrasion during the test to reduce the gloss level grinding medium may also be a steel fiber. In the case of steel fiber we are talking about steel shavings from grinding 1, consisting of a rectangular chip material according to DIN 17145 matches the Type 11Mn4Si with material number 1,0492.

If as a grinding medium for loading abrasion during the test to reduce the gloss used steel fiber, reduced gloss is expressed as GRSXand following the abbreviation "GRS" index "X"in turn, is carried out when loading the abrasion double strokes.

If steel wool is used as a grinding medium for loading abrasion during the test to reduce gloss, then loading the abrasion is carried out preferably by running 500 DVO is different moves. In accordance with this received to reduce the gloss value is denoted as GRS500.

The preferred image formed by the binder layer surface, which contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, has a reduction GRS500gloss after loading the abrasion during the test to reduce the gloss level by steel fibres, the largest 10%, preferably the largest 7%, more preferably most 5%, even more preferably the largest 3% and, in particular, the largest 1%.

According to a another preferred variant, the loading by abrasion during the test to reduce the gloss level when using steel fibers is carried out when exposed to 250 double strokes. The corresponding received to reduce the gloss value is called as GRS250.

The preferred image formed by the binder layer surface, which contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, has a reduction GRS250gloss after loading the abrasion during the test to reduce the gloss level by steel fibres, the largest 5%, preferably most 4%, more preferably most 3%, even more preferably the largest 2% and, in particular, the larger is 1%.

According to one preferred variant implementation of the formed binder layer surface of the laminate, which contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, has a wear resistance according to DIN EN 13329, Annex E, which allows us to classify the multilayer plate according to the class wear AC3, preferably AC4 and, in particular, AS.

In accordance with this durability carried out according to DIN EN 13329, Annex E test is preferable when the IP value (IP=Initial Point; initial point) is at least 5000 rpm, particularly preferably at least 5700 rpm, even more preferably at least 6500 rpm. The preferred range is when the IP value from 5000 to 10000 rpm, particularly preferably at 6000 to 9500 rpm and very preferably from 6500 to 9000 rpm. According to this test determines the characteristic deterioration of the multilayer plate. For this test part of the multilayer plate rotates between the two wear-intensive wheels, which are equipped with emery paper. By means of friction measured the durability of the multilayer plate. The speed, type, and replace the sandpaper just previously described. The unit is an IP-value, i.e. the number of rpm. is, after which occurs the phenomenon of wear. To determine the wear resistance is used is specified in DIN EN 13329 sandpaper, which is characterized, in particular, a density of 70 g/m2to 100 g/m2, loosely covered with 180 grit aluminum oxide with a grain size that passes through a sieve with apertures of 100 μm, but not through the holes 63 microns.

According to a another preferred variant implementation of the formed binder layer surface of the laminate, which contains particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, has resistance to shock loading according to the standard EN 13329, Annex F, which allows to classify the multilayer plate according to the class IC2, preferably IC3. In the implementation defined in this standard test for impact loading using a large ball (diameter=42,8 mm; weight=324 g) drop height is preferably at least 1300 mm, more preferably at least 1500 mm and in particular at least 1700 mm In the implementation defined in this standard test for impact loading using small ball impact resistance is preferably in the range from 15 to 25 N, more preferably in the range from 17 to 23 N and, in particular, in the range from 18 to 22 N.

In the case of one another is SPECTA invention relates to a panel, which includes a substrate and adhering to the substrate corresponding to the invention of the laminate. The preferred way in the case of a panel talking about the base plate (floor panel). Further, the panel may also constitute another panel, such as a countertop.

Preferred substrates are particle Board, plywood plates, bearing plates (if necessary, covered with a layered material), high density fibreboard, sredneplotnyh fibreboard, hardboard, wooden slabs, solid glued panels, solid wood, otoplasty, foams, metal plates, metal sheets, mineral substrates, natural or artificial stone, ceramic tiles and gypsum boards. The substrate can be coated with a suitable binder, such as, for example, melamine resin, or left uncoated. Laminate can be applied both to the absorbing liquid (able to absorb moisture) substrate, as for example, uncoated particleboard and various wood and non-absorbent liquid (non-absorbent) substrate, as for example, metal, ceramics, glass, coated wood, covered with particle Board, etc.

Ways and means for rigid connection of the multilayer plate and base is key known from the prior art. For example, the rigid connection of the multilayer plate and the substrate can be performed by gluing or by using known from the prior art connecting elements. Connection laminate to the substrate is carried out so that the surface of the laminate, which procureit surface containing particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 surface is in contact with the surface of the substrate. Therefore, the preferred image in the panel surface of the substrate and formed by the inner layer of the multilayer plate surface are in contact with each other.

In addition, the panel has other well-known from the prior art functional materials. For example, should be called materials for fire protection, radiation shielding, insulation, to stabilize and to protect from moisture. Preferred functional materials include a material to resist stretching (stabilization) and/or material for insulation against impact noise, which is a preferred reference (sexual) plates.

The thickness of the advanced panel is not limited. It preferably is in the range from 9 to 15 mm, particularly preferably in the range from 10 to 14 mm and particularly preferably in the range of the 11 to 13 mm. Thickness available in panel laminate, as described above, may preferably be in the range of from 0.5 to 2 mm, particularly preferably in the range of from 0.6 to 1.5 mm, and particularly preferably in the range of from 0.8 to 1.2 mm Thickness substrate, for example, high-density fiberboard, is preferably in the range from 5 to 13 mm, especially preferably in the range of from 8 to 10 mm, particularly preferably in the range of from 9.0 to 9.6 mm, Provided with the necessary material to resist stretching and/or material for insulation against impact noise preferred way has a thickness in the range from 0.5 to 3 mm, particularly preferably in the range from 1 to 2 mm.

The final panel weight is not particularly limited. The preferred way he is in the range from 8 to 13 kg per m2the surface of the panel (kg/m2), particularly preferably in the range of from 9 to 12 kg/m2and particularly preferably in the range from 10 to 11 kg/m2.

Corresponding to the invention the panel is processed in a known per se to a person skilled way. If the panel is a base plate, this plate is supplied with the structure of the groove-ridge, to carry out single-plane connection of several such base plates for the manufacture of lined type cladding boards or bond is ovci tiles structures.

The present invention is illustrated by the following examples, which however should not be construed as limiting:

Examples

An example of implementation 1.1: manufacturer korundsoderzhashchie malminkaari mixture.

820 g of a 56% aqueous solution of melamine impregnating resin (including a curing agent, wetting and separating agent) was mixed with 180 g

Mikroelektronika (type ZWSK 220; average grain size 68 μm).

Example exercise 1.2: production of impregnated and coated on one side of the protective paper.

Consisting of α-cellulose protective paper with a density of 30 g/m2was impregnated to saturation with melamine resin. Excess resin was removed on the surface between the two polishing steel rolls. Put on the protective paper melamine resin was dried for 2 hours at room temperature, to obtain pre-impregnated backing paper.

Then 135 g/m2korundsoderzhashchie malminkaari mixture from Example 1.1 is uniformly distributed on one side of the pre-impregnated protective paper. Covered now by particles of corundum protective paper were dried in a drying oven with air recirculation 4 minutes at 125°C.

Example 1.3: manufacturer corresponding to the invention of laminated plates.

For making the communication is relevant to the invention multilayered plates were originally produced suitable for crushing two press plates of the structure.

To do this on both sides having a thickness of 30 μm sheets of the release film made of polypropylene was placed four sheets of Kraft paper that has been impregnated with phenolic resin. On the top sheet of Kraft paper was applied a sheet of decorative paper and a sheet of decorative paper sheet manufactured in example 1.3 and covered with particles of corundum protective (overlay) paper. Protective paper was placed on the decorative sheet so that having particles of corundum surface protective paper was not in contact with the sheet of Kraft paper, and was oriented outward. Such structure is depicted in figure 1.

Scheme 1: structure for producing corresponding to the invention of laminated plates

Having the mirror surface of the pressing plate with a solid coating of boride titanium

1 Protective paper from example 3

1 Decorative paper

4 sheets Kraft paper

1 Sheet PP-separating film

4 sheets Kraft paper

1 Decorative paper

1 Protective paper from example 3

Having the mirror surface of the pressing plate with a solid coating of boride titanium

This kind of prepared structure was introduced between the two press plates with smooth, covered with boredom titanium in the system for coating, magnetron sputtering, mirrored surfaces, p. what was Savalas at a pressure of 10 N/mm 2and the maximum temperature of 135°C for 35 minutes and then cooled at room temperature.

The obtained multilayer plate exhibits a high gloss and high transparency and has no traces of corundum coating and no education turbidity (Matt bloom).

Measurement of wear resistance formed located on the protective (overlay) layer connecting the surface layer laminate made according to DIN EN 13329, Appendix E, gave the IP value 8100 rpm.

Comparative example 1

For comparison purposes was made another multi-layer plate, which does not fall within the claimed invention.

This was initially made suitable for crushing two press plates of the structure. To do this, on both sides having a thickness of 30 μm sheet separating films of polypropylene fit four sheets of Kraft paper which have been impregnated with phenolic resin. On the top sheet of Kraft paper was applied a sheet of decorative paper, and a sheet of decorative paper - sheet protective paper type Mead-822 (according to US 3798111). This protective paper corundum particles are not distributed on one or several surfaces consisting of α-cellulose paper, and distributed in the fibrous layer.

Such prepared p is the established levels were introduced between two press plates with a smooth, covered boredom titanium in the system for coating, magnetron sputtering, mirrored surfaces, have merged under a pressure of 10 N/mm2and the maximum temperature of 135°C for 35 minutes and then cooled at room temperature.

Comparative example 2

For the manufacture of another multilayer plate for comparison purposes, is not covered by the claimed invention, also originally made suitable for crushing two press plates of the structure.

To do this, on both sides having a thickness of 30 μm sheet separating films of polypropylene fit four sheets of Kraft paper which have been impregnated with phenolic resin. On the top sheet of Kraft paper was applied a sheet of decorative paper, and a sheet of decorative paper - sheet protective paper, which was not covered with particles of corundum.

This kind of prepared structure was introduced between the two press plates with smooth, covered with boredom titanium in the system for coating, magnetron sputtering, mirrored surfaces, have merged under a pressure of 10 N/mm2and the maximum temperature of 135°C for 35 minutes and then cooled at room temperature.

Results

Formed through located on the protective layer of the binder layer, the surface p is obtained in the embodiment and in the comparative examples 1 and 2 sandwich plates subjected during the test to reduce gloss loading abrasion by grit paper. After a specified number of double strokes were measured degree of gloss at an angle of incidence of 60° acc. to DIN 67530. The values obtained are presented in Table 1:

Table 1
The degree of gloss at 60°after a specified number of double strokes
The number of double strokesThe gloss GE: Example implementationThe gloss GE: Comparative example 1The gloss GE: Comparative example 2
0109,2103,6115,5
50110,490,563,2
100109,392,863,2
250107,593,369,3
500105,293,864,6

From the obtained values were determined initial frame is gloss, as well as reducing GR250and GR500gloss (see Table 2).

Table 2
The original gloss and reduce GR250and GR500gloss during the test to reduce the gloss level after loading by abrasion with sandpaper
The number of double strokesAn example implementationComparative example 1Comparative example 2
Initial gloss [GE]109,2103,6115,5
GR2501,6%9,9%40,0%
GR5003,7%9,5%44,1%

Further, formed through located on the protective layer of the binder layer, the surface obtained in example and comparative examples 1 and 2 sandwich plates subjected during the test to reduce the gloss level of the loading by abrasion with the social fiber. After a specified number of double strokes were measured degree of gloss at an angle of incidence of 60° acc. to DIN 67530. The values obtained are presented in Table 3:

Table 3
The degree of gloss at 60° after a specified number of double strokes
The number of double strokesThe gloss GE: Example implementationThe gloss GE: Comparative example 1The gloss GE: Comparative example 2
0114,2102,8118,2
50114,699,2by 115.7
100114,292,5111,9
250114,2to 89.9101,3
500114,380,588,6

From the obtained values were determined initial degree b is ECCA, as well as reducing GR250and GR500gloss (see Table 4).

Table 4
The original gloss and reduce GRS250and GRS500gloss during the test to reduce the gloss level after loading the abrasion with steel fibers
The number of double strokesAn example implementationComparative example 1Comparative example 2
Initial gloss [GE]114,2102,8118,2
GR2500,0%12,5%14,3%
GR5000,0%21,7%25,0%

Although the prior art numerous activities to increase the durability and stability of surface gloss laminated plates, none of these events did not lead to a multi-layered plate with a surface that has both excellent iznosostoyki the guard and excellent stability Shine.

Comparative experience in relation to EP 0219769 B1 and at 40807 E

EP 0 219 768 B1 and at 40 807 E investigated the stability of the laminate surface against scratching. Measured loss of gloss laminate surface after loading the abrasion in two places. Loading the abrasion was carried out by means of friction with 10 double moves through crockmeter (Crockmeter=instrument for measuring the strength of surface abrasion) using the abrasive sheet material of 3M Scotch Brite type 8A. Studies have shown loss of gloss 4% and 5%.

Next carried out experiments on reducing gloss corresponding to the invention multilayered plates under the conditions of experience, as they are described in EP 0219769 B1 and, respectively, at 40807 E.

Table 5
The decrease in gloss corresponding to the invention a multilayer plate during the test to reduce the gloss level according to EP 0219769 B1 and at 40807 E by loading abrasion with 10 double strokes using the abrasive sheet material of 3M Scotch Brite type 8A
The degree of reduction of Shine
Sample 1Sample 2Sample 3
10 double strokes1,8%1,3%1,5%

The resulting loss of gloss corresponding to the invention a multilayer plate after the test according to EP 0219769 B1 and, consequently, AI 40807 E is 1.5%.

Corresponding to the invention a multilayer plate has a very slight loss of gloss, which is only 1.5%, and thus significantly lower the degree of reduction of gloss than the multi-layer plate, which is disclosed in EP 0219769 B1 or, respectively, at 40807 E.

Outstanding properties are achieved in accordance with the invention, inter alia, by choosing the size of the particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, because of the number of particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, due to the special arrangement of particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8 on the surface of the laminate and at the expense of choice used for crushing and pressing plates. In particular, because of this, the above is worthy of attention, as in the prior art to achieve such properties was proposed partly the opposite of the event.

1. Multilayer plate, including with the BOJ inner layer, containing one or more sheets of Kraft paper; decorative layer comprising a sheet of decorative paper; particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8; binder system containing at least one binder in dry condition and in a binder system is provided by the inner layer and the decorative layer and the decorative layer superimposed cured bonding layer, which contains the particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, and gloss laminate is at least 80 GE, and this formed the connecting layer surface of the laminate is reduced gloss after loading the abrasion during the test to reduce GR500gloss at most 7%; the particles have an average grain size in the range of 5-100 μm; download multi-layered plates mentioned particles, calculated on the surface of the laminate is in the range of 21-35 g/m2and registration gloss is always done according to DIN 67530 at an angle of incidence of 60°.

2. Laminated plate comprising an inner layer containing one or more sheets of Kraft paper; decorative layer comprising a sheet of decorative paper; a protective layer comprising one or more sheets of pre is respectfully fibrous material; particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8; binder system containing at least one binder in dry condition and in a binder system is provided by the inner layer, decorative layer and the protective layer, the protective layer superimposed cured binder, which contains the particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale of at least 8, and gloss laminate is at least 80 GE, and educated binder layer surface of the laminate is reduced gloss after loading abrasion during test to reduce GR500gloss at most 7%; the particles have an average grain size in the range of 5-100 μm; download multi-layered plates mentioned particles, calculated on the surface of the laminate is in the range of 21-35 g/m2and registration gloss is always done according to DIN 67530 at an angle of incidence of 60°.

3. Multilayer plate according to claim 1 or 2, and formed by a binder layer surface of the laminate is abrasion resistance according to DIN EN 13329, Appendix E, expressed in the form of an IP value of at least 5,000 rpm.

4. Multilayer plate according to claim 1 or 2, and the said particles with a hardness on the Mohs scale, at IU is e, 8 represent particles of corundum.

5. Multilayer plate according to claim 4, while the average grain size of the corundum particles is in the range of 45-75 μm.

6. Multilayer plate according to claim 1 or 2, and the loading of laminated plates mentioned particles, calculated on the surface of the laminate is in the range of 23-29 g/m2.

7. The panel, which includes a multilayer plate according to one of claims 1 to 6.

8. The panel according to claim 7 in the form of a base plate.



 

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12 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: decorative paper contains a paper base and an ink-absorbent layer. At the same time the ink-absorbent layer is dyed so that the decorative paper after soaking with impregnating resins and pressing as laminate has the same dye, as well as dyeing of laminate from decorative paper, which does not include the ink-absorbent layer. The latter contains a dyeing pigment and/or colorant in the amount rated for a weight of a dry absorbent ink and makes from 45 to 75%.

EFFECT: reduced quantity of a filler and a pigment in the paper base without deterioration of coverage of the proposed decorative paper.

8 cl, 3 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to lamination and laminate made thereby. Proposed method consists in direct impregnation by pressing of non-impregnated substrate material with non-impregnated decorative layer and one or more upper layers impregnated with polymer that feature intensity of effluent resin exceeding 8%. Method is implemented using short-cycle presses at 15 to 40 bar and 140 to 220 220°C. Intensity of effluent resin is determined by the formula

EFFECT: lamination by direct pressing using short-cycle presses with good quality of finished laminate surface.

13 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: printing industry, decorative art.

SUBSTANCE: present invention refers to the sphere of decorative and applied arts. Method to develop art panel with image of fresco type consists in the fact that glue is applied into cloth, then wet plaster or mastic on acryl base is applied onto a layer of dried glue with a thin layer. Then cloth with applied layers of glue and wet plaster or mastic on acrylic base are maintained at room temperature until completely dry to form cracks on plaster or acrylic-based mastic. After full drying, an additional layer of specified glue is applied over wet plaster or acrylic-based mastic, and then the image is applied with water or pigment paints. Then image is coated with a layer of dissolved polymer glue or varnish and is dried at room temperature, cloth is represented by non-woven material, such as Vlieseline, or glass fibre, or PVC film. Image is applied with the help of plotter.

EFFECT: improved durability and integrity of cloth and image on it with preservation of flexibility.

6 cl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of decorative articles, particularly, to furniture production, namely, to production of 3D faces of case furniture. It my be used in fabricating interior doors, safe doors, decorative wall panels, etc., with metal or enamel spraying. In compliance with the first version, preset volume of liquid expanded polyurethane is poured into prefabricated female mould with preset relief and separation substance is applied on the surface of said female mould. Then, female mould is closed from above by panel (facade). In 5-20 minutes, semi-finished product is withdrawn from female mould with finished 3D image for its defects to be removed from its surface, and kept to complete drying. Then, semi-finished product is rendered finished by gluing together with the help of PVC film at membrane-vacuum press, or applying primer, paint or spraying metal after degreasing, or jacketing by fabric or jointing by fabric.

EFFECT: reduced costs, higher quality.

32 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, particularly to floor cover plate, method and production unit for plate fabrication. Proposed method comprises the following stages: one surface of initial panel is coated, partially or completely, with glue. Then panel surface coated with glue is calendared to produce decorative layer with decorative pattern. Produced panel is immediately cut into plates for floor covering.

EFFECT: stable plates for floor covering.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: decorative art.

SUBSTANCE: for simplification of the method the relief is produced by sticking of deceptive material over the contour of the applied image, and the required amount of plastic compound is applied by small sections uniformly on the image surface sections that a free of deceptive material.

EFFECT: simplified procedure.

1 cl

FIELD: construction industry; methods of production of decorative tiles with a grainy coating.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of construction industry, in particular, to the method of production of decorative tiles with a grainy coating to increase their water-resistance. The method provides, that the base before application of an adhesive underlayer is subjected to a water-repelling process and in the capacity of an adhesive underlayer use a 8-I2 % water solution of sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of decorative tiles with a grainy coating.

4 cl

FIELD: decorative-lining sheet material for producing of material simulating natural or artificial stone or various kinds of wood.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing thermal vacuum forming of thermoplastic sheets having thickness of 0.5-8 mm and comprising on its face side decorative-protective polymeric film.

EFFECT: wider range of decorative and lining materials and increased efficiency in simulating structure of natural or artificial materials.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: ceramic decorations.

SUBSTANCE: method of making ceramic decorative art wall panel comes to the following: tiles are placed on backing secured vertically with tilting of 10-15° successively, starting from lower horizontal row, tiles of which are placed on corresponding limiting step of backing.

EFFECT: improved quality of wall panels.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction industry; methods of manufacture of the architectural-decorative products.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of manufacture of the architectural-decorative products. To increase the quality the products the method provides for laying of the color mixtures in the mold for casting of the product is conducted with usage of a vibration process on the vibration exciter.

EFFECT: the invention allows to improve quality of manufacture of the architectural-decorative products.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: papermaking.

SUBSTANCE: pre-impregnate is manufactured by impregnation of crude paper with thermosetting formaldehyde-free resin until content thereof 10 to 70%. Residual moisture content in pre-impregnate is 2-3%. Resin contains: at least one radical-polymerization polymer with less than 5% of α,β-ethylenically unsaturated mono- or dicarboxylic acid; at least one radical-polymerization polymer containing more than 5% of α,β-ethylenically unsaturated mono- or dicarboxylic acid; and at least one alkanolamine with at least two hydroxyl groups; or resin contains at least one radical-polymerization polymer with 5-100%, particularly 5-50%, or more particularly 10-40% of α,β-ethylenically unsaturated mono- or dicarboxylic acid and at least one above alkanolamine.

EFFECT: improved quality of surface, printing properties, delamination resistance, and varnishing capacity.

16 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: construction industry; domestic appliances; electrical engineering; motor-car industry; methods of production and application of the laminated composite materials with the different layers of a resin.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production and application of the laminated composite material with the different layers of a resin and may used in construction industry, domestic appliances, electrical engineering, motor-car industry. The laminated composite material contains the carrier made out of the thermoplastic polymeric compound, the located on it intermediate layer also made out of the thermoplastic polymeric compound and the applied on the intermediate layer of the thermoreactive layer. Between the carrier and the intermediate layer there is a layer of the resin (a) with the rate of consolidation of at least 20 %. Between the intermediate layer and the thermoreactive layer there is the layer of the resin (c) with the rate of consolidation of at least 60 %. The materials of the layers are laid as the flat sheets and at the temperature of 150-300° C link to the carrier. The material possess the high degree of stiffness and impact toughness, the high quality of the surface, the fast and easy solidification.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the high degree of stiffness and impact toughness, the high quality of the surface, the fast and easy solidification.

13 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: construction materials industry; production of the moldable decorative laminated material.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the moldable complicated decorative laminated material, which contains the polymer impregnated decorative layer made out of the bilateral expansible decorative paper and the core polymer impregnated layer formed out of the bilateral extendable kraft-paper. The laminated material is used for production of the different products requiring the molding concerning the surface of the complicated form, in particular, to the packet made out of the laminated material. The board made out of the laminated material has the moldable base in addition to the decorative layer. The method of manufacture of the moldable decorative laminated material includes the following operations: treatment of the decorating paper, its impregnation, the treatment and impregnation of the kraft-paper, the layer by layer stacking and joining of the layers of the decorative and kraft-paper under pressure with their preliminary impregnation with the phenol-formaldehyde polymeric compound. The technical result of the invention is improvement of the surface properties of the decorative laminated material.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the surface properties of the decorative laminated material.

37 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises applying a lining material on the surface of the panel, gluing the lining material to the surface of the panel, pressing, and conditioning. Before applying the lining material, the panel is dampened and treated with steam. Pressing is performed at a temperature 127-132°C and at a pressure of 170 bar for 4-6 min.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

3 cl

FIELD: manufacture of decorative panels.

SUBSTANCE: prior to delivery of PVC blank to working area, its surface is subjected to loosening for increase of surface activity and for enhancing adhesion by applying solution of primer; use is made in working area of contra-shaft for holding-down the blank to drive guide transporting wheels and for rolling-on the facing material and connecting it with front surface; used as hold-down device is hold-down shaft with its own program-controlled shaft which is made from soft elastic material for copying the configuration of front and side surfaces of blank at the moment of connection with facing material at simultaneous stretching of it for avoidance of folds; its longitudinal axis is located at angle of from 0 to 90° relative to delivery of blank.

EFFECT: improved quality of facing; simplified construction of device; increased productivity of process.

5 cl, 3 dwg

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