Method for improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method for improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke is implemented by spraying at temperature of not less than 20°C onto blast-furnace coke lumps of 2-20% water solution of sodium, potassium or calcium pentaborate, which contains 0.1-0.2 wt % of non-ionic surface active substance in the form of mono- and/or dialkyl ethers of polyethylene glycol in the quantity providing the content of surface active substance in coke of 0.0035-0.0070 wt %; at that, content of dry pentaborate of one of the above metals in coke is 0.09-0.68 wt %.

EFFECT: improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke owing to decreasing reactivity index and increasing its strength value.

1 cl, 25 ex, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of coke and blast furnace operations.

In the modern production of metallurgical coke main attention is paid to the quality of coke, especially on its performance, which to some extent characterize the behaviour of coke in the blast furnace process. These indicators include the coke reactivity index (CRI) and the rate of coke strength after reaction (CSR), which are determined according to the international standard ISO 18894:2006. Improvement of quality indicators of coke allows you to efficiently and effectively implement the domain processes. To improve coke CSR (increase) and CRI (decrease) on by-product coke plants use different methods and techniques, such as preparation of coal charge for coking, the selection of conditions and parameters coking, processing of the finished coke with chemical substances, etc.

The latest technology of iron smelting is aimed at preservation of scarce and expensive energy (coke, gas, oil and others) and replacement with pulverized coal (PCI). Replacement of blast furnace coke part to PUT puts forward new requirements to its quality, which are determined by the process conditions and the behaviour of coke in the blast furnace. In many metallurgical plants in Europe, Asia, America in the blast furnace is blown into the PCI up to 200-240 kg/t of pig iron and coke costs when et is m reduced to 280-300 kg/T. Do not use natural gas and fuel oil. For achieving such metallurgical coke plant needs indicators CRI less than 26.6 per cent, while CSR is 65-70%.

To obtain metallurgical coke with such quality indicators need to have high-quality coking coal, the amount of which is insufficient for the needs of coke. Therefore, to improve the quality, CSR and CRI of metallurgical coke used different methods and techniques, based on the compilation and preparation of coal charge for coking, and the variation of the conditions of coking.

One way to improve the quality of metallurgical coke is it Postica processing of inorganic substances.

Known way to improve the quality of metallurgical coke, including the application of the hot pieces of coke (t≥850°C) fine-particulate inorganic substance by sputtering using a pre-heated gas stream (GB No. 1423187, IPC C10L 9/10; C10L 9/00, publ. 28.01.1976 year). As inorganic compounds for the deposition of coke use boric acid or borates. When this happens decontamination coke by reaction with oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) due to the formation of high temperature protective film from molten borate on the surface of the pieces of coke.

To cons is tkam known method are:

- low efficiency due to a slight reduction index CRI and insignificant increase the coke strength after reaction (CSR indicator);

- economiccost technology because of the need to create high temperatures (t≥850°C);

- the complexity of the hardware design process;

- increased risk technology for the environment.

Known way to improve the quality of metallurgical coke (UA, No. 23560, IPC C10L 9/10, publ. 25.05.2007 g), including the processing of pieces of metallurgical coke at a temperature of 20-50°C. aqueous solution of tetraborate, chosen from a number of: sodium tetraborate, potassium tetraborate, calcium tetraborate. When this happens decontamination coke by reaction with oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) due to the formation of further heat processed in a blast furnace coke protective film from molten borate on the surface of the pieces of coke.

The disadvantage of this method is its low efficiency due to the use of not fully chemical capabilities tetraborate to improve the quality, CRI and CSR of coke, both due to the characteristics of the coke processing solutions tetraborate, and by the fact that the surface of the coke hydrophobic relative drop of water (solution tetraborate). This leads to the draining part drops rest the RA on the surface of a piece of coke, incomplete wetting it. Accordingly, molecules tetraborate do not cover the entire surface that does not allow you to fully create on the surface of the pieces of coke protective layer.

The closest analogue of the present invention is a method to improve the quality of metallurgical coke (UA, NO. 31186 U, IPC C10L 9/00, publ. 25.03.2008 year), including posticino processing of metallurgical coke by spraying at a temperature of 20-50°C to pieces metallurgical coke 2-20%aqueous solution of sodium tetraborate or potassium, or calcium containing 0.1-0.2 wt.% neinogennye surface-active substances (surfactants) in the form of mono - and dialkylated esters of polyethylene glycol. The processing using such an amount of the surfactant to its content in the coke corresponded 0,0035-0,0070 wt.%. This provides a more complete coverage of the surface, as well as better penetration into the volume of the pieces of coke tetraborate solution, providing a floor surface cracks and pores of coke molecules tetraborate. When this happens decontamination (inhibition) of coke by the reaction with O2and CO2due to the formation of further heat processed in a blast furnace coke protective film from molten tetraborate on the surface of the coke.

The disadvantage of this method is insufficient improvement of quality indicators RI and CSR for the needs of the blast furnace process, due to the replacement of a significant part (200-220 kg/t of pig-iron blast-furnace coke at ITB.

Causes of disadvantage of this method is the high proportion of alkali or alkaline earth metal tetraborate this metal, which negatively affects the values of indices CRI and CSR of coke. Low boron content in the molecules tetraborate (18-22%) does not allow to fully cover the surface of the lumps of coke reliable protective layer.

The results of technological research indicate a lack of ability tetraborate potassium (K2B4O7), or sodium (Na2B4O7), or calcium (CaB4O7), used according to a known method is the nearest analogue to improve the quality characteristics of CRI and CSR in accordance with the requirements of the blast furnace process, due to the replacement of a significant part (200-220 kg/t of pig-iron blast-furnace coke at ITB. The reason is that the processing of the coke solution tetraborate in coke make a large amount of alkali or alkaline earth metal, which negatively affects the performance CRI and CSR of coke, increasing the basicity of the ash. So, based on the index of basicity ash (IO)calculated by the equation:

IO=(Fe2O3+CaO+MgO+Na2O+K2O)/(SiO2+Al2O3),

Kovalev ET and co-authors (Kovalev ET, Shulga IV, Rudenko A. is., Drozdyk I.D., Miroshnichenko D.V. Influence the quality of the coal charge on reactivity, polariation strength of coke and technical-economic indicators of the blast furnace process. // Journal of coal chemistry. - 2008. - №3-4. - P.41-48) concluded that increasing values of IO 0.1 units impair coke, namely, leads to a decrease in CSR by 9.5% and higher CRI 7.5%. Another possible reason for the lack of improvement in the quality of coke after it is processed according to a known method is the low content of boron in the molecule tetraborate, which is in the range of potassium tetraborate, sodium, calcium, respectively from 18 to 22%, which does not allow to fully cover the surface of the lumps of coke reliable protective layer and to protect them from oxidation O2and CO2.

The basis of the invention the task is improving the way improve the quality of metallurgical coke, which through the use of for postional connection processing of borates containing a smaller amount of alkali and alkaline earth metals, and more - boron, is to create a reliable protective layer on the pieces of coke, inhibition of the reaction of carbon coke with O2and CO2in the blast furnace, which leads to reduction of coke reactivity index (CRI) and increased its coloring strength and (CSR) after reaction with CO 2.

The problem is solved in that way improve the quality of metallurgical coke, comprising spraying at temperatures below 20°C to pieces metallurgical coke 2-20%aqueous solution of borate metal selected from the range of: sodium, potassium, calcium, containing 0.1-0.2 wt.% nonionic surfactants in the form of mono - and/or dialkylamino esters of polyethylene glycol in an amount to provide the content of the surfactant in the coke 0,0035-0,0070 wt.%, according to the invention as Borat metal selected from the range of: sodium, potassium, calcium use pentaborate one of these metals, and the solution is used in an amount to provide a dry content of pentaborate in the coke and 0.09-0.68 wt.%.

Between the set of features of the invention and the technical result achieved during implementation, there is a causal relationship.

New in the developed method is that for postional processing coke use an aqueous solution of pentaborate one of the metals (KB5O8, NaB5O8Ca(B5O8)2in an amount to provide a dry content of pentaborate in the coke and 0.09-0.68 wt.%. These inorganic boron compounds contain two times less alkaline or alkaline earth metal, and 1.2-1.3 times more Bo the and, than is contained in the tetraborate, which gives an opportunity to significantly improve the quality of metallurgical coke: there is an increase in coke reactivity index CSR 9.3-16.1 per cent (relative) and the decrease in strength CRI 12.3-21.2 percent (relative).

The positive effect of pentaborate to improve the quality of CSR and CRI due to the decrease in the basicity of ash (IO) by reducing the content of alkali or alkaline earth metal. In addition, when injected solution pentaborate on the surface of a piece of coke is coated with a layer of molecules of pentaborate, which are held on the surface due to forces of adhesion. Part of the solution pentaborate also penetrates into the cracks and pores of a piece of coke and covers their surface molecules pentaborate. Formed from molecules of pentaborate layer blocks the access of oxidizing gases O2and CO2to the surface of the coke and is able to deactivate the coke by reactions with O2and CO2even at temperatures below the melting temperature of pentaborate. This is confirmed by the results of our research isotherm data for adsorption-desorption of nitrogen at 77 K, with which parameters have been set porous structure prototypes coke. To characterize the porous structure of chars used following the parameters: S BET(m2/g) specific surface area of pores; VΣ(cm3/g) total pore volume; Vmi, Vme, Vma (cm3/g), respectively, the volume of micro-, meso - and macropores. For raw coke these parameters are SBET1,695 m2/g, VΣ0,021 cm3/g, Vmi is 1.6×10-5cm3/g, Vme 8,2×10-3cm3/g, Vma of 1.3×10-2cm3/year For coke, treated with a solution of potassium tetraborate: SBET0,743 m2/g, VΣ0,0086 cm3/g, Vmi is 7.1×10-6cm3/g, Vme and 3.3×10-3cm3/g, Vma 5,3×10-3cm3/year For coke, treated with a solution of pentaborate potassium: SBET0,963 m2/g, VΣ0,0026 cm3/g, Vmi 3×10-6cm3/g, Vme 1,6×10-3cm3/g, Vma 1×10-3cm3/year

Given the above data, we can conclude that the processing of coke borates significantly reduces the volume of its pores. When such processing coke borates covered with a protective layer, not only the surface of the piece of coke, but also penetrate into the cracks and pores, block them, therefore limiting the access of oxidizing gases to carbon coke, by disabling its oxidation. The results show that treated pentaborate coke pore volume is 8 times smaller than the original, and 3.3 times less than in the coke processed by tetraborate.

Along with this, when the melting temperature of the borates are subject to the so on the " borate rearrangement (inorganic Borates. // Chemical encyclopedic dictionary. - M.: Soviet encyclopedia, 1983. - S), which resulted from molecules pentaborate can be formed corresponding metaborate and boron oxide. For example, 2KV5About8→ K2In2About4+4V2About3. Thus metaborate also ionize:. The potassium cations can penetrate into the interlayer space of coke crystallite and to stay there (the so-called reaction of intercalation). Dimericthe anion forming cycles, i.e. has the cyclic structure:

Aniongot on the plane of the frame crystallite coke, held it intermolecular forces caused by the overlap of P-orbitals of boron with the corresponding P-orbitals of carbon coke, which helps quite a strong donor-acceptor interaction between atoms of boron and carbon. While on the surface of the crystallite coke, anionsstrongly held on to it, creating a protective film of anionswhich prevents the penetration and interaction of gaseous oxidants, carbon coke, as in the case of gasification of coke in the blast furnace, and equipment designed to measure CSR and CRI Kok is and when passing through the pieces of coke carbon dioxide at a temperature of 1100°C.

What is between the carbon crystallites coke and boron compounds formed during borate rearrangement (i.e. metaborate and boron oxide), chemical reaction occurs, confirms the x-ray structural analysis. On the basis of x-ray spectra, it was shown that the crystallites of coke, treated with a solution of pentaborate potassium, are characterized by longer polienovykh layers (La) and height (Lc) of crystals, as well as a large number of layers in the crystallite (n). X-ray structural parameters of the crystallites of the original coke is: d0020,356 nm, La 8,32 nm, Lc 4,07 nm, n 12,4 and coke, treated with a solution of pentaborate potassium: d0020,350 nm, La 9,20 nm, Lc 5,09 nm, n 15,5.

The rate of coke strength after reaction with CO2(CSR), obtained by the proposed method using pentaborate, increases in comparison with the closest analogue 9.3-16,1% (relative)compared to the original Cox - 18.8-38,5% (relative). The coke reactivity index (CRI) is reduced accordingly 12.3-21.2 percent (relative) and 17.2-35,2% (relative).

This improvement in CSR and CRI coke, treated with a solution of pentaborate with the addition of surfactants on the proposed method, in comparison with indicators of coke, processed by a known method is the closest analogue, due to the fact that the treatment of the coke pentaborate is in coke make half of an alkali metal, which has a negative impact on the performance of the CSR and CRI coke, and 1.2-1.3 times more boron to form the pieces of coke more reliable protective layer in comparison with a protective layer generated during the processing of coke tetraborate. Such a protective layer reliably prevents the penetration and influence of oxidizing gases coke, accordingly reducing the reactivity index CRI and increasing measure of the strength of CSR blast furnace coke.

The essential feature of the proposed method is that for coke processing solution pentaborate used in an amount to provide a dry content of pentaborate in the coke equal to the 0.09-0.68 wt.%. It is experimentally proven that the content of dry pentaborate in the coke, less than 0.09 wt.%, there is insufficient improvement in the CSR and CRI. Obviously, this amount of pentaborate enough to create a reliable protective layer over the entire surface of the pieces of coke to be processed. Getting content of dry pentaborate in the coke, greater than 0.68 wt.%, it is technologically difficult and economically impractical.

Getting 2-20%aqueous solution of pentaborate and spray at a temperature of 20°C and above is due to the properties of the solution, the requirements of the technological use of coke in the blast furnace process (the temperature of the coke in the hopper before treatment is 20-100°is), the need for a full distribution of pentaborate across the surface of the pieces of coke to create a reliable protective layer, which is more fully enveloped would be a piece of coke. Using 2-20%aqueous solution of pentaborate at temperatures below 20°C safe for the environment and health personnel.

It is experimentally proven that the use of nonionic surfactants in an amount to provide the content of surfactant coke, equal 0,0035-0,0070 wt.%, is optimal to achieve complete wetting of the pieces of coke with an aqueous solution of pentaborate.

The inventive method of improving the quality of coke implemented as follows.

After discharge from the coke oven, stewing and sort by class size fractions of the pieces of coke the size of 25-80 mm, which was used in the blast furnace, are treated by spraying with 2-20%aqueous solution of pentaborate selected from range: pentaborate potassium, pentaborate sodium, pentaborate calcium containing 0.1-0.2 wt.% nonionic surfactants in the form of mono - and/or dialkylated ethers of polyethylene glycol (trademark "DB" or "OP") in an amount to provide the content of surfactant in the coke 0,0035-0,0070 wt.%. Processing pieces of coke having a temperature of not lower than 20°C, carried out on the movement path of the coke in the hopper after grinding and sorting by size and directly into the hopper g is e accumulate coke for later loading into railroad cars. The prepared solution is used in an amount to provide a dry content of pentaborate in the coke and 0.09-0.68 wt.%, that is sufficient for wetting the surface of the pieces of coke to be processed. This amount of solution pentaborate spray using a pump and injectors.

Example.

The inventive method improve the quality of metallurgical coke was tested on samples of coke Makiivka coke. For handling coke prepared aqueous solution of pentaborate potassium, pentaborate sodium, pentaborate calcium, to which was added 0.1 to 0.2% nonionic surfactant brand "DB" or "OP". The solution on the surface of the lumps of coke was applied by spraying through a nozzle. The definition of quality indicators coke was performed according to the standard ISO 18894:2006. Processing subject metallurgical coke having an initial quality indicators: CSR and 50.4%, CRI 34,4%. Table 1 shows the results of tests on samples of coke with the definition of the indicators CSR and CRI: raw coke (example 1), samples 2-8 (examples 2-8), processed in accordance with the conditions known way (the closest equivalent).

The samples in examples 2-3 - Cox, treated with a 2.0%solution of potassium tetraborate based 45 l/t of coke, i.e. 0.09 wt.% of potassium tetraborate containing 0.1% surfactant "DB" for sample 2 and 0.2% surfactant "DB" for sample 3, which is suitable for the t 0,0035 and 0,0070 wt.% under the terms of the closest analogue. The sample from example 4 - Cox, treated with a 7%solution of potassium tetraborate containing 0.2% surfactant "DB", at the rate of 35 l/t, i.e. a 0.25 wt.% the tetraborate potassium per 1 ton of coke. The sample from example 5 - Cox, treated with a 15%solution of potassium tetraborate containing 0.2% surfactant "DB", at the rate of 45 l/t of coke, i.e. 0.68 wt.% the tetraborate potassium per 1 ton of coke.

The samples of examples 6 and 7 samples of coke, processed in accordance with the terms of the nearest similar as in example 4, only as tetraborate was used sodium tetraborate containing 0.2% surfactant brand "OP" in example 6 and 0.2% surfactant brand "DB" example 7. The sample from example 8 - sample coke, processed in accordance with the terms of the nearest similar as in example 4, only as tetraborate was used calcium tetraborate.

The samples in examples 9-17 were processed according to the terms of the proposed method improve the quality of metallurgical coke. Samples 9-12 - coke, processed under the same conditions as in examples 2-5, the only solution pentaborate potassium. The samples of examples 13 and 14 Cox, processed under the same conditions as in examples 6 and 7, only the solution pentaborate sodium. The sample from example 15 - coke, processed under the same conditions as in example 12, the only solution pentaborate sodium. The samples in examples 16 and 17 Cox, examined the under the same conditions, as in examples 11 and 12, only solutions pentaborate calcium.

Table 2 shows the indicators of CSR and CRI depending on the number of pentaborate potassium used for processing.

Example 18 - raw coke. The samples in examples 19-25 - coke samples treated under the same conditions as in example 10, only for the processing of coke used solutions with different concentrations of potassium accordingly pentaborate 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 20%. The amount of solution to be processed in examples 19-25 was 45 l/t of coke. Each of these solutions contained 0.2% surfactant brand "DB".

As can be seen from table 1, the processing of blast furnace coke aqueous solutions of pentaborate potassium, sodium and calcium (examples 9-17) significantly increases the quality of the CSR and CRI coke. Most high quality coke CSR and CRI achieved when processing the coke pentaborate potassium (examples 11 and 12). Thus, the processing of coke with baseline CSR=50,4% and CRI=34,4% solution of pentaborate potassium in an amount to provide a dry content of pentaborate in the coke and 0.09-0.68 wt.%, contributes to the improvement in CRI and CSR compared with indicators such as coke, processed by a known method is the closest analogue: CRI is reduced by 12.3-21.2 percent (relative), and the value of CSR increased 9.3% to 16.5% (relative). Comparing the performance of the original coke is CRI decreases when it is processed by the present method 17.2-35,2% (relative), and the value of CSR is increased by 18.8-38,5% (relative).

As can be seen from table 2, the coke processing solution pentaborate potassium various concentrations, i.e. the introduction of coke a different number of pentaborate, allows you to vary the value of quality indicators CSR and CRI and predictably improve the quality of coke (examples 19-25).

Therefore, the use of the proposed method in comparison with the known method is the closest analogue to:

- to increase the rate of coke strength after reaction with CO2(CSR) 9.3-16.5% of (relative);

to reduce the reactivity index CRI 12.3-21.2 percent (relative);

- to improve the quality of coke with baseline CRI 34-36% and less, and CSR - 50-55% to the value of the indicators corresponding to the best international standards: CRI less 25-22% and CSR more than 65-70%;

- bring in a blast furnace using a PUT up to 200-220 kg/t of pig iron due to improve the quality of coke;

- reduce the consumption of coke in blast furnaces from 520 to 300 kg/t of pig iron due to improve the quality of coke;

- purposefully to get a coke with predetermined indicators of CSR and CRI.

The way to improve the quality of metallurgical coke, comprising spraying at temperatures below 20°C to pieces metallurgical coke 2-20%aqueous solution of borate metal selected from the OC is a: sodium, potassium, calcium, containing 0.1-0.2 wt.% nonionic surfactants in the form of mono - and/or dialkylamino esters of polyethylene glycol in an amount to provide the content of the surfactant in the coke 0,0035-0,0070 wt.%, characterized in that the borate metal selected from the range of: sodium, potassium, calcium, use pentaborate one of these metals, and the solution is used in an amount to provide a dry content of pentaborate in the coke and 0.09-0.68 wt.%.



 

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9 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: methods of simultaneous reduction of forming NOx, CO and carbon at combustion of fuel containing coal by addition of effective amount of manganese compound.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes combining coal and additive with manganese-containing compound for forming their mixture which is burnt in combustion chamber. Manganese-containing compound is present in effective amount for reduction of NOx, CO and carbon formed in the course of combustion of coal in combustion chamber in fly ash. Provision is also made for additive for coal at reduction of amount of carbon and NOx formed in the course of combustion of coal. Additive contains manganese compound which is added to coal in the amount of from 1 to 500 parts/min. Proposed method includes also stabilization of combustion of coal in presence of manganese-containing additive. Amount of carbon and NOx in fly ash is reduced relative to their amounts obtained at combustion of coal at absence of manganese-containing additive.

EFFECT: improved combustion of coal at simultaneous reduction of NOx, CO and carbon in fly ash.

21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: treatment of coal for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions during burning of coal.

SUBSTANCE: coal at high content of sulfur is placed in low-pressure medium for cracking of part of coal by extraction of atmospheric fluids entrapped in coal. Then cracked coal is brought in contact with aqueous composition of colloidal silicon oxide oversaturated with calcium carbonate and larger part of aqueous composition is brought out of contact with coal, after which coal is acted on by high pressure in carbon dioxide medium during period of time sufficient for penetration of calcium carbide into cracks in coal. Description is also given for coal cracked in vacuum which contains about 0.5 wt-% of sulfur and additionally contains calcium carbonate deposited in cracks in coal in the amount sufficient for obtaining Ca:S molar ratio equal to at least 0.5. Specification contains also description of obtaining energy in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur at simultaneous reduction of sulfur dioxide in emissions. Specification contains also description of increase of calcium sulfate obtained in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur and aqueous composition used for treatment of such coal. Specification contains also description of preparation of aqueous composition for treatment of coal at high content of sulfur in combustion products. Description is also given for device for treatment of coal at pressure.

EFFECT: considerable reduction of sulfur dioxide and other toxic gases formed during burning of coal.

25 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: power-supply processes and equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises providing furnace having combustion chamber, wherein coal is combusted in presence of oxygen, supplying coal and metal-containing combustion catalyst to combustion chamber, and supplying oxygen to combustion chamber in amounts reduced relative to those required in absence of metal-containing combustion catalyst, which reduced amounts of supplied oxygen constituting up to 50% of the amount of oxygen above its stoichiometric amount.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of oxygen without losses in thermal efficiency and burning stability.

9 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to compositions for producing a granulated fuel for pyrolysis on the base of peat with modified additives and can be used in minor energetics and housing and communal services. The invention facilitates efficiency of the granulated fuel for pyrolysis. The assigned task and the said technical result are achieved by means of the fuel containing peat as an organic filling material and aluminium silicate material as a modifying additive at a following composition of elements, mas.%: aluminium silicate material 2-30% and peat 70-98. Granules can be made from 5 to 30 mm size by the method of balling on various types of granulators. A betonite clay, clay marl, Cambrian clay, kaolin clay, synthetic zeolite H-Beta-25 or synthetic zeolite H-MORD can be used as an aluminium silicate material.

EFFECT: increased combustion value of the fuel facilitating its efficient implementation at low temperature pyrolisis.

9 cl, 9 ex, 2 dwg, 10 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas production industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to coke-chemical and blast-furnace operations area. Furnace coke processing method that consists of processing pieces of furnace coke unloaded from coke furnace, slaked and sorted at temperature 20-50°C and placed in shipment hoppers by spraying with 2-20% water solution of borate selection from the range: sodium pyroborate, potassium pyroborate, calcium pyroborate. Water solution of pyroborate of concentration required for coke processing is prepared by simple mixing in process vessel of calculated weight of pyroborate and water. The volume of finished solution used for processing shall ensure that amount of dry pyroborate in coke corresponds 0.05-0.5% (weight) in terms of coke. Calculated volume of solution to surface of coke pieces is applied by spraying through nozzles with use of pump.

EFFECT: improved strength of coke after reaction and reduced reactivity.

2 tbl, 14 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety metal-bearing additives improving burning for usage in communal and industry furnaces. Additive contains: complex of metal-bearing catalyst, containing manganese with ligands and dissolvent for transfer of complex catalyst/ligands where steam pressure of additive is less than preliminary 200×10-5 Torr at 100°F. Method of additive receiving, by which: it is chosen metal-bearing catalyst containing manganese for usage in furnaces of general-purpose and/or industrial furnaces, it is formed complex of current metal-bearing catalyst, containing manganese with ligands and it is added dissolvent in order to transfer this complex catalyst/ligands, where steam pressure of additive is less than preliminary 200×10-5 Torr at 100°F.

EFFECT: receiving of additives safety for inhalation.

13 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method for performance improvement of incinerators includes the following stages: burning of the hydrocarbon fuel in incinerator, determination of the given incinerator burning conditions which can be improved by adding of the special additive which conditions are determined on the base of measuring and calculations including hydrodynamical ones; determination of special points location whereat the additives are added to the incinerator; providing on the base of the said stages of the mode of special additive adding to the incinerator in the determine points. The using of the said mode allows to achieve one or more effect selected from the group including: decrease of the flame non-transparency, burning intensification, scorification decrease, reducing of limiting oxygen index, decrease of unburned coal amount, corrosion decrease and improvement of the electrostatic precipitator performance. In the said method the special additive contains the alloy of following general formula (Aa)n(Bb)n(Cc)n(Dd)n(…)n whereat every capital letter and (…) means metal with A being burning modificator, B meaning modificator of deposits, C meaning corrosion inhibitor, D meaning comodificator of burning/intensificator of electrostatic precipitator perfomance whereat each subindex means the stoichiometric index of the composition with n being not less than zero, sum of all n is more than zero; alloys includes two different metals; if metal is cerium the stoichiometric index is less than approximately 0.7.

EFFECT: non-transparency decrease of the flame released into atmosphere by large-scale incinerators used in for power production and waste burning industry and community facilities.

30 cl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises coal crushing and damping. Crushed and damped coal is heated to sulfur melting point to deposit sulfur on steel electrodes arranged in coal and receiving direct current. Voltage effect on damped coal in air-water medium at sulfur melting point (119.4°C) time sufficient for sulfur that features polar electronegativity to get transferred onto anode steel electrode.

EFFECT: simplified process, high degree of extraction of sulfur and sulfur-containing compounds.

6 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sulphur-containing fuel additives and can be used in thermal power for desulphuration of liquid and solid fuel, mainly solid ash-bearing fuel during combustion. The composition of sulphur-containing fuel additives for desulphuration of said fuel during combustion contains the following, wt %: alkali metal hydroxide 19-29; alkali metal carbonate 26-37; alkali metal chloride 29-50; alkali metal hydrocarbonate 1-2; cryolite 3-4; alkali metal chromate 0.0001-0.0003.

EFFECT: additive is mainly meant for solid ash-bearing fuel, lowers temperature for deformation, melting and molten state of sludge, which prevents formation of refractory slag and solves the problem of outlet of slag and cleaning heat-generating equipment from deposits, thus increasing efficiency and service life of the equipment, as well as improving degree of neutralisation of sulphur compounds.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical mixture of an oxidising agent, fuel binder and metallic fuel. The oxidising agent used is ammonium perchlorate with particle size not greater than 50 mcm and ammonium nitrate with particle size (165-315) mcm. The fuel binder used is butadiene rubber which is plasticised with transformer oil or polyurethane rubber which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The metal fuel used is aluminium micropowder or aluminium nanopowder or mixtures thereof. Further, silicon dioxide with average particle size not greater than 50 mcm is added to the fuel in amount of 1-2 wt % over 100% of the fuel mass. The mixture is further mixed and evacuated. The obtained fuel mass is moulded into fluoroplastic units, polymerised and plated on the lateral surface with a solution of linoleum in acetone.

EFFECT: high rate of combustion and low content of solid condensed combustion products.

5 tbl, 2 ex

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