Aircraft mixed-mode aerorodynamic and space flight and method for its piloting

FIELD: aeronautics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relate to an aircraft with a mixed solution with aerodynamic and space flight and how it is flying. The aircraft includes a fuselage, wing, air-jet engines and rocket engines. The wing holds still, essentially straight and elongated in the lateral direction fuselage. Wingspan makes the length of the fuselage. Wing tanks and rocket fuel are located in the rear fuselage. In front of the fuselage, located cabin. The method of piloting an aircraft contains four phases of flight. The first stage of aerodynamic flight at subsonic speeds, corresponds to 0.5 M-O, 8 M, with the use of jet engines without air refueling. In the second stage of exit in outer space rocket engines are used after giving the command to change the tilt of the aircraft between the first stage and second stage. In the third stage of descent by planning mode to the fuselage, oriented substantially perpendicular to the trajectory. The fourth step is provided by aerodynamic flight and landing after bringing the aircraft into position on the merits in the direction of the trajectory between the third phase of flight and the fourth stage of the flight.

EFFECT: reduced fuel consumption.

14 cl, 3 dwg


The invention relates to the aircraft mixed-mode aerodynamic and space flight, as well as to a method for piloting.

The invention relates to aerospace planes (VCS), that is, aircraft that can fly up from the ground as planes go into space and return to Earth by landing aircraft. These aircraft must have the capability to carry cargo and to ensure safety conditions relevant to manned spaceflight as a classic aircraft, and they shall, in particular, to be aircraft reusable unlike missiles, steps which are discharged during the flight. The term "outer space" should be understood in the framework of the terminology of the International Federation of cosmonautics, and it refers to the space outside the earth's atmosphere, relatively at a height of over a hundred kilometers. It can also be seen as a space where the atmosphere is too thin to be flying classic aircraft.

You should distinguish between orbital planes that can reach orbital velocity at a given altitude (about 7.5 km/s at a height of 200 km), and suborbital aircraft that do not have such opportunity is. The orbital planes can become companions, being almost indefinitely in orbit after a phase of flight in operating engines, while suborbital aircraft along the trajectory to return to Earth after completion of the phase of the flight working on the engines after a certain period of time, about one and a half hours or less. The orbital planes are different from suborbital primarily due to the amount of energy that they must have on Board, in order to achieve orbital velocity, and special design to withstand high temperatures when entering the atmosphere. First of all, the present invention relates to a suborbital aircraft, but not exclusively, as it is possible to envisage its application to the orbital planes with making quantitative or secondary changes, and it can also carry as payload the aircraft made with the possibility of orbital flight.

Unlike missiles, which have long been the subject of extensive industrial development, videoconferencing while not widely used, and many of them exist only in draft form. The first example is the American Shuttle, which however is not the only video conferencing, and is a mixed two-stage booster, which takes off like a rocket, and only what about the second stage of this rocket, separating after takeoff phase, is a space glider. Double advantage of this glider is the ability to reuse and landing on the Ground like a supersonic airframe, that is, at high speed and without the possibility of correction of errors; however, the first step retains the disadvantages of the missiles in the first place such as single use and high consumption of rocket fuel (Argos) to exit earth's atmosphere.

The second example of the space plane was developed by Scaled Composite", and he is also two-stage. The first airplane mode aerodynamic flight carries the other to a height of 15 km and resets it. The second plane is equipped with anaerobic rocket engine, thanks to which he can deliver a payload to a height of 100 km, This second step is landing just as the space Shuttle.

The third example, is much more ancient, is an American prototype X15, which was dropped from an aircraft carrier and can reach heights of more than 100 km

Other spacecraft are described on the website but these aircraft were not built. Some of them take off vertically, but their run is as expensive as missiles, or they are combined with rocket, which serves as their p is pout stage, like the American space Shuttle.

In documents EP 0264030, GB 2362145, WO 98/30449, WO 01/64513, US 6 119985, US 6745979, US 2005/0279889, US 6193187 and FR 1409520 described, respectively, two-stage booster; booster, the first stage of which is a balloon; aircraft towing another aircraft, the carrier rocket, the first stage of which is the booster mixed-mode traction for aircraft engines and rocket engines; space plane, using as fuel oxygen; three aircraft with variable geometry; and classic aircraft (screw in the present embodiment, the equipped with nozzles for change of direction (nozzle orientation), which are auxiliary engines, not involved in the operation of the main power plant.

Thus, most of the projects spacecraft, as well as those that produced the flights are multistage. This design is most preferable, because it provides an optimal balance between the good and the take-off mass, which makes it possible to combine more fuel useful load and, consequently, to deliver it at a more significant distance. Disadvantages are the increased complexity and limited opportunities for the movement of the upper stage. Both stages must be equipped with the same tools for some functions, such as nozzle orientation, to adjust their direction, and they must also contain a means of separation. The upper level cannot effectively be controlled by the descent and must sit in the planning mode. This circumstance, as well as the possibility of failure of the funds of the Department making the flight more risky.

In some aircraft used a mixed aerobic-anaerobic power unit for the flight sequentially in a dense atmosphere and in space. This idea is used in the present invention, however, is more efficient because of known construction, as a rule, can not avoid using the multi-stage system. The main reason is the difference in the choice of wings, as discovered that the wings, usually offered at a known technical solutions are deltoid, short and with a great sweep, aimed in the direction of the tail, which are well suited for supersonic flight, but have less lifting force. Design in accordance with the present invention uses a direct and long wing with less sweep in the rear direction to ensure good lifting force in a dense atmosphere and to a greater height. the tee areas of flight runs without problems at subsonic speeds. The rocket motor is only sufficiently high altitude, so that the wing could withstand aerodynamic forces. There is no need to use the changing geometry to protect the wing and reduce drag by pressing the fuselage.

In the present invention, on the contrary, it is preferable tougher, simpler and more lightweight design requiring more than simple maintenance and less prone to breakage.

In General, the task was optimization of atmospheric flight from the point of view of fuel consumption, height and weight; this was adopted the concept of high-altitude subsonic flight, allowing to optimize the overall weight and, in particular, the movement to the rocket engine as in the reduction of weight for atmospheric flight requires less thrust and less fuel for rocket flight, which again helps to reduce weight and fuel consumption for atmospheric flight. Thus, it is quite simple, easy and less energy-intensive aircraft that can transport its fuel without the use of a separate auxiliary carrier and without refueling in the air and which can start and complete the flight like classic aircraft from running in the horizontal direction. You Podturkin what be advantage which consists in the possibility of piloting and control the aircraft during the descent unlike flight planning mode that allows you to improve the safety of manned flights. Thus, the aircraft can travel considerable distances after his return to the atmosphere and to choose a landing strip. The speed at the end of the flight will be much lower than that of the aircraft with deltoid wings used for supersonic flight.

The present invention aims at eliminating the disadvantages of the known technical solutions and the creation of the spacecraft of a new type with one step, and can make normal flight with full use of the possibilities of flying at low altitude and can continue its flight in space. This aircraft has the General appearance of a conventional transport aircraft and differs from the classical plane some changes.

In General the aircraft in accordance with the present invention includes a fuselage, generally straight and elongated fixed wing, the scope of which exceeds the length of the fuselage, the air-jet engines mounted on the fuselage or on the inside of the fuselage, and rocket engines running on rocket fuel (argali). This design is the construction provides good opportunities piloting as low, and at high altitude.

Preferably the ratio of wing span to the length of the fuselage is from 1 to 2, preferably from 1 to 1.4. Wing loading (the ratio between the total weight of the plane and the wing area) is preferably from 2.5 to 3.3 m per tonne. Mass without load is preferably from 40 to 60% by weight with a full load.

Fuel tanks and stabilizer, installed in the rear section of the fuselage, with the front section of the fuselage contains the cockpit for the pilot and passengers. The aircraft contains forward horizontal stabilizer mounted on the front section. The aircraft is designed to carry passengers, with the highest load during takeoff are back, and the wing was shifted ago too considering shifted far back center of gravity. Nasal horizontal stabilizer provides stability and also participates in the creation of the lifting force.

The object of the invention is also a method of piloting an aircraft containing the first stage of the aerodynamic flight using air-breathing engines, the second stage of entering space using rocket engines after the reset command is a change in the slope of the aircraft between the first stage and the second stage, the third stage reduce the Oia in planning mode with the fuselage, essentially perpendicular to the flight path, and the fourth stage landing in aerodynamic flight after bringing the aircraft essentially in the direction of the path between the third and fourth phases of flight.

Preferably rocket engines are made with the possibility of changing the thrust.

Figure 1 and 2 shows the aircraft types in the future and to the side;

figure 3 shows a graph of the flight.

The aircraft includes a fuselage 1 is essentially cylindrical with a conical nose 2. From the fuselage 1 moves in the transverse direction of the wing 3 large extend with a slight sweep, which is installed in the rear part of the fuselage 1 is about 60% of the total length to the nose. Also from the fuselage near the nose 2 moves in the transverse direction of the tail 4, and the rear has the upper keel 5 with a large sweep, similar to the keel of a classic aircraft. In this case, the wing 3 is installed at the lower section of the fuselage 1, but can be set at half the height, or even higher. There is also a landing chassis 6 under the fuselage 1 and a pair of air-jet (turbojet) engine 7, is also located in the rear part of the fuselage 1, but slightly ahead of the wing 3. In this embodiment, the air-jet engines 7 installed through the pylons on the side of the article which the parties to the fuselage 1 a little above it, with the help of gondola and outside of the fuselage 1. This arrangement is not mandatory, and air-jet engines 7 can be integrated into the design of the fuselage 1. In this case, the vents in the fuselage must ensure the access of air necessary for combustion. Also must be provided with the release of gaseous products of combustion.

The internal design of the aircraft is characterized by the presence of the following main elements. The volume of the fuselage 1 is divided into three main compartments front 8 and rear 9 partitions. Front compartment 10, in nose, 2 in front of the front walls 8, contains the control system. The middle compartment is the cabin where the pilot and passengers. The cabin is pressurized, is under pressure, equipped with hatches and portholes to access and review, and contains equipment and furniture for the carriage of passengers. The rear compartment 13 that is located behind the rear wall 9, is designed to ensure operation of the power plant. It contains large tanks 14 and 15 for rocket fuel that can feed two of the rocket engine 16 and 17, are installed in parallel in the rear of the aircraft and protruding. The use of multiple rocket engines 16 and 17 (usually two or three) you can run them one after the other and provides smoother the movement. You can also use only one rocket engine. In this case it is the engine with variable thrust. The fuel required for the air-jet engines, is contained in the wing 3. Finally, there is the tank 18 is smaller than the tanks 14 and 15 rocket fuel (Argos), which is designed to supply the nozzles change the orientation of the aircraft. Some of these nozzles are indicated by position 19, they are installed at the ends of the wing 3 and directed up and down to control roll of the aircraft. Other nozzles 20 and 21 are installed on the nose 2 of the aircraft and have a vertical and horizontal direction to control the movements of pitch and yaw.

Air-jet engines 7 and rocket engines 16 and 17, are designed to provide traction, that is to ensure the movement of the aircraft, are the main engines. The nozzles 20 and 21 are small auxiliary engines that do not affect cravings as such, since they contribute only to the rotary movement by moving in the lateral direction.

This run is designed to transport four passengers and the pilot to a height of about 100 km, that is, a payload of 500 kg, the Length of the aircraft is from 10 to 15 m and a wingspan of from 15 to 25 meters In this fuselage has a height of about 2 m and may have a round or oval cross-section. Wing 3 has an area of approximately 35 m2the plumage 4 has a span of 6 m and an area of 5 m2and the fin 5 has an area of about 10 m2and a height of about 4.5 m Rocket fuel may be liquid oxygen and liquid methane. Because the aircraft has a small mass, and rocket fuel has a small mass, this aircraft becomes more simple and reliable. Takeoff weight can be from 10 to 15 tons, of which 5-7 tons make up the mass without load, 3-5 tons - mass of rocket fuel, 0.5 to 2 tons - the weight of kerosene, the rest is payload. Pull the air-jet engines can be from 3000 to 7000 pounds of force (from 13.3 to 31.1 kN)thrust rocket engines ranging from 150 to 400 kN, and the nozzles 19, 20 and 21 can develop a thrust of about 400 N each. In order to reduce the weight without load, the design of the aircraft, and the fuel tanks are preferably made of a composite material or alloy based on aluminum, such as an alloy of aluminum and lithium.

The following describes the process of executing the aircraft flight, for which it is intended.

The first stage refers to the takeoff and climb to about 12 and even up to about 14-18 km, preferably above the height of the air corridors provided for conventional air navigation. To do this, use only what about the air-jet engines 7. During the flight do not produce any refueling no fuel for the air-jet engines 7 or erholen for rocket engines 16 and 17: the aircraft has on Board all the necessary fuel. Wing 3 is made in such a way as to further set this height, providing the necessary lifting force mode subsonic speeds from 0.5 to 0.8 M, or preferably from 0.5 to 0.6 M, so that the movement of the aircraft took place smoothly and that he was raised to the maximum height without a lot of fuel. In any case, the wing 3 is poorly adapted for flight at supersonic speeds. After this first phase of the mission launched rocket engines 16 and 17, and turn off the air-jet engines 7. The lifting force of the wing 3 is used for access to the flight path with an inclination of about 70 with respect to horizontal. Structural loads of an aircraft is reduced, since the launch of the rocket engines 16 and 17 begins only at this high altitude taking into account the rarefied atmosphere that allows you to keep light-weight design, and, consequently, requires less fuel weight. Itself the mass of the required propellant decreases due to the firing of the rocket engines 16 and 17 at a high altitude reached during the flight at subsonic speeds. Rocket engines 16 and 17 started the placenta is therefore to limit effort in the first phase of creation of thrust. Possible screening intakes of air-jet engines to prevent their overheating and excessive gas velocities. Flight speed becomes supersonic and is about 3 or 4 Meters After the consumption of propellant rocket motors 16 and 17 are turned off and the aircraft continues to climb by inertia to a value that can reach 80-120 km

The third phase refers to the return to the atmosphere, with all engines off. The angle of incidence of the aircraft is close to 90, i.e. it is oriented perpendicular to the trajectory to create more drag for maximum braking. Then, approximately at the altitude of 40 km, the angle of attack is reduced to approximately 40. This reduces the aerodynamic efforts. It strives to acting on passengers acceleration does not exceed about 5 g.

Approximately at the height of 25 km, the speed of the aircraft again becomes subsonic, and the aircraft returns to the angle of attack suitable for the implementation of aerodynamic flight. Air-jet engines 7 can be running or not, and return to Earth are carried out either in the planning mode, or airplane mode on the operating engines to landing is not.

The invention can be used for space tourism, experiments under conditions of minimal gravity, for use of the aircraft as a reusable first stage of a satellite or for quick transportation of passengers.

1. Aircraft containing the fuselage, wing (3), air-breathing engines (7) and rocket engines (16, 17), and the wing is stationary, essentially straight and elongated in the lateral direction of the fuselage, and the wing span is longer than the length of the fuselage, wherein the wing (3) and tanks (16, 17) with rocket fuel are located in the rear part (13) of the fuselage (1), and in the front part (11) of the fuselage is located cabin.

2. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of wing span to the length of the fuselage is from 1 to 2.

3. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of wing span to the length of the fuselage is from 1 to 1.4.

4. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the wing loading is 300 to 400 kg/m2.

5. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that its weight without loading ranges from 40% to 60% by weight when loading.

6. Aerial apparatus according to claims 1 to 5, characterized in that it contains nasal plumage (4)located in the front part (11) of the fuselage.

7. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, distinguished by the different topics that contains a pair of rocket engines.

8. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains the landing chassis (6).

9. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a nozzle (19, 20, 21) orientation, including nozzle control roll mounted on the ends of the wings, and nozzle control yaw and pitch, installed at the front of the fuselage.

10. A method of piloting an aircraft, comprising a fixed, essentially straight and elongated in the lateral direction wing, characterized in that it contains the first stage of the aerodynamic flight at subsonic speeds corresponding to 0.5 M to 0.8 M, using air-breathing engines without air refueling, the second stage of entering space using rocket engines after the reset command is a change in the slope of the aircraft between the first stage and the second stage, the third stage of descent in planning mode with the fuselage, oriented essentially perpendicular to the trajectory, and the fourth stage aerodynamic flight and landing after bringing the aircraft into position, essentially in the direction of the path between the third flight stage and the fourth stage of the flight.

11. The way the piloting of claim 10, wherein the rocket engine is configured to change the thrust.

12. The method of driving according to claim 10, characterized in that the fourth step is carried out in the regime of subsonic aerodynamic flight.

13. The method of driving according to claim 10, characterized in that the aerodynamic flight continue up to a height of at least 12 km

14. The method of driving according to claim 10, characterized in that the aerodynamic flight operate at subsonic speeds, corresponding 0,5-0,6 M


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