Protective drive device for damper or valve

FIELD: fire fighting systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to protection drive device with emergency protection circuit and can be used in firefighting and monitoring systems used in the sphere of air conditioning, heating and ventilation. Protection drive device (10) with circuit (12) of emergency protection installs damper or valve into the set position ensuring safety for regulation of volumetric gas or flowing medium flow. The important parts of the device (10) are the executing mechanism (14) with controlled electric motor (28), unit (20) of capacity storage, energy converter (22) with energy module and power unit (18). During normal operation electric current in the energy module of converter (22) is converted into lower voltage and the charge is stored in the unit (20) comprising at least one double-layer condenser. In case of voltage decrease lower the set value or in case of electric supply failure the accumulated electric charge is converted with the same energy module into higher voltage, and as a result, the electric motor (28) works until the set position ensuring safety is reached.

EFFECT: simplification and improvement of emergency protection circuit.

25 cl, 9 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to a safety drive device having a circuit for shutdown. The specified device maintains the valve or valve to control the volumetric flow of gas or fluid and is designed for its installation in a pre-selected predetermined position, ensuring safety. Applications of the invention are predominantly thermal/ventilation air conditioning, fire prevention and protection areas. In addition, the invention relates to a method guaranteed return valves or valve at a desired position, ensuring safety. Specified emergency protection circuit is in the active state if the detection event of a power failure or voltage drop.

The level of technology

To move the valve in the ventilation system or the valve in the water supply network, relatively low-powered engine must operate controls that have large areas or volumes. Accurate and stable regulation helps to ensure lowering the gear ratio is significantly different from unity. To turn valves or rotary ball valve on acute, straight or obtuse angle to rotate when the one shaft of the motor a few turns. If the valve is shifted in a linear manner, the same requirement applies to a relatively small movement.

For volumetric flow to both gas and fluid is extremely important that in the event of a power failure the valve and/or valve can be returned to a predetermined position, providing the security (usually the locking position). This procedure, usually performed by means of a return spring, which is stretched by the motor upon actuation of the locking element, such as a valve, a valve or other similar site. When detektiruya corresponding sensor voltage drops to a predetermined value or in case of a complete failure of the power supply is shut off electricity to the electric motor. The result eliminates the force opposing the tension of the spring, and the return process gets the opportunity to actually happen immediately.

However, although such a spring system and has been used for a long time, their constant disadvantage is induced them to increase wear of mechanical parts and eventually the loss of the spring to its ability to stretch.

In the patent document US 5278454 described electric circuit emergency protection containing a capacitor with high charging capacity and small volume. Specified to ndensation can provide energy, required for a refund. The voltage is monitored by a simple sensor. Such a capacitive energy storage device replaces the recoil spring. The opportunity is provided instead of one connected in series and/or parallel several capacitors. Parallel connection allows you to increase capacity, and serial - to increase the voltage. For charging and mode of operation of the engine used two separate power supply with constant voltage. The disadvantage of this scheme lies in the fact that the relays have to use a switch and a sensor. Work in emergency conditions in the event of a voltage drop does not allow any reliable monitoring and charging scheme generates large amount of heat.

In the patent document US 5744876 presents a safety drive unit with emergency protection scheme, in which, in contrast to schemes US 5278454, the relay is actuated only in emergency mode, i.e. in the case of a voltage drop or power failure. The return of the control element is controlled by a small capacitor associated with the transistor. However, the relay remains unstable, while charging voltage control is absent, and the charging scheme in this case also generates heat.

Soglasna.poetomu document US 5744923, using additional voltage regulator, a DC voltage can be obtained even in the mode of operation under emergency conditions during the fall of the input voltage. Directly before stopping in a predetermined position has the effect of braking. To ensure the service life is increased compared with the technique of the relay, you can apply the power switches on the basis of the field MOS transistor. However, these advantages are achieved at high loss voltage in the circuit of the controller; in addition, it is necessary to use four power supplies (voltage regulators/voltage). Finally, in the patent document US 7023163 B2 presents the scheme of emergency protection, designed for actuator control mechanism to which power is supplied in the form of a rectified input voltage. DC voltage increases to a higher level and used for charging the respective capacitors. In the result, it is possible to use capacitors with low capacitance. In case of voltage drops for supplied voltage powering the motor, or failure of power supply is the inverse transform high voltage to its low DC level and the corresponding motor start.

The first well-known type of circuit switching the controller with many brand the RA refers to the so-called "topology reduction" or "down mode". This option, referred to as the topology of the buck Converter, is reduced to decrease the output voltage relative to the input and to use the specified low voltage for charging the capacitor at the output of the circuit.

In a variant of "topology of increasing the output voltage increases with respect to the input, and, in addition, applies the intermediate topology of the Converter or the topology of the boost Converter.

Find application also power converters, in which the energy flow goes in both directions, i.e. used topology lowering and raising, respectively, for charging and discharging a capacitor.

Disclosure of inventions

The basis of the invention is the development of a safety drive device whose type discussed above, and the method of operation of the specified device that uses advanced simplified and improved emergency protection circuit that returns the valve or the valve in the desired position.

This problem is solved by the combination of features included in paragraphs 1 and 15 of the formula. The invention consists in developing a managed power module, which in turn or charges the capacitive drive energy supplied from the power source (normal is Etoile), or discharges the specified drive to transfer the stored energy to the motor to bring it into effect (in case of an accident). The fulfillment of these conditions is provided by a very simple modification of the control circuit, and through a special method of controlling the flow of energy both in normal situations and in the event of an accident; and this method is very simple and flexible.

According to one embodiments of the invention the capacitive energy storage device contains at least one double-layer capacitor of the type "supercap". An important feature of the energy Converter is the power module, which can function as a Converter DC to DC (DC/DC Converter) with the ability to work in switching modes with decreasing and increasing (i.e. with respect to the input voltage the output voltage correspondingly decreases or increases). It is preferable to connect the power supply to the electric motor via an intermediate circuit. In this embodiment, the energy Converter is connected to this circuit, first and second driven keys to bypass their respective first and second diodes are included within transducer in series, and between the output of the intermediate circuit point is connected to the I these keys enable a serial circuit, containing capacitive energy storage device and the inductor.

It is advisable to put keys into the unit, were performed on field-effect transistors, in the preferred embodiment, with integrated diodes.

In the baseline capacitive energy storage device may contain a single capacitor. Then preferably be connected to this capacitor monitoring unit.

In an alternative implementation of capacitive energy storage device may include multiple capacitors connected in series and/or parallel. Then, the monitoring unit is connected to the capacitors connected in parallel, and to capacitors, connected in series, is connected to the monitoring unit and balancing.

In one embodiment of the invention the monitoring unit or monitoring unit and balancing containing a serial circuit consisting of a resistor and managed key.

The following variant of the invention is characterized by the fact that the managed keys of the energy Converter or the same keys monitoring unit and/or monitoring unit and balancing activated microprocessor control device (microcontroller).

Preferably, the motor was operated trigger circuit, preferably as a specialized integrated circuit (With Whom, Application Specific Integrated Circuit) and is connected to the microcontroller, preferably by a microprocessor bus MP bus).

Another variant implementation of the invention is characterized by the fact that in the intermediate circuit is turned on, the diode preventing the passage of current to the power supply, when the capacitive energy storage device is discharged to the electric motor.

In the intermediate circuit can also include a sensor for detecting the fall of the voltage in the intermediate circuit.

One of the variants of the method according to the invention is characterized by the fact that at the input of the alternating current, preferably with a frequency of 50-60 Hz, is converted into direct current, which is then served in the capacitive energy storage device through the power module.

The voltage ranges between relatively low and relatively high potentials according to the invention is at least about 20-40 C.

The following variant of the method according to the invention is characterized by the fact that the step-down mode, the microcontroller using an analog input to measure the voltage on the capacitive energy storage device through digital output signal with pulse-width modulation (PWM signal) to the managed key of an energy module. Another difference of the specified option is that the microcontroller mode enhancement group is a rotary analog input measures the voltage on the intermediate circuit between the power supply and the motor and through digital output delivers the PWM signal to the managed key energy module.

In the preferred embodiment, applied energy module, which contains a serial circuit consisting of the first managed switch with shunt his first diode and the second controlled switch with shunt his second diode. Between the output of the intermediate circuit and the connection point of the two keys include a serial circuit containing a capacitive energy storage device and the inductor. During flow free flow through the diode when the open key to another key in the circuit must be closed.

If applied capacitive energy storage consists of several capacitors, their potential is measured periodically on an individual basis and at least partially discharge the capacitors with excessive voltage.

In the variant with the serial connection of the capacitors in the capacitive energy store is preferably carried out balancing stress.

The device according to the invention can significantly simplify the flow of electrical energy in both directions (i.e. when charging and discharging the capacitive energy store) due to the fact that in this case you need only a single switching regulator which functions as a buck (step-down)and boost converters.

Preferably, the switch is in store regulator Converter power was a DC/DC Converter, placed, as already mentioned, in a single power module and having two switching modes, namely a decrease and increase of the output voltage relative to the input.

In most cases of practical importance, the capacitive energy storage is double-layer capacitor (supercap). This capacitor is made by winding layers of a metallic foil coated with carbon powder and separated by a separator and electrolyte. In the variant with multiple capacitors distinguish parallel connection with stacking containers and a serial connection for which the capacity is characterized by the inverse of the sum of the reciprocals of the values of capacitance of the individual capacitors. A serial connection is used, for example, to distribute the high voltage multiple capacitors having a low dielectric strength. When a constant voltage is maintained up until the plates or elements of the foil will not be electrically charged, i.e. will be unable to accept any additional charge. In order to charge the capacitor, it is necessary to carry out the rectification of the alternating current.

If the plates or elements of the foil of the charged capacitor be connected through the electrical load, the charges and their aim is to balance each other, i.e. the current flows up until both plates will not again become electrically neutral.

In the context of the present invention, the capacitance of the capacitor should be sufficient to ensure the return of the valve or valve at a desired position, ensuring safety in case of a voltage drop in the power supply or in the event of a power failure. When this condition is from a functional point of view, there is no need to use traditional design with coil springs.

The capacitor must have a capacity high enough to return the element of the actuator in the position to provide security. For this reason, it is preferable to use double-layer capacitor. Because the nominal specified voltage of the capacitor is usually a small value, the applied voltage must be adapted to this level through the energy Converter. During discharge of this capacitor Converter performs the reverse conversion of the voltage to the operating voltage of the motor.

According to one particularly preferred variants of the invention the energy storage containing one or more capacitors connected in parallel is equipped with a monitoring unit. Drive with multiple capacitors connected in series, has come POC monitoring, which in relation to the capacitors has the function of the balancing unit. This prevents too much voltage increase on individual double-layer capacitor. This problem is solved by the discharge of a double-layer capacitor with high voltage. The result also prevents too rapid wear of the device.

The voltage regulator provides for the charging and discharging of capacitive energy storage, i.e. a double-layer capacitor, a large change in voltage that is approximately 20-40 Century

AC input current having, for example, frequency 50-60 Hz, is converted into DC and served on the double-layer capacitor through the switching regulator or the power Converter.

The potential of the capacitors are periodically measured individually using the unit balancing and monitoring. Capacitors with high voltage, at least partially discharged. In addition, for capacitors connected in series, regularly balancing voltage.

Brief description of drawings

Hereinafter the invention will be described in more detail in the examples of embodiments illustrated in the drawings, of which

figure 1 represents the block diagram of the safety of the drive device with capacitive nakopitelnyi (based on double-layer capacitor),

figa is a block diagram of the safety of the driving device, in which multiple (up to 16) used drive units provides a common power supply

figure 2 presents a diagram of the path of emergency protection with energy Converter,

figure 3 represents the diagram shown in figure 2, in step-down mode,

figure 4 represents the diagram shown in figure 2, in the mode of increase,

figure 5 represents the monitoring unit,

6 is a block balancing and monitoring

Fig.7 is a diagram of the safety of the drive device shown in figure 1,

figa is a diagram of an improved version of the safety of the driving device, an alternative to the device shown in figure 1, is provided with an additional means of locking the power switch and providing a direct current monitoring charging and charging the capacitor of the energy storage device.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 1 presents a safety drive unit 10 with the circuit 12 emergency protection, the actuator 14 of the actuator motor 28 to move the valve 16 and block 18 power.

The circuit 12 includes a capacitive drive 20 energy. Usually it is one or more double-layer capacitor (supercap). Through the changes associated with Atwater 22 energy in two directions of flow 44 energy (see 2). This Converter reduces the voltage to charge the accumulator 20, and increases the voltage to the original level, i.e. up to normal voltage at the motor 28 when the drive dies. Block 24 balancing and monitoring, on the one hand, monitors the capacitor or capacitors of the drive 20 energy, and on the other, provides a balance of tension between the various capacitors of the specified drive. More details on these Converter 22 and block 24 is shown in Fig.2-6. The control circuit 12 emergency protection and monitoring provides the controller (for example, the microcontroller 26), which, in addition, transmits control commands to the actuator 14 of the actuator.

The main drive unit 14 of the actuator is an electric motor 28. In this case, a DC motor, Sensorless and brushes. From the microcontroller 26 to a specialized integrated circuit (CID) 30 that controls the electric motor 28, a microprocessor (MP) bus 39 receives control commands. A relatively low-power motor 28 transmits its torque in this example, through the reduction gear 32 on the valve 16 located in the ventilation pipe 34 or the valve, or on the linear rod (not shown).

The block 18 supply voltage is agenie from the network, for example, with the following parameters: 230/110 VAC (volts alternating current, VAC, or 24 VAC/DC, or 72 VDC (volts direct current, VDC). From the output of block 18 power on the intermediate circuit in this case served the intermediate voltage of 24 VDC. In the normal mode, power to the motor 28 is transmitted through the SYSTEM 30 from block 18 power, which simultaneously energizes the drive 20 energy through a transformer 22 energy. In addition, the block 18 power supplies required operating current to the microcontroller 26. Double arrow 38, 40 indicate that in the case of reducing the current drive 20 energy discharged through the same Converter 22, and during charging. Thus the current in this mode of operation under emergency conditions passes through the intermediate circuit 36 and SYSTEM 30 to the electric motor 28, which moves the valve 16 at a desired position, ensuring the safety.

The voltage drop, triggering mode in alarm conditions detected by the sensor 42 (see also Fig.7), which transmits a signal to the microcontroller 26. The latter, in turn, MP bus 39 (in connected mode, master-slave) sends a command to the SYSTEM 30, which actuates the motor 28 to move the valve 16 at a desired position, ensuring safety. In this context, the electric motor 28 returns the valve 16 in the criminal code of the related position with Parametrierung and typically, high speed.

In the normal mode, the drive 20 energy charged up until its voltage reaches a level that corresponds to a stored energy sufficient to return the actuator 14 of the actuator at a desired position, ensuring safety. If in the normal mode, the drive 20 is overloaded, its discharge.

Although in the embodiment represented in figure 1, the actuator 14 of the actuator and its energy source combined with the block 18 and power circuit 12 emergency protection, safety drive unit 10 can also be divided into two independent clusters, namely the power unit 11 and the actuator 14, and provides the ability to place these units in a separate building (see figa). In this embodiment, the connection between the two blocks is carried out by means of an intermediate circuit 36 and MP bus 39. This layout of the safety of the driving device, you receive the possibility, in particular, be connected to the power unit 11 a few (for example, 16) of the actuator 14 of the actuator to provide the supply needed energy, and the necessary control commands from the common unit 11.

In one embodiment, the implementation of the specified unit 11 can thus be performed in a separate mouth of the STS, which is equipped with conclusions and/or cable connections suitable for connecting to one or more actuators 14 of the actuator through an intermediate circuit 36 and MP bus 39. We mean, for example, one or more individual findings or single/multiple cable connections to connect via an intermediate circuit 36, and one or several specific findings or single/multiple cable connections to connect via MP bus 39. In addition, the power unit 11 displays the output for the connection block 18 supply to the external energy source.

Figure 2 presents the inverter 22 energy, which is used in shown in figure 1 circuit 12 emergency protection. In the specified Converter 22 provides the ability to skip the thread 44 of the energy in both directions with one power module 46. In other words, the drive 20 energy can be recharged and discharged using the same energy module 46. As the transducer 22 energy and the microcontroller 26 is connected to the intermediate circuit 36, the voltage is 24 VDC.

The microcontroller 26 has an analog input (analog input) A connected between the drive 20 energy (double layer capacitor C1 and inductor L1 to the chain 35 passing through the condenser. In addition, the microcontroller 26 has an analog input is AI2, connected to the intermediate circuit 36, which provides the supply voltage. Next, the microcontroller 26 is supplied with the first and second digital outputs DO1 and DO2, respectively activating the keys S1 and S2.

Both of switches S1 and S2 energy module 46 are connected in series, each of which is shunted in the locking direction by the diode (respectively D1 and D2). Between the keys S1 and S2 connected inductor L1 connected to the drive 20 energy (capacitor C1).

If the keys S1 and S2 applied field-effect transistors (FET1 and FET2 - see Fig.7), it is preferable to embed them in the diodes D1 and D2. In this case, it is possible to do without additional diodes. When through the diode free flowing current, the diode can short-circuit the switch.

Figure 3 presents the circuit 12 emergency protection to the inverter 22 energy, operating in step-down mode (stream 44' energy from the intermediate circuit to the drive 20 energy). In this case, the Converter 22 energy lowers the voltage intermediate circuit 36 and energizes the drive 20 with double-layer capacitor C1. The microcontroller 26 via analog input A measures the voltage on the capacitor C1 and, when necessary, sends the PWM signal 48 from the digital output DO1 on the key S1. If the key S1 is closed, current 11 flows through the inductor L1 and charges con is ensator C1. If the key S1 is open, free current 12 flows through the diode D2 and the inductor L1, and capacitor C1 is charged additionally. During the passage of current 12 can be optionally connected to the circuit key S2 to reduce energy losses in the diode D2. The result is improved efficiency of the Converter 22 energy.

Figure 4 Converter 22 energy shown in the mode of increase (stream 44" energy from the drive 20 to the electric motor 28). In this case, the Converter 22 increases the voltage on the drive 20 with double-layer capacitor C1 and supplies energy in the intermediate circuit 36. The microcontroller 26 via analog input AI2 measures the voltage in this circuit 36 and sends the PWM signal 50 from the digital output DO2 on key S2. If the key S2 is closed, current 13 flows through the inductor L1 and discharges the capacitor C1. If the key S2 is open, free current 14 flows through the diode D1 and inductor L1, and capacitor C1 is discharged separately. The energy coming from the capacitor C1 is converted into a voltage of 24 V and is fed into the intermediate circuit 36. During the passage of current 14 can be optionally connected in the circuit of the key S1, in order to reduce energy losses due to the diode D1. The result is improved efficiency of the Converter 22 energy.

From figure 2-4 shows that the Converter 22 power using the same power module (item is reclusado controller) 46 converts the electric energy to lower potential, and then stores it in the memory 20 (the capacitor C1). If in block 18 the event of a power failure or voltage drop, the stored energy is converted to the same level with the ability to apply it to the electric motor 28 (see Fig 1), with the voltage corresponding to the normal operating mode. In any case, the same power module 46 and the inverter 22 of the energy used for step-down mode (see figure 3)and for the mode of increase (see figure 4).

Figure 5 illustrates the block 52 monitoring, which at least partially disengages the drive 20 of the power if the voltage on capacitor C1 exceeds a pre-selected level. The specified drive 20 with double-layer capacitor C1 device is activated by the key S3 and a resistor R1 connected in series. Discharge is carried out by closing key S3 with the passage of discharge current through the elements R1 and S3.

Figure 6 shows the energy accumulator with two double-layer capacitors C1 and C2, connected in series. The first of them, as in figure 5, the device is activated by the key S3 and resistor R1. The capacitor C2 respectively device is activated by the key S4 and resistor R2. If the drive 20 energy consists of a larger number of capacitors C1, C2, ..., JV, each of them has its own key Sn+2 and the resistor Rn. In other words, when the capacitors C1-CN soy is inany consistently, each individual capacitor has its own block 52 monitoring.

If, for example, the voltage on the capacitor C2 exceeds a pre-selected level, the specified capacitor at least partially discharge through the circuit key S4. The discharge current passes through the resistor R2 and the key S4. While closing keys S3-Sn+2 is balancing the voltage on the capacitors. If the total voltage of all of the capacitors C1, C2, ..., JV becomes too low, the entire capacitor Bank just recharged.

From time to time individually conduct a health check on all of the capacitors C1-CN, i.e. the drive 20 energy, which measure the capacity and internal resistance (effective series resistance, ESR). To this end, for example, for a short time at the bottom of the key S3 (see Fig.6). The capacity of the capacitor C1 can be determined by measuring the voltage difference before and after discharge. If you measure the voltage across the capacitor C1 before the closure of the key S1 and after closure, using bit resistor R1, to determine the ESR. Thus, the block 24 monitoring and balancing provides the ability to periodically check the status of the drive 20 energy on the basis of the capacitors C1-CN.

In the normal mode, i.e. during charging and what derivare connecting the drive 20 energy to the electric network, periodically check the capacity of the specified drive. If at least one of the measured values gives unsatisfactory results, i.e. detects too low a value of the capacitance or too high internal resistance, the microcontroller instructs the SYSTEM 30 to disconnect the drive and indicates that this defect, for example, by an led 56 (see Fig.7). Energy, provides this trip comes from the power supply, and it can easily be checked.

A detailed illustration of the safety of the driving device 10 shown in figure 1, are presented in Fig.7. In the intermediate circuit 36 before the Converter 22 energy in the forward direction included the diode 53, which switched capacitor 54. These diode 53 and capacitor 54 together constitute a simple rectifier circuit. Under normal circumstances, the diode 53 allows current to flow to the motor 28 from the power supply. While charging the capacitor 54, which in addition to its main task also performs a smoothing function. If the voltage from the power supply is reduced or disappears altogether, the diode 53 is a voltage drop to the level of the supply voltage (24 VDC), as a result of which the diode is closed. This voltage drop is measured at two analog inputs and AI2 AI3 microcontroller 26 and give it the form, PR is suitable for controlling the mode of operation under emergency conditions. Then are two key FET1 and FET2 in the mode of improvement (see figure 4), which, lowering the voltage, serves the energy from a capacitor storage 20 of the power SYSTEM 30 or the motor 28. Key FET1 in this case is triggered by the signal from the digital output DO1 microcontroller 26 through a chain 55 level shift and the key FET2 - signal digital output DO2. Analog inputs A and AI2, and digital outputs DO3 and DO4 are connected to the block 24 monitoring and balancing.

Analog input AI5 via a measuring resistor RM monitors the current flowing through the transducer 22 energy. Digital output DO5 activates the serial circuit, which consists of LEDs 56 and resistor 57, and this led can be used as an indicator that displays the operating status of the given path.

To minimize the aging process of double-layer capacitors C1 and C2 (see Fig.7)used drive 20 energy, the applied voltage should be low. In this regard, instead of the nominal voltage, for example 2.7 In, may be a sufficient level of only 2.3 Century After many years of service capacity, however, must be sufficiently high so that you can save a sufficient amount of energy. In other words, while the capacitors are new, i.e. not yet grown old, they save the applied excess energy, because their capacity is still at a high level.

If you have some other way to measure or determine the energy stored in the memory 20, a double-layer capacitors (especially at the initial stage of their life) can operate at a much lower voltage level than 2,3 Century, as a result there is an opportunity to increase their life. In the alternative situation with the same period of operation to ensure a higher level of energy.

In a variant of the scheme shown in figa and different from the circuit shown in Fig.7, the measuring resistor RM is included in the other place, between the two capacitors C1 and C2. The advantage of this inclusion is the ability to measure charge and discharge currents. On the one hand, so you can track the maximum charging or maximum discharge current. On the other hand, from this information you can determine the voltage and energy, charging the double-layer capacitors or taken from them.

On figa the half-bridge containing the keys FET1 and FET2, again performs the function of asynchronous switching controller. There is a danger that at the time of failure both keys will be closed and this will lead to the flow of short circuit current. In normal conditions the operation of key controls timer, entering the s in the diagram of the microcontroller 26 and provides an accurate account of delays during switching. As a result, two key FET1 and FET2 are never closed at the same time. However, at the initial stages or in case of failure there is a possibility that will be filed with both the activating signal DO1 and DO2. This situation effectively prevents special blocking circuit 59 connected between the generator 58 Gating pulses for key FET2 and circuit 55 of the level shift key FET1, also containing the generator gate pulse.

The list of symbols

10 - safety drive unit

11 - unit

12 - circuit emergency protection

14 - drive actuator

16 - valve

18 - power supply

20 - capacitive energy storage

22 - energy Converter

24 - unit monitoring and balancing

26 - microcontroller

28 - motor

30 - specialized integrated circuit (SYSTEM)

32 - reducer

34 - vent pipe

35 - chain

36 - intermediate chain

38, 40 is a double arrow, corresponding to the energy flows

39 - MP bus

42 - sensor

44, 44', 44" - the flow of energy

46 energy module

48 - PWM-signal

50 - PWM-signal

52 - monitoring unit

53 - diode

54 - capacitor

55 is a circuit level shift (with generator gate pulse)

56 led

57 - resistor

58 - generator gate of impul the owls

59 - blocking circuit

l1, ..., A15 - analog input

C1, ..., Cn - capacitor (double layer)

D1, D2, ..., Dn - diode

DO1, ..., DO4 digital output

FET1, FET2 - FET-keys (the keys on field-effect transistors)

I1, I3 - current

I2, I4 - free current

L1 is the inductor

R1, R2, ..., Rn - resistor

RM - measuring resistor

S1, S2, ..., Sn - key.

1. Safety drive unit (10)containing the path (12) emergency protection to return to a preset position, ensuring the safety valve (16) or valve for controlling volumetric gas flow rate or volumetric flow rate of the fluid, and the specified device (10) also includes
the actuator (14) of the actuator with controllable electric motor (28),
block (18) power of motor (28),
capacitive drive (20) energy containing at least one capacitor (C1, C2),
controlled power module (46), which either charges the capacitive drive (20) energy from the block (18) power or discharges specified capacitive drive (20) to the electric motor (28)to cause the motor (28) and
block (52) monitoring, which is connected to the specified capacitor (C1, C2) and contains a sequential circuit consisting of a resistor (R1, R2) and managed key (S3, S4), abridged when tested individually specified health to the of tensator by measuring its capacity and internal resistance.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the capacitive drive (20) energy contains at least one double-layer capacitor.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the power module (46) represents the portion of the transducer (22) energy and ability to function as a DC-to-DC providing mode (44') of the switch to decrease, which lowers the output voltage relative to the input voltage and mode (44") switch to increase, which raises the output voltage against the input voltage from the drive (20) of energy.

4. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the block (18) power supply connected to the electric motor (28) via an intermediate circuit (36), the Converter (22) energy connected to the intermediate circuit (36), the Converter (22) of energy are connected in series to the first managed key (S1) with shunt his first diode (D1) and the second managed key (S2) with shunt his second diode (D2), and between the output of the intermediate circuit (36) and the connection point of the two switches (S1, S2) includes a sequential circuit containing capacitive drive (20) energy and the inductor (L1).

5. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the controllable switches (S1, S2) is made in the form of keys (FET1, FET2) on field-effect transistors.

6. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the imp is prevalent with the ability to measure capacitance and the internal resistance of the specified capacitor (C1, C2) by:
circuit for a short time managed key
determine the capacity of the capacitor (C1, C2) by measuring the difference of the voltages before and after discharge and
determine the internal resistance of the capacitor (C1, C2) by measuring the voltage on the specified capacitor (C1, C2) before closure and after closure of the managed key and use the specified resistor (R1).

7. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the capacitive drive (20) energy contains capacitors (C1, C2)connected in series and/or parallel.

8. The device according to claim 7, characterized in that when enable parallel capacitors connected block (52) of monitoring, and the sequential inclusion of the capacitors (C1, C2) to each capacitor connected block (24) monitoring and balancing, which contains a serial circuit consisting of a resistor (R1, R2) and managed key (S3, S4)made with the possibility circuit for periodic test individual health capacitor (C1, C2) by measuring its capacity and internal resistance.

9. The device according to claim 8, characterized in that it is configured to measure capacitance and the internal resistance of the specified capacitor (C1, C2) by:
circuit for a short time managed key
determine the flask capacitor (C1, C2) by measuring the difference of the voltages before and after discharge and
determine the internal resistance of the capacitor (C1, C2) by measuring the voltage on the specified capacitor (C1, C2) before closure and after closure of the managed key and use the specified resistor (R1).

10. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the controllable switches (S1, S2) of the Converter (22) energy and managed switches (S3, S4) of the block (52) monitor and/or block (24) monitoring and balancing are activated by the microcontroller (26).

11. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the motor (28) is actuated trigger circuit connected to the microcontroller (26) microprocessor bus (39).

12. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that the trigger circuit is designed as a specialized integrated circuit (30).

13. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the intermediate circuit (36) includes a diode (53), which prevents the passage of current to the unit (18) of the power supply, when the capacitive drive (20) energy is discharged to the electric motor (28).

14. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the intermediate circuit (36) includes a sensor (42) for detecting the voltage intermediate circuit (36).

15. The way a guaranteed return at a specified position of a valve (16) or valve for controlling volumetric what asgodom gas or fluid in the event of a power failure or voltage drop using the safety of the drive device, completed according to claim 1, comprising the steps:
in normal operation the electric current, which is also used to power the electric motor (28), convert to a relatively low potential through the power module (46), working as an energy Converter in step-down mode, and store energy in a capacitive storage (20) energy, and,
if the voltage falls below a pre-selected value, or there is a power failure, the electric energy stored in the capacitive storage (20) energy containing at least one capacitor (C1, C2)transform by the same power module (46) to a relatively high potential and use in the mode of improvement to ensure the operation of the engine until, until it reaches the specified position, security and
periodically individually check the operability of at least one of the specified capacitor by measuring its capacity and internal resistance.

16. The method according to item 15, wherein the alternating current with a frequency of preferably 50-60 Hz convert the input to DC and fed through a power module (46) to the capacitive storage (20) energy.

17. The method according to item 15, characterized in that the greatest change in the voltage between the relative to the positive low and relatively high potentials is at least about 20-40 C.

18. The method according to item 15, wherein in step-down mode, the microcontroller (26) via analog input (A) measures the voltage on the drive (20) energy and via digital output (DO1) sends a signal (48) with pulse-width modulation (PWM signal) to the managed key (S1) power module (46).

19. The method according to item 15, wherein the mode of raising the microcontroller (26) via analog input (AI2) measures the voltage intermediate circuit (36) between the block (18) power supply and an electric motor (28) and via digital output (DO2) delivers the PWM signal to the managed key (S2) power module (46).

20. The method according to p, characterized in that use energy module (46), which contains a serial circuit consisting of the first controlled switch (S1) with shunt his first diode (D1) and the second controlled switch (S2) with shunt his second diode (D2), and between the output of the intermediate circuit (36) and the connection point of the two switches (S1, S2) include a serial circuit containing a capacitive accumulator (20) energy and the inductor (L1), while the free flow of current (I2 or I4) through diode (D2 or D1) when the open key (S1 or S2) enclose a different key (S2 or S1) in the circuit.

21. The method according to item 15, characterized in that use capacitive drive (20) energy containing understory (C1, C2), when the potential of the capacitors (C1, C2) is measured periodically on an individual basis and at least partially discharge the capacitors with high voltage.

22. The method according to item 21, wherein in the case of a series connection of capacitors (C1, C2) capacitive accumulator (20) energy spend the voltage balancer.

23. The method according to item 15, wherein when measuring capacitance and internal resistance of the specified capacitor (C1, C2):
for a short time at the bottom of the key (S3, S4) and discharge the specified capacitor (C1, C2);
measure the voltage before and after closure of the specified key (S3, S4) and, using a bit resistor R1 determine the internal resistance of the specified capacitor (C1, C2);
measure the difference between the voltage on the capacitor (C1, C2) before and after discharge to determine its capacity.

24. Safety drive unit (10)containing the path (12) emergency protection to return to a preset position, ensuring the safety valve (16) or valve for controlling volumetric gas flow rate or volumetric flow rate of the fluid, and the specified device (10) also includes:
the actuator (14) of the actuator with controllable electric motor (28),
unit (18) of the motor power,
capacitive drive (20) energy containing at least one capacitor C1, C2),
Converter (22) energy, made with the ability to work as a DC-to-DC providing mode (44') of the switch to decrease, which lowers the output voltage relative to the input voltage and mode (44") switch to increase, which raises the output voltage against the input voltage from the drive (20) energy, and containing controlled power module (46), which either charges the capacitive drive (20) energy from the block (18) power or discharges specified capacitive drive (20) to the electric motor (28)to cause the motor (28 in the action, and
the measuring resistor (RM), included in the power Converter or energy storage device with the ability to monitor the currents in the specified drive or storage device.

25. The device according to paragraph 24, wherein the energy storage includes two series-connected capacitor (C1, C2)and the measuring resistor is included between these two capacitors with the ability to measure the charge and discharge currents.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in multilevel transistor converter of frequency, three-phase bridge rectifier on thyristors is arranged as controllable, current sensors and shaper of inverter transistors opening trajectory are introduced, and the shaper consists of several group of throttles, discharge resistors, dividing diodes and filter capacitors. Single-phase transistor inverter is arranged of serially joined transistors with original circuit of their connection.

EFFECT: limitation of currents of filter capacitor charging in case of initial connection of power voltage and performance of current protection function by unit of cubicle control without application of power fuses, reduced dynamic losses of capacity in case of connection and overvoltage values on transistors when they are disconnected, reduced quantity of cubicles and simplified design of power transformer.

1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: multilevel autonomous voltage inverter include two modules, each containing n keys connected in series by same-name outputs. Each key is formed by anti-parallel connection of full-control valve and diode. Initial and final outputs of first module keys are dissimilar to initial and final outputs of second module keys respectively, and initial output junction and final output junction points of two modules are used for load connection. Number of keys connected in series by same-name outputs n=2·(2·N-3), where N is the number of non-negative levels of output voltage in inverter. In key junction points of two modules under the same number k, where k is an integer from natural sequence 1, 2, 3, 4, 5… counted from both output terminals, condensers are connected for odd k=1, 3,…,2·N-5 and similar keys are connected for even k (total of 2·(N-2) condensers and keys) respectively. Anodes in diodes of the indicated keys and positive outputs of condensers are connected to cathode junction points of module diodes, while cathodes in diodes of the indicated keys and negative outputs of condensers are connected to anode junction points of module diodes. Middle points of the two modules, i.e. points with k=2·N-3 serve for direct voltage source connection: positive output is connected to cathode junction point of diodes, and negative output is connected to anode junction point of diodes.

EFFECT: simplified construction.

5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of electric engineering, in particular to semiconducting equipment, and may be used in electric rolling stock to control traction AC electric machines, AC electric motors in technological plants, thermal-electric plants and other electric energy loads, which receive supply from electric AC and DC circuit. Device comprises single-phase transformer with sectioned secondary winding, inlet converter is connected to section taps. Arms of inlet converter consist of two serially connected diodes, thyristors and opposite parallel connected two-operational instruments. AC circuit includes accumulators of electric energy of large capacitance, which produce voltage divider and reactors. Reverse bridge diodes and additional diode provide for charging of energy accumulators due to energy of reactors. Smooth change of current in circuit "intermediate accumulators of energy - windings of AC electric machine" and in circuit "intermediate accumulators of energy - secondary winding of converting transformer" is carried out with the help of two-operational instruments of autonomous voltage inverter and inverter led by circuit with the help of pulse control and pulse modulation methods. In method of power control and device consumed power and efficiency of recuperation is controlled by smooth change of input electric resistance of device.

EFFECT: increased power coefficient, electromagnetic compatibility and expansion of functionality.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method for converting constant voltage into quasi-sinusoidal voltage with pulse-width modulation can be used in frequency converter control systems. Conversion method consists in comparing sawtooth signal with positive and negative inverted half-waves of drive (sinusoidal) signal. In this process, when drive signal is crossing zero reference sawtooth signal is reset to initial state which is predetermined and lays in range from zero to maximum.

EFFECT: improvement of electric drive operation quality in sustained mode and transient modes due to excluding constant components from output voltage of stand-alone inverter at subfrequencies.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of converting dc voltage into quasi-sinusoidal voltage with pulse-width modulation can be used in control systems of frequency converters. The conversion method involves matching the positive half-wave of the drive (sinusoidal) signal with the base saw-tooth signal, and the negative half-wave with the signal of the saw-toothed voltage, which is generated by shifting the base saw-toothed signal in time by a value, calculated in each cycle of the drive signal.

EFFECT: increased quality of operation of an electric drive in steady state and transient conditions due to elimination of dc components in the output voltage of the autonomous inverter at subfrequencies.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: generator of low and extremely low frequencies contains rectifier with parallel connected battery of capacitors, inverter and primary control system. RC-circuit is connected in parallel to RL-load of inverter, at that identical poles of rectifier and inverter are connected via fully controlled valve. Control inlet of fully controlled valve is connected via control pulse shaper to the primary control system. Inverter design on the basis of single-operational thyristors without artificial commutation circuit reduces static and dynamic losses in it. Signal for connection of thyristors of one of the inverter diagonals and the last locking pulse of fully controlled valve are sent simultaneously. The first pulse for connection of fully controlled valve is sent after time delay Δt after signal supply for connection of thyristors of the other inverter diagonal, at that Δt = T·ϕ/2π, where T - measured in seconds period of generator output frequency, ϕ - measured in radians shift angle between vectors of voltage and current in RL-load of generator.

EFFECT: method of control in emergency mode increases generator reliability.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used in induction heating system provided with semiconductor frequency converters while creating systems of several inverters forming direct and back half-waves of current in load. One inverter is brought into adjustment mode. Inverter also has multi-element mating transformer. Primary windings of transformer are connected with corresponding inverters. Secondary windings are connected in series to form voltage summing circuit. Two intervals with different amplitudes of total output voltage U1 and U2 of converter are formed: voltage adding interval, at which interval the voltage of corresponding transformer is summed with rest voltages and is applied to load by means of alternate short-circuiting of diagonals of one inverter to be brought into adjustment mode; and short-circuit interval, formed by continuously open state of two adjacent switches of inverter, at which interval the voltage of primary winding of corresponding transformer excludes from summing circuit. Different combinations of durations T1 and T2 form several levels of output voltage Uave determined by ratio of Uave=1/T(U1T1+U2T2), where T is period, namely duration of clock period. Combination of states of inverters defines borders of adjustment range of inverter to be controlled. Output voltages of transformers of non-adjusted inverters can be specified by proportional weight coefficients of binary code (1, 2, 4, 8, 16,..) and weight coefficient of inverter to be adjusted equals to 1.

EFFECT: reduced number of non-adjusted inverters; ability to keep former relation of voltages of converter and controlled inverter; reduced dynamic losses; high power characteristics.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: converting equipment, possible use for bridge inverters with one-sided pulse-width modulation, operating in consumption and energy recuperation modes.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for controlling bridge inverter with two-sided pulse-width modulation and device for its realization, energy consumption mode is realized by enabling key elements of required diagonal of key elements block, recuperation mode is realized by exclusion of all key elements, and pause mode is realized by enabling one of key elements of bridge inverter.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; control systems for resonance-tuned pulse-width modulated inverters of induction heater plants.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method that makes it possible to control any process parameter (output voltage, current, and power) as well as to extend process parameter control range when feeding electric load whose parameters are varying within wide range involves generation of control pulses and their supply to transistors shaping forward and backward current half-waves in load. Novelty is that process parameter levels enabling and inhibiting control pulse supply are first ones being set. In the course of operation current value of process parameter is measured within several last resonant-frequency cycles and compared with set levels. If mean current value of process parameter is below enabling level, instruction enabling control pulse supply is activated. If this value is higher than or equal to level inhibiting control signal supply, enable instruction is deactivated and null space multiple of integer number of resonant-frequency half-cycles is introduced, this space being anticipated by reverse-polarity pulse at resonant-frequency half-cycle. This method allows for enhancing subharmonic frequency and reducing output current amplitude of inverter.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.

1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering, in particular, technology for controlling input transformers of alternating-current electric train, for adjusting given parameters of four-quadrant transformer under conditions of alternating load.

SUBSTANCE: alternation of phase of current vector of network, consumed by four-quadrant transformer during load alternation, is predicted on basis of current value of phase of network current, current value of load and given value of load. Adjustment of transformer is performed in the area of allowed working parameters.

EFFECT: provision of precise determining of current vector phase of network of four-quadrant transformer during alternation of load, excluded unacceptable adjustment parameters, decreased requirements for adjustment system resources.

6 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention includes the insertion of the following items into the applied device: a p-n-p transistor, another n-p-n transistor. In addition, the emitter of the second n-p-n transistor is connected to the negative pole, its base is connected to the collector of the first n-p-n transistor, and its collector is connected through the third resistor to the base of the p-n-p transistor. The collector of the p-n-p transistor is connected to the cathode of the isolation diode, and its emitter is connected to the positive pole of the backup power source, while the second terminal of the second resistor is connected to the base of the second n-p-n transistor.

EFFECT: use in power supply of communication devices and other important consumers, increasing the device's reliability while simplifying its design and reducing its energy consumption from the primary power source.

2 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: applied device, which comprises primary power source (1), backup power source (2), termination (3), isolation diode (4), p-n-p transistor (5), first resistor (6), second resistor (9), third resistors (11), first Zener diode (7), second Zener diode (10), opto-isolator (8) is modified by the introduction of a p-n-p transistor (12), whose collector is connected to the termination, the emitter is connected to the positive pole of the backup power source and the base is connected to the second photoresistor terminal (8.1) of the opto-isolator (8). Furthermore, the connection point of the second Zener diode (10) anodes and the opto-isolator's light emitter (8.2) is connected to the collector of the first transistor (5). In addition, the second resistor (9), the second Zener diode (10) and the opto-isolator's (8) light emitter (8.2) are in a series circuit, and, in their turn, are connected in parallel to the backup power source (2).

EFFECT: use in power supply of communication devices and other important consumers, increasing the device's reliability while simplifying its design and reducing its energy consumption from the primary power source.

2 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: following items are introduced into the applied device: another n-p-n transistor (12) and a p-n-p transistor (11). The emitter of the second n-p-n transistor (12) is connected to the negative pole, its base is connected to the collector of the first n-p-n transistor (5), and its collector is connected through the third resistor (10) to the base of the first p-n-p transistor (11), whose collector is connected to the termination (3) and emitter connected to the positive pole of the backup power source (2) and the second capacitor (7) lead. The first lead of this capacitor (7) is connected to the cathode of the isolation diode (4).

EFFECT: use in power supply of communication devices and other important consumers, increasing the device's reliability while simplifying its design and reducing its energy consumption from the primary power source in the redundancy mode.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in a device an optical coupler is made as a transistor one, a light radiator of which is connected serially into a circuit of a voltage sensor, connected in parallel with the main source of supply, and a phototransistor of the optical coupler is connected between the transistor base and the common output of the supply sources. Besides, the other output of the reserve supply source is connected via a collector-emitter transition of the transistor with the other output of the load.

EFFECT: reduced consumption from the main source of supply, simplified device and its increased reliability.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in a device of reserve power supply there is the second resistor (8) added, via which a transistor base of a sensor (4) is connected to a positive output of the main power supply source (1), and its emitter-collector transition - between a negative output of the main source (1) and the point of connection of a transistor collector of a key amplifier (5) and a load output (3).

EFFECT: higher reliability of switching from a reserve source to the main one, expansion of functional capabilities.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a switching transistor (4), the base of which via the second resistor (8) is connected to the point of connection of negative outputs of both power supply sources, to which another output of the first resistor (7) is connected, at the same time an emitter of a control transistor (6) is connected to the positive output of the main power supply source (1), a collector - to the base of the switching transistor (4), the emitter of which is connected to the positive output of the reserve power supply source (3), and its collector - to the appropriate output of the load (5).

EFFECT: higher device reliability, reduced power consumption, and expansion of the application field.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: device contains main (1) and reserve (4) power supply sources, stabiliser diodes (8) of parametric stabiliser (6), diode (3), the first transistor of n-p-n type (5), resistor (10) and stabiliser diode (8) of parametric voltage stabiliser (6). Additionally the second transistor of n-p-n type (11) with collector-emitter junction included in parallel to stabiliser diode (8) of parametric stabiliser (6) and its base through resistor (10) connected to collector of p-n-p type transistor (9).

EFFECT: reduction of consumption in reserve power supply mode, enhancement of reliability and simplification of circuit design.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: since fault current surge in line of main power supply source count-down is started for protection operation delay of input bus circuit breaker of main power supply source; if at the end of count-down a new fault current surge occurs then conclusion is drawn about interruption of input bus circuit breaker. Monitoring pulse is sent to the beginning of main power supply source line and time of its travel to reflection point and back is being measured. Distance to reflection point is measured and when it is bigger than distance to installation point of line fuse then conclusion is drawn that fault current occurs behind line fuse; if at that line fuse and main circuit breaker failure occurred than signal is sent to prohibit bus and mains automatic load transfer.

EFFECT: functionality enhancement.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: system is located on a movable object - an autochassis of a special vehicle and comprises a generator (G 1), which via an electromagnetic coupling (EMC 2) is joined with a crankshaft of the autochassis motor, a power supply preparation system (PSPS 3), consisting of a relay controller (RC 4) and a filter (F 5), two accumulator batteries (AB 6). The equipment 1, 2, 3, and also stationary power equipment of the autochassis (AE 7) is electrically connected to the input of a distribution device (DD 8), with an instrument (9) to monitor voltage of an onboard circuit. The system comprises a control and monitoring panel (C&MP 10), electric motors (EM 11) of drives in antenna lifting mechanisms (ALM 12), a connecting shield (CS 13) to connect external equipment, navigation and survey control facilities (NSCF 14), a dose capacity metre (DCM 15), a workplace area air thermal control (ATCU 16), three connecting circuit boards (CB 17, 19, 21), a software and hardware complex (SHC 18) of a mobile complex, a data communication and transfer system (DCTS 20), an optical survey and orientation instrument (OSOI 22), an internal loudspeaker communication system (ILCS 23), a lighting system of workplace area (LS 24) and a counter of machine hours (MHC 25).

EFFECT: reliability improvement.

1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in measurement, to monitor integrity of circuits, of current and negative phase-sequence voltage, zero sequence voltage at windings of metering voltage transformers, connected as open delta, and at windings of metering voltage transformers, connected as star, fixation of damaged phases of the metering transformer in case of fault and detection of positive phase-sequence voltage by voltages of good phases.

EFFECT: increased reliability, in case of faults in circuits of metering voltage transformers of the main or reserve power supply sources.

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method, device or software implements a technique of overload prevention. This technique involves monitoring of the motor speed, detecting the state of overload based on the average monitored speed and controlling the motor performance according to the detected state of overload.

EFFECT: preventing motor overload, notably in permanent magnet DC motors, such as those used in linear of rotary actuators.

23 cl, 9 dwg

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