Method for determining distance to radiation source with directional antenna

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: measuring base implements the removal of signal amplitudes proportional to the field intensity, as per which the main lobe of antenna beam of radiation sources is restored in linear measure. Determination of the distance to radiation sources is achieved by means of calculation of the ratio of calculated width of radiation source antenna beam in linear units to the width value of antenna beam, which is taken from database, in angular radian measure.

EFFECT: possibility of passive determination of the distance to radiation sources with directional antenna oriented with its main lobe to direction finder antenna; the latter forms together with antennae of additional receiving stations the measuring base the size of which is much smaller than that during implementation of the known time-difference direction determining method, which in its turn allows eliminating communication channels for transfer of received signals to distance calculation station, and as a whole, applying the method on movable direction finder carrying object.

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The invention relates to radio engineering, namely, passive radar, and can be used in systems defined in solving the problem secretive determine the coordinates of media sources of radio emission (IRI) with directional antennas.

The General weakness of passive radar is a consequence of the fact that due to the lack of information about the time of radiation of the signal range to the radiation source cannot be determined according to the reception of only one point. Therefore, to determine all of the coordinates of the emitting device requires a complex of two or more spaced points of acceptance, the joint communication channels [1].

Widely known triangulation method of determining the distance to the radiation source based on the measurement directions (bearings) on a radiating object, the at least two receiving points (in one plane), separated by some known distance, called the measuring base, and calculating the distance to the object by two bearings and measurement basis [2, s], [3].

The disadvantages of the method:

- requires the implementation of a large instrumental composition - at least two radio direction finders;

- requires a large distance between adoptive points-direction finders;

- the necessary channels of communication (radio communication) to transfer the received si the channels in paragraph calculate the coordinates of the radiation source.

Also known angular-differential-ranging method based on the measurement direction on the Islamic Republic and the difference of the distances from it to the collection points. When measuring coordinates on the plane enough to have at least two points. The disadvantages of the method are the same as in the previous case, but the apparatus for implementing the method may be easier, because just in one of two collection points to be developed that measure the direction of Iran [2, s], [4].

The closest in technical essence to the offer should be considered as a differential-distance measuring method adopted as a prototype. The method is based on measurement of the difference of the distances (or the difference between the time delays of the signal) from the radiation source to the points of reception. To determine the coordinates on the plane (range and bearing), it is necessary to know the distances between the collection points and to measure at least two differential time delays of the signal, i.e. to have at least three receiving point [2, C], [5].

Delta-distance measuring method includes:

detection and measurement of parameters of signals of Iran;

- identification signals on the measured signal parameters;

- measure the time delay between the identified signals;

- calculation of distance to Iran by known distances between the receiving points and the measured temporal delay is between received signals.

The disadvantages of the prototype method:

- large measuring base (distance between adoptive points), often commensurate with the range of up to Iran, which does not allow to implement a method on the same movable object (ship, plane);

- the availability of channels of communication (radio communication) for transmitting signals to the calculation of delay and distance to Iran.

The aim of the invention is to eliminate the disadvantages of the prototype method, namely:

- reduction of the measuring base to a value acceptable for the object carrier apparatus of measuring range;

excluding communication channels (radio)that allows you to implement a method for passive determination of the range to Iran on moving objects.

The technical result of the invention is the possibility of passive determining the distance to Iran with a directional antenna oriented main lobe in the antenna direction finder, the latter forms with additional antennas of the receiving points of the measuring base is significantly smaller than with the known differential-ranging method of determining the distance, which, in turn, eliminates the communication channels (radio) for transmission of received signals in the item calculate distance and, in General, to use the proposed method for mobile objects. To achieve specified the CSOs technical result of the proposed method of determining the distance to the source of radio emission with a directional antenna, including:

detection, direction finding signals IRI and measurement of their parameters by the radio direction finder;

detection and measurement of parameters of signals IRI two or more receiving points, the antenna which is formed with an antenna direction finder measuring base;

- identification signals additional collection points with signals detected by the direction finder;

- memorization of the amplitudes of the signals identified IRI;

request for the totality of the measured signal parameters of the IRI database previously explored IRI order to establish the type of IRI and its width of the antenna beam;

- adjustment of the generator calibration in accordance with the measured carrier frequency and signal amplitude of Iran;

to calibrate the amplitude of the receiving channels of the direction finder and additional collection points;

- adjustment of the calibration results stored amplitude signals identified IRI;

- calculation of the width of the antenna beam, expressed in linear units, the adjusted values of the amplitudes when using the approximation of the antenna beam main lobe;

- determination of the distance to Iran as the ratio of the calculated width of the antenna beam in the linear unit to extract from the database the value of the width of the antenna beam angle Radiani least.

The essence of the proposed the first method and the simulation results are illustrated by the drawings.

Figure 1. Structural diagram of a device implementing the method of determining the distance to Iran with a directional antenna.

Figure 2. The mutual position of Iran, ADF and additional collection points.

Figure 3. The main lobe of the beam antenna IRI measured in linear units.

Figure 4. Possible options for the location of the projection of the three-point measurement of the base relative to the main beam of the antenna Iran.

Figure 5. The error of determining the distance.

In the drawings, the following notation.

Figure 2: N - North;

1 - finder;

2, 3 - additional collection points;

4 - the main lobe of the beam of the antenna's office.

K - rate of the carrier signal, and matching the direction of the measuring base;

d0- the distance between adoptive points 1 and 2, 2 and 3;

projection distances d0on the plane of the front of the signal from IRI;

E1E2E3the field strength signal IRI in paragraphs 1, 2, 3;

β is the angle of coverage of the beam antenna IRI extreme points of the measuring base.

R - range to Iran.

Figure 3: E0the field strength corresponding to the maximum antenna beam IRI;

ΘLin- width of the antenna beam of IRI in linear least at minus 3 dB from the maximum;

x1, x2, x3- linear deviations foster PU is mswb 1, 2 and 3 of the maximum antenna beam.

Figure 4:- the value of the projection of the three-point measurement of the base to the plane of the front of the signal from IRI;

1, 2, 3, 4 - ways to position the projection of the three-point measurement of the base relative to the antenna beam Iran.

Figure 5:the projection of the three-point measurement of the base to the plane of the front signal IRI.

- standard error from the true range.

1, 2, 3, 4 - ways to position the projection of the measuring base (see figure 4).

The method of determining the distance to Iran with the directional antenna is as follows.

1. The signal IRI is detected as a direction finder, and additional adoptive points and antennas the latter form with the antenna direction finder measuring base.

2. Measurement is necessary to identify the parameters of the detected signal (carrier frequency, duration, etc), and also measured:

the direction of arrival of the signal - bearing on Iran (it is enough to perform only the signals of the direction finder);

- the signal amplitude, which came at the same time;

- the direction of the line of the measuring base (the rate at the location of the direction finder on the media, and antenna direction finder and additional collection points in the median plane of the carrier),

and who holds the identification of the received signals, belonging to the same IRI.

3. Is the memorization of the amplitudes of the signals identified Iran.

4. On set of the measured signal parameters Iran is a database query previously explored IRI order to establish the type of IRI and its width of the antenna beam.

5. In accordance with the measured carrier frequency and the amplitude of the signal IRI at the outputs of channels is configured generator calibration calibrates the amplitude of the receiving channels of the direction finder and additional collection points.

6. The calibration results are adjusted memorized amplitude signals identified Iran.

7. Adjusted amplitudes, using the approximation of the antenna beam main lobe, is calculated width of the antenna beam, expressed in linear units - shares projection of the measuring base on the plane of the front coming from Iran signals, as shown in figure 2.

The main lobe of the beam antenna Iran is well approximated by the expression [6, p.47]:

where ΘUHLthe angular width of the antenna beam at minus 3 dB from the maximum;

Θ is the angle of deviation from the maximum;

E0E - field intensity at the maximum of the antenna beam and the deviation from the maximum angle Θ;

e is the base of natural logarithms.

If the values E and E 0measured at the receiving side in decibels relative to a single noise,

Next, all values of E (E0E1E2E3) are expressed in decibels.

At longer ranges, up to Iran, the antenna beam can be represented in linear least:

where x is a linear deviation from the maximum of the antenna beam;

ΘLin- width of the antenna beam at minus 3 dB in linear least.

For linear measure is- share projection of the measuring basewhere n is the number of additional (in addition to the direction finder) collection points, according to figure 2:

where d0- the distance between adjacent receiving areas;

K - rate carrier signal (bearing on the measuring base);

P - bearing IRI measured by the direction finder.

To restore the beam antenna Iran just three of the amplitudes of the signals from the radio signal and two collection points. Indeed, the field strengths at points 1, 2, 3 (figure 2 and figure 3) or proportional im voltages at the outputs of channels is equal to:

they characterize the same antenna beam of the form (1) or (2), i.e. form a system equalized the th. Since (3)

three equations (5) can be transformed into a system of two equations:

deciding which, we find:

estimated (based on the results of the measurement values of E1E2E3) the value of the maximum antenna beam

and the width of the antenna beam in a linear least

Of the last two expressions, you should choose the one whose denominator is larger to reduce the effect of random errors in the measurement values of E1E2E3.

8. Determines the distance to Iran as the ratio of the width of the antenna beam in the linear unit to extract from the database the value of the width of the antenna beam of IRI in the corner Radiani least.

This operation is based on the proportionality of the corresponding values in angular and linear least:

wherethe projection of the measuring base on the plane of the front coming from Iran signals;

β is the angle of coverage of the beam antenna IRI extreme points of the measuring base (projection measurement base)

where the angle of coverage

and distance to IRI

where ΘUHL[happy] is retrieved from the database widths of the antenna beam of IRI in radianes least.

The device (figure 1) with three-point measurement framework that implements the proposed method contains direction finder 1 from antenna 2 and the receiver 3 and two additional points 4, 7 with antennas 5, 8 and receivers 6, 9. The outputs of the receivers 3, 6, 9 are connected to the inputs of the multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 10. Generator calibration 11 has the same level of signal outputs connected to the inputs of the receivers 3, 6 and 9. Outputs multi-channel ADC 10 is connected to a serial connection: a detection unit, a measuring signal parameters and their identification 12, the block storing the amplitudes of the signals identified and corrected by the calibration results 13, the computing unit width of the antenna beam of IRI in linear least 14 and the block of determining the distance to Iran 15 whose output is the output device. The block detection, measurement of signal parameters and their identification 12 is also connected to the control input of the oscillator calibration 11, the address input database 16 and its output bearing IRI - block computing the projection of the measuring base on the plane of the front signal IRI 17. On two other input block 17 signals "YOUR COURSE" and "MEASURING BASE", and its output is connected to the computing unit width of the antenna beam of IRI in linear least 14. Output database 16 is connected to the other input b is the eye of determining the distance to Iran 15.

Direction finder 1 can be of various types and have a fixed or scanning direction-finding antenna 2, single-channel or multi-channel receiver 3; in the latter case, the outputs of the ADC will be several, not one, as shown in figure 1, which is not principal for the implementation of the proposed method.

Additional collection points 4 and 7 should be allowed to take in the frequency and dynamic ranges are the same signals as the direction finder, and unlike their direction finder antenna 5 and 8 and the receivers 6 and 9 can be made significantly simpler apparatus. Multichannel ADC 10 is controlled common to all of its channels, a clock generator (not shown in figure 1) with the ability to accurately count the times that it is necessary to measure the signal parameters. Since the outputs of the ADC is processing the digital codes of the signals received by the signal 1 and additional adoptive points 4 and 7, and it may be implemented as hardware construction and software by the computer until the output values of the distance of Iran.

A device that implements the method of determining the distance to Iran, operates as follows.

Radiated fixed (valid and scanning) directional antenna signals IRI are taken of the direction-finding antenna 2 and the antenna 5 and 8, forming the measuring base, stronger and TRANS is worn on the intermediate (or video) the frequency in the receiver 3, 6 and 9 and RF cables are transmitted from the antenna positions 1, 4 and 7 to wheelhouse equipment input stage which is a multichannel ADC 10. Voltage applied to the multichannel inputs of the ADC 10 (vnutriplitnyi noise and signals from IRI) is converted by the ADC into digital codes of the samples with a clock frequency corresponding to the band most of the broadband signals. These samples are processed in the further part of the device in question. Unit 12 performs signal detection, fixing their amplitude, the measurement of the parameters of the detected signals and the identification signals (i.e. belonging to their same IRI), adopted by the direction finder 1 and additional adoptive points 4 and 7. If the signals are identified, the record of their amplitudes in the block 13 by the totality of the measured parameters query the database 16, and on the codes of the carrier frequency and the average value of the amplitudes of the signals IRI - set generator calibration 11. Configured in amplitude and carrier frequency generator calibration 11 provides at the inputs of the receivers 3, 6 and 9 are identical in level signals, while the signals of Iran from the air stops at the inputs of the ADC 10 are formed in the amplitude, the difference of which with a high degree of accuracy characterize raznesennost receivers 3, 6 and 9 on the measured carrier frequency is in a fairly narrow range dynamic range signals. According to the calibration results, and the known data raznesennost passive elements stored in the memory unit 13 (antenna, feeder circuits, the outputs of the generator calibration 11) adjusts the recorded amplitudes of the signals identified Iran. The bearing on Iran, the rate of its carrier signal, and measuring base unit 17 calculates the amount of projection of the measuring base, using which, and the corrected amplitude signals IRI unit 13, the relations (7) and (8) is calculated in block 14, the width of the antenna beam of IRI in linear measure, then in block 15 determines the distance to Iran as the ratio of this value to the extracted from the database 16 to the value of the angular width of the antenna beam Iran, expressed in radians.

After determining the distance is reset current information in blocks 12, 13, 14, 15 and 17 and resumes the reception of signals.

Figure 5 presents the simulation results confirming the achievable technical result of the invention, namely the possibility of passive determining the distance to Iran with a directional antenna oriented main lobe in the antenna direction finder, the latter forms with additional antennas of the receiving points of the measuring base is significantly smaller than with the known differential-Yes Gnomeregan method of determining the distance, that, in turn, eliminates the communication channels (radio) for transmission of received signals in the item calculate distance and, in General, to use the proposed method for mobile objects.

The results obtained for a range of 50 km with respect to the signal/noise in the receive location 20 dB for Iran with a fixed antenna, with θUHL=1.8°, which may be a radar in mode, auto-tracking, active homing head of an attacking missile, radio with directional radiation etc.

Thus, by introducing operations:

query the database previously explored IRI order to establish the type of IRI and its width of the antenna beam by the totality of the measured signal parameters;

- settings of the generator calibration in accordance with the measured carrier frequency and signal amplitude of Iran;

calibration of the receiving channels of the signal, and additional offices in amplitude;

- memorized adjustment of the amplitudes of the signals identified (IRI calibration results;

- calculate the width of the antenna beam, expressed in linear units, the adjusted values of the amplitudes, using the approximation of the antenna beam main lobe;

- determining the distance to Iran by the ratio of the width of the antenna beam, expressed in linear units, extracted from the database the value is Irina antenna beam Iran in the corner Radiani least manage to solve the problem.

Sources of information

1. Wascontrolled, Aratow, Lntercom. A multi-channel radio system. - M.: Radio and communication, 1986.

2. Theoretical bases of radar. Edited Aderman. - M.: "Soviet radio", 1970.

3. Patent No. 2073380 "Multi-system location objects" IPC 7: G01S 5/00, 5/04.

4. Patent No. 2058563 "Device to determine the distance and direction to the source of radio emission" IPC 7: G01S 5/12.

5. Patent No. 2096800 "distance measuring method for determining the location of stations on a difference of arrival of radio time in points of reception" IPC 7: G01S 5/02.

6. Dbarton, Guard. Handbook of radar measurement. - M.: "Soviet radio", 1976.

The method of determining the distance to the source of radio emission (IRI) with a directional antenna, including detection, direction finding signals IRI and measurement of their parameters by the radio direction finder, the detection and measurement of parameters of signals IRI two or more receiving points, the antenna which is formed with an antenna direction finder linear measuring base, the identification of their signals with the signals detected by the signal, storing the amplitudes of the signals identified IRI, characterized in that the total measured signal parameters IRI perform the database query previously explored iris in order to establish the type of IRI and its width of the antenna beam, configure the generator calibration in accordance with the measured carrier frequency and signal amplitude of the IRI, to calibrate the amplitude of the reception channels of the direction finder and additional collection points, the results of the calibration corrects the stored amplitude signals identified Iran, adjusted values of the amplitudes, using the approximation of the antenna beam main lobe, calculate the width of the antenna beam, expressed in linear units, and compared to last retrieved from the database to the width of the antenna beam of IRI in the corner Radiani extent determine the distance to Iran.



 

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