Method of track diagnostics

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway transport and may be used in complex diagnostics of track, for example, in rail detector cars. Proposed method consists in that measurement intervals are synchronised with rolling stock speed, interfering instruments are spaced apart and/or scattered in time, instantaneous measurement results of all instruments are delayed with due allowance for relative position and displacement speed so that said instruments are related to unique cross sections of the track, revealed defect is displayed in due time, current track section is displayed in 3D images as well as defects revealed in track transverse sections by all instruments. Fast decision about track conditions are made by one operator proceeding from analysis of produced image.

EFFECT: higher quality of diagnostics.

3 dwg


The invention relates to measuring devices to check the status of the railroad tracks with application to display multiple physical quantities General of the screen and can be used in complex diagnostics track a variety of devices, for example, in the cars of the flaw.

Railways are complex engineering objects with increased responsibility for transportation safety. Objects of the control track are:

- rails - for the presence of internal defects, damages heads, and blades, changing the geometry of the track, etc.;

- sleepers - for their landing, destruction, etc.;

- underlying cushion track - on the violation of density, emergence holes, cavities, etc.;

- contact power supply network for the sagging wires, the condition of the supporting elements, and so forth

To control these elements are used ultrasonic, magnetic, laser, radar, optical, mechanical and other non-destructive control methods and corresponding devices. Each of the measurement devices includes means for measuring, processing, storage and display of results. Monitoring the status of the track should not significantly affect the transfer and, which leads to the need to create high-speed, universal measuring means, carrying out a comprehensive condition monitoring of railway track. Auto diagnostic tools typically do not provide the desired level of confidence, result in a high probability of "false alarms" and (or) skip defect. But today the highest reliability, provide automated methods based on the interaction of the measuring devices with the operator. Thus there are two methods of evaluation of results:

- operational - allowing you to quickly detect defects in the measurement process and adequately respond to the critical condition of railway track;

- laboratory involves storing the results of measurements of the track and their further processing.

A known method for the diagnosis of the track [1], suggesting ultrasonic flaw detection rails, consisting in the emission of the ULTRASONIC probe signals, the reception of the reflected signals, detection of defects, saving, displaying and analie. For the operational analysis of the results of the soundings used:

1. A-scan - displays the time dependence of the amplitudes of the signals received during a single sensing.

2. B-scan display head of the dependence of the amplitudes of the signals, reflected from defects obtained along the length of the rail.

3. Displaying the detected defects on the transverse and longitudinal sections of the rail.

The first two ways of mapping is not obvious, tedious for the perception of requiring a highly skilled operator. The third method is more intuitive, but requires the simultaneous observation of four projections of the rail at the sounding of the two rails at the same time.

A known method for the diagnosis of the track [2], also involving the use of ULTRASONIC methods of non-destructive testing using multichannel schemes, which further complicates the operational condition monitoring of railway track.

The common disadvantage of the methods [1] and [2] is limited functionality for the diagnosis of the track - only ULTRASONIC rail flaw detection.

Closest to the claimed is a method for diagnosing the track [3], which consists in the fact that the instruments measure different parameters of the track mounted on the vehicle, which moves along the rail track, measure the current position and the moving speed of the devices, these devices periodically measure the parameters of the track, detect defects and determine their coordinates relative to the corresponding device, save the measurement results quickly and after okonchan the I survey section of rail track analyze them and decide on the condition of railway track.

The disadvantage of this method is that a variety of measuring instruments installed on the vehicle, are considered separately. However, the measurement results have unity on the location, interaction, speed of movement and the objects of study. The recognition of this unity when installing, the organization's measurement and analysis of the results will improve the quality of diagnostics of railway track.

The Union of the set of measuring equipment in the car detector allows to diagnose the track faster and cheaper. When setting up and organization of the measuring instruments should take into account their mutual influence, in particular electromagnetic compatibility. Periodicity of measurement devices must be selected from the speed of the vehicle to achieve a desired resolution. Online condition monitoring of railway track in the presence of a large number of diverse instrumentation requires either a large number of operators (in the way [3] assumes the presence of 5 operators), or the interpretation of the results have to spend after the end of the measurement, which reduces the efficiency of control. In addition, defects in different elements of the railway are often associated with each other, and some of the defects found what are the different methods. In these conditions it is expedient to reduce the measurements of all sensors together, display, and analyze them together.

The ability of the proposed method are most easily be traced back to the multi-channel ULTRASONIC flaw detector [2], figure 1. To reduce interference and structural features of the meter electroacoustic transducers (there's)located on the wheelset, 1-1, which is essentially independent devices, are directed in different directions - while moving in the opposite direction, perpendicular to the surface, etc. as a result, for example, hole bolting rails will first discovered the front of the ULTRASONIC transducer aimed in the direction of travel in position a, after reflection from the base of the rail, then this object will be detected by the same ULTRASONIC transducer in position b. Then the respective ULTRASONIC transducers detects reflection c, d and e. For conventional processing, display and analysis of the measurement results refer to different moments in time, and the operator will receive the image Fig.1-2, from which it is difficult to understand that the detected reflectors refer to the same object. The inventive method assumes that all measurements are delayed so that the detected reflectors has been reduced to a single cross-section of the rail. So about the time, sources of reflections a, b, c, d and e will be combined, 1 to 3 that will allow you to easily determine the nature of the source of the reflection.

Note that combining the results of measurements of electroacoustic transducers requires consideration of the speed of their movement. The movement speed also affects the frequency of soundings rail to provide the desired resolution of the diagnostic.

The problem solved by the claimed method, is to improve the quality of diagnosis rail track through appropriate collaboration measuring and combining results from different instruments, display them in a convenient form and joint analysis.

Significant differences of the proposed method are the following:

synchronization periods of the measuring devices with the speed of movement of the vehicle allows to achieve the desired resolution for each of the devices, and also to eliminate redundancy at low speeds.

In the prototype, the issue of synchronization of the measurements is not considered.

The diversity of spatial and (or) time of operation of the apparatus allows to eliminate or reduce their influence. Space diversity involves the installation of devices and related sensors at distances or directions, smart is superior to their influence on each other. For example, in the ULTRASONIC flaw detection direction of the piezoelectric transducers are selected so as to avoid (reduce) interference and diffraction of ULTRASONIC signals. GPR, magnetic and ULTRASONIC meters can greatly affect each other, so that in addition to spatial diversity to solve electromagnetic compatibility it is necessary to resort to the temporary separation of the torque sensing at the expense of the corresponding centralized synchronization.

In the prototype does not cover the compatibility of the devices.

Delay instantaneous measurements of all devices taking into account the relative position and speed of the devices so that they belonged to one and the same transverse cross-sections of railway track, allows you to get information about the defects detected in the specified section of all devices. Spatial combining this information allows you to analyze the integral information about defects and to identify the relationship between them.

In the prototype, the joint analysis of information about defects is not considered.

Operational alarm on detection of a defect, for example, audio, allows you to attract the operator's attention to any event, as long observation of the results of measurements leads to rapid fatigue of the operator is RA and the ability to skip defect.

In the prototype, there is no such option.

View 3D image of the current segment of rail track and defects found in its cross sections all devices, allows you to combine all the measurements in a comprehensible to the operator of the image.

In the prototype assumes control of the operator for the results of measurements of each device separately.

A prompt decision on the condition of railway track take one operator on the basis of the analysis of the specified image.

In the prototype assumes the use of 5 operators.

Thus, the inventive method involves centralized management of complex instrumentation and joint processing of the results compared with the prototype and provides better diagnostics of railway track.

The inventive method are illustrated in the following graphics:

Figure 1 - diagram of the detection object in the ULTRASONIC sensing rail, where there electroacoustic transducers multi-channel ULTRASONIC flaw detector 1.

Figure 2 - structural diagram of the device that implements the inventive method, where:

1 - multi-channel ULTRASONIC flaw detector,

2 - magnetic measuring defects in rails,

3 - subsurface GPR,

4 - sensor current position,

5 is a transmitting / receiving device

6 - server,

7 mass storage device

8 - monitor.

Figure 2-3d image of a segment of the track, where

9 is a defect detected ULTRASONIC flaw detector,

10 - subsurface gully detected by GPR.

Consider the implementation of the proposed method on the example of diagnosing the track using the flaw detector car, containing 2, multi-channel ULTRASONIC flaw detector 1, the magnetic gauge rails 2, subsurface GPR 3 and the sensor current position 4 with the corresponding receiving-transmitting devices (SRD) 5. Each diagnostic instrument aims to measure the relevant parameters of the railroad, and is created by the respective organization or group of experts who solve the problem of the Autonomous relevant measurements, state estimation for a given parameter, detection, display and diagnosis of the defect. To solve this problem, they have their own technical means of measurement, evaluation and display of results. The objective of the proposed method is to ensure their integrated use. Each of the measuring devices 1, 2 and 3 involves the development of probing signals, receiving and processing responses and contains the computer. All computers through a serial interface connected to the server 5, provided with an external storage device the PTO 6 database of railway track and monitor 7. The database contains information about the geometry of the track, the location of joints, switches and the like, and non-critical defects found in previous measurements. Electroacoustic transducers (PUR 5) multi-channel ULTRASONIC flaw detector 1 is installed in the rear part of the car detector in the hanging block. The magnetic coil of the meter 2 (PUR 5) are arranged on the axis of the wheels of the car of the instrument in its anterior part. Antenna subsurface GPR 3 (PUR 5) are arranged in the front part of the car detector. This arrangement foam 5 is selected on the basis of electromagnetic compatibility, i.e. reduce their interaction. When installing the measured parameters relative position of the foam 5. Sensor current position 4 contains the GPS equipment and the measuring path "between the wheels" with the appropriate foam 5. Pre-positioning of the carriage of the instrument carries out the GPS equipment. Precise georeferencing is performed periodically in the server 5, for example, by detecting electromagnetic meter 2 characteristic points, in particular bolting rails, and comparing them with a database of rail track. Between exact bindings measurement position is "on wheels". According to the current location in the server 5 calculates the moving speed of the carriage of the instrument.

When moving the research Institute of the car detector in the server 5 determines the periodicity of formation of probing signals in each of the measuring devices 1-3 based on the requirements for their resolution and speed of the car detector. In the server 6 form a trigger signal corresponding measuring devices with the possibility of interaction of the probe or response signals. Each of the measuring devices 1-3 on a signal from the server 6 generates the excitation signals, receives and processes the feedback received. When defects are detected track and are defined by their coordinates relative to the foam 5. The information obtained, including the signals received by each PPU 5, transmitted to the server 6, where it is stored, and the information about the defects linked to the absolute coordinates of the track and associated with the cross sections of the track. Thus, information about the defect is delayed in the server. Data about defects detected on the part of railroad, all gauges, formed after working on this piece all the measuring devices 1-3. If defective, the sound signal that attracts the operator's attention to the display device. Information about defects is displayed on the monitor 7, which allows you to watch 3D picture, figure 3, the current double-strand cut the track with a mark of defects found all the measuring devices. The screen can also display the coordinates of the characteristics of the defect and other information. Figure 3 VI is but that crack 8 in the rail head, the detected ultrasonic flaw detector, may be caused by a pothole 9 in the cushion track. Thus, the inventive method allows a single operator to quickly observe, assess defects and to establish the relationship between them.

Thus, the inventive method allows online one operator to perform the monitoring, analysis and evaluation of the condition of the track, which improves the quality of diagnosis, and therefore, the safety of Railways.

Sources of information

1. Markov, A.A., Shpagin D.A. Ultrasonic rail flaw detection. 2nd ed. revised and enlarged extra - SPb: Education and culture, 2008.

2. Patent RU 2227911. The way multi-channel ULTRASONIC inspection of rails.


Method for the diagnosis of the track, namely, that the devices of measurement of parameters of the track mounted on the vehicle, which moves along the rail track, measure the current position and the moving speed of the devices, which periodically measure the parameters of the track, detect defects and determine their coordinates relative to the corresponding device, save the measurement results, promptly after the end of the survey participation is ka track analyze them and decide on the condition of railway track, characterized in that the periods of measurement devices synchronize with the speed of movement of the vehicle, carry spatial and (or) time, interacting devices, delay instantaneous measurements of all devices taking into account the relative position and speed of the devices so that they belonged to one and the same transverse cross-sections of railway track, promptly indicate a defect is detected, the display in the form of 3D images of the current segment of rail track and the defects found in its cross sections of all the devices, an operational decision about the condition of the track is made by one operator on the basis of the analysis of the specified image.


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