Device and method for noncontact measurement of curvature of long object
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device and method is intended to be used at measurement of curvature through certain base length of object (2t), for example per 1 running metre and maximum curvature through the whole length of the object. The basis of measurements is proximity sensors. Condition of measurements is straight-line movement of the object. There can be deviations at movement in the form of transverse offsets and vibration. In order to relate measurements to length and to compose the object curvature chart, speed sensor is used. Enough number of sensors will be log2(L/t)+2 sensors. They are located at distances of (t, t, 2t, 4t, 8t, 16t,…) between each other, where t - half of the base distance for curvature measurement.
EFFECT: device allows reducing the number of involved sensors at curvature measurement.
2 cl, 7 dwg
Description of the invention
The invention relates to the field of measurement technology and can be used for automated control of curvature different long objects, such as related to products rolling and pipe industries, in the process stream.
A device for measuring the geometrical dimensions of the rail, the description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2314953, CL B61K 9/08, E01B 35/00, 2006), which includes a sensor platform, which has six optical sensors, three of which control the upper surface, three - side surface, at the beginning, center and end of the rail. The main disadvantage of this device is that measurements must be made "senegalian" object, hence the conclusion about impossibility of measurement in the process stream without reducing the pace of work.
Also known device for controlling the deflection of the rail, the description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2333858, CL B61K 9/08, E01B 35/02, 2005), which includes a sensor platform, which is equipped with three optical sensors that control the rail at its beginning, the end and the middle, in the same plane. This device works on the shadow principle of optical measurements. The disadvantage is that there are restrictions on the transverse size of the object: it must bituminise, than used the illuminator. In addition, there is the possibility of measuring the curvature of the object on the entire length.
Also in the above devices, there is no possibility of control of curvature of the object on the base length of the object, such as 1 meter, another disadvantage is that these devices are intended for measurements of objects with a constant length.
A device for controlling the radius of curvature of the surface (the description of the invention to the U.S. patent No. 20080289205, CL G01B 3/16, G01B 3/00, G01C 3/08, G01S 3/80, 2008), consisting of a base with a fixed non-contact sensors measure the distance between the sensor and the surface to be measured. This device on the sensor calculates the radius of curvature. The described device can be used to measure the curvature of a moving elongated object, constructing the map of curvature of the surface you want to put a single measurement. The total measurement error for the entire length of the object will consist of errors of single measurements. Thus, the total measurement error of curvature of the object increases with the length of the measured object, which is a disadvantage of the specified device.
Closest to the proposed invention is a device for controlling pramol is nanosci rails (the description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2283792, CL B61K 9/08, G01B 15/04, 2004), selected as a prototype. The device contains at least three radio frequency sensors for contactless measurement of the distance to the surface of the rail. Evaluation of the curvature depends on the size of the gaps between the stationary radio-frequency sensors and controllable surfaces of the rail, using spline interpolation.
A disadvantage of the known device is the low accuracy of determination of the magnitude of the curvature calculated using spline interpolation. To achieve accuracy, acceptable under the control of the car, it is necessary to increase the number of sensors that simultaneously leads to an increase in computation time curvature value.
The aim of the invention is to remedy these disadvantages, improving the accuracy and reliability of measurement, reducing the number of sensors when measuring long objects, minimizing the cost of implementation and subsequent maintenance, improve product quality, measurements of curvature of the object for a specified length (for example, 1 m) and over the whole length with the same error.
The proposed device and a method of measuring the curvature of long objects eliminates the described disadvantages, allows the measurement of the curvature in terms of vibration and the transverse displacement of a moving object and provides in order to minimize the number of deployed sensors.
A device and a method of measuring the curvature of long objects are intended for use in the measurement of the curvature on the base distance (length 2t), such as 1 meter, and the maximum curvature throughout the length of the object. The measurements are the sensors the distance to the object, attached to a fixed base. As sensors can be used for a different sensor type: optical, inductive, capacitive, laser, etc. the sensor Readings are received in the unit of analysis and information processing, which is performed subsequent calculation. Condition measurements - rectilinear motion of the object. May be present deviation during movement in the form of transverse displacements and vibrations.
In addition, for binding measurements for length and mapping of curvature of the object readings used speed sensor, which may be optical or mechanical type.
The spatial arrangement of the sensors is shown in figure 1.
The measurements are taken in a plane passing through the axis of the object. If necessary the measurement of curvature of the object in two perpendicular axes, set the additional number of sensors at an angle of 90 degrees to the first row.
To measure the curvature of the object on the base a distance of length 2t, there are three sensor distance to the objectD1,D2,D3, RAS is consistently than necessary along the movement of the object at the distance t from each other, figure 2. The sensors produce simultaneous measurement of the distances to the surface of the objectR1,R2,R3during the movement.
Measurement of the curvature of length 2t (base curvature) is relative and is defined as
Binding measured curvature on the base length of 2t to the speed of the object obtained from the velocity meter, allows, after the release of the object from the zone of measurement, to create a map of curvature of the object. Thus, a measure of the curvature of length 2t in each point of the object.
At the same time by the above method are the measurements of the curvature of the three sensorsD1, D3, D4- the length of 4t,D1, D4, D5- the length of 8t, etc.
Thus, after the release of the object from the zone of measurement is known, the curvature at each point of the object in the plane of measurement at multiple scales of measurement. This allows you to build a map of the curvature of the pipe with 100% coverage measurements. Analysis of the map of the curvature allows to determine the maximum curvature on the base length and the curvature attributable to the entire length of the object.
The unit of analysis and information processing performs the algorithm for constructing maps of curvature of the object in the following steps.
1. Selects the measurement of the curvature scale, the maximum overlapping object length, the Central value of which corresponds to the center of the object (see figure 3). Absolute C is achene selected measurement shall be made in the resulting map of curvature of the object and are considered as a reference. Further mapping will be made relative to the reference point.
2. Searched measuring the curvature (of the received values in the scale two times less than the reference, such that the side of the measuring point converge (linking in length) with the extreme and center points of the reference measurement. The absolute values of the points found by measuring geometrically reduced with a reference measurement of the curvature so that the lateral coordinates of the points coincide with the coordinates of the lateral and Central points of the reference measurement (see figure 4). As a result of operation obtained a new coordinate of the center point of the found measurement, with reference to a reference measurement of curvature, and two-time refinement of the final map of the curvature (see figure 5).
3. The operation of the refiner card curvature recursively performed until the distance t (see Fig.6).
4. Building a map of the curvature at the edges of the reference measurement is performed by means of increasing the difference between the absolute measurements made at one time from sensors located at a distance of t, 2t, 4t, 8t, etc. (see Fig.7).
5. On the ends of the object, which are not covered by one increment, is re-increment. The sensors are located so that the maximum required number of increments is equal to two.
The result of these operations get the full map Cree is Isny, without the effects of vibrations and displacements, for which the calculated maximum curvature of the object, over the entire length.
The novelty of the invention lies in the arrangement of the sensors at distances, allowing to reduce their total number for the simultaneous measurement of curvature of the object over the whole length and base length 2t no need to install L/t sensors (when the length of the object L). A sufficient number will be log2(L/t)+2 sensors. If this measurement error will remain unchanged for any length of the measurement object.
1. A method of measuring the curvature of the long-length object, namely, that to measure the curvature at the base of the longitudinal section of the object length is 2t and the maximum curvature on the whole length of the object sensors are used (optical, inductive, capacitive, laser, etc.) the distance to the object, characterized in that the sensors are located between the distances (t, t, 2t, 4t, 8t, 16t...), where t is half the base distance for measuring curvature and requires log2(L/t)+2 sensors, where L is the length of the object; t - half the base length.
2. Device for measuring the curvature of the long object containing the sensors, the distance to the object (optical, inductive, capacitive, laser, etc.), characterized in that requires the sensors to which icesto log 2(L/t)+2, where L is the length of the object; t - half the base distance, the sensors are located along the object on the distance between a (t, t, 2t, 4t, 8t, 16t...), where t is half the base distance for measuring curvature, where the device further comprises measuring the speed of the object and the unit of analysis and information processing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, in particular, to devices for anthropometric measurements. Device contains platform with marking for feet, device of patient's image registration, personal computer, installed from four sides systems with sources of coherent irradiation, generating optically contrast orthogonally directed light stripes on patient's body. Device of patient's registration consists of 5 digital cameras. Systems with sources of coherent irradiation, camera objectives are installed in such a way that their optic axes intersect in one point, lying on vertical line, restored from platform centre. Cameras are functionally connected to each other via computer for providing control and synchronous registration of patient's body image from front, back, left, right and above.
EFFECT: invention application will make it possible to increase accuracy of determination of anthropometric parameters.
SUBSTANCE: method for study of cutter tool deformation in the process of cutting is as follows: one preliminarily applies crosswise close-pitched grooves on the blank surface while the lateral surface of the tool cutting end material is polished. Then one illuminates the polished lateral tool surface with a flux of coherent monochromatic radiation, forms an interference pattern and performs continuous registration of interference patterns changes. Then one implements the process of cutting in the modes concerned; determines power load deformation component by way of recalculation of differences between series of interference fringes having passed through varied cross-sections in interference patterns obtained in the process of cutting immediately before the crosswise groove and at the moment of the tool cutting edge being inside the groove.
EFFECT: performance of high-precision inertia-free contactless measurements of changes in the deformation field of the tool cutting edge material as a result of power loads under non-stationary cutting conditions, provision for an opportunity to calculate dynamics of the tool cutting edge strain and deformation condition and strength under such conditions.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining coating thickness during plasma-electrolytic oxidation involves measuring radiation energy during the coating process. Radiation of the component in the 380…740 nm spectral range is focused on a light-sensitive matrix and then picked up after a time interval Δtn with delay of 1/2…1/2000 s. The ratio of the total area of sections An illuminated by images of microdischarges 30…99% greater than a threshold value to the total area of the image of the component A0 is determined and the relationship is time integrated. Coating thickness h is determined using the formula where k is an empirical coefficient of proportionality which depends on the nature of the processed material and composition of the electrolyte, n is the number of the time interval, N is the number of intervals in a period of time T.
EFFECT: possibility of determining coating thickness during plasma-electrolyte oxidation owing to use of an information-bearing radiation band lying in the visible range, and reduction of power consumption by avoiding overexposure.
8 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to systems of control of surgical operation. System contains system of position control for determination of surgical instrument position in patient's operation field, which contains receiving unit for signal reading, memory unit for storing patient's images and device for data processing for processing of signals from receiving unit in order to determine position of surgical instrument and superposition of determined position of surgical instrument on stored patient's image. In addition, there is indicator system for marking measurement field of operation field, system of position control possessing sensitivity in measurement field. Indicator system contains two semiconductor lasers for irradiation of separate laser beams, which intersect and create visible marker in measurement field. Each of semiconductor lasers is mounted in immediate vicinity of receiving unit in such a way that each of laser beams, in fact, traces axes of reception of signals of receiving unit. System display shows stored patient's image together with superposed determined position of surgical instrument.
EFFECT: application of invention makes it possible to point system of operation control with higher accuracy.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has a laser pointer mounted on the inspected object (rigid deformable body) at a distance ℓ from the optical amplifier and screen. The optical amplifier is a single-stage mirror multiplier in which each subsequent mirror is raised on the previous mirror by the same fixed value Δh and turned by a certain angle Δα. The appearance of each new light spot will correspond to turning of the beam by an angle: .
EFFECT: wider measurement range.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for contactless measurement of linear dimensions of three-dimensional objects involves multiple formation of probing structured illumination on the surface of the object under test by illuminating the surface of the object under test with a beam of optical radiation and successive capturing of images of the structure of the probing illumination distorted by the relief of the surface of the object under test. For each point of the object under test, the dependence of the intensity of the picked up radiation from the number of the image is determined. Coordinates of the point of the object under test in space is determined via calibration with a calibration target.
EFFECT: simple calibration procedure, low cost of measurement, high accuracy and reliability of testing.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for high-accuracy control of mirror-prism element production. In compliance with first version, method uses device including rotary table with controlled regular polyhedral prism and two autocollimators with their axis of sight perpendicular to two adjacent faces. Angular positions of prism faces are defined from autocollimator marks of relevant autocollimators to compute errors in dihedral angles. In compliance with second version, method uses device with stationary table with angular mirror that has first and second faces perpendicular to axis of sight of first and second autocollimators. Additionally, autocollimators images are used to define angular positions of angular mirror first and second faces and to computer errors in producing dihedral angles.
EFFECT: higher accuracy.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: sensor includes two coaxially installed cylinders; external cylinder is made from strong material, for example metal, and internal cylinder with axial hole is made from optically sensitive material. Gap Δ between the above cylinders is filled with self-hardening bonding agent. Gap Δ, modulus of elasticity Eb of self-hardening bonding agent, d/D ratio (diameter d of axial hole of internal cylinder to its outer diameter D), thickness t of wall of external cylinder are determined as per the specified dependences.
EFFECT: improving measurement accuracy of high stress increases in mine rocks of improved strength owing to eliminating distortions of optic picture in photoelastic stress sensor.
SUBSTANCE: worn-out part of contact aerial differs from reflecting section of rigid body in suspension with said rigid body. Extraction of aerial worn-out section by white colour and extraction of background by black colour allow defining aerial worn-out section. Aerial type is selected to convert white area with greater number of pixels compared with that corresponding to maximum width of aerial in image from linear transducer into black area. Said conversion is conducted using the data obtained from identification of aerial image binary code in suspension with rigid body.
EFFECT: multiple and contactless measurement.
4 cl, 20 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises system of specimen material clamps, loading and straining mechanism, measurement pickup made up of computer mouse rigidly coupled with coiled edge straightener pointer that may move across, along and about tested specimen, and recording unit. Recording unit comprises computer to convert straightener pointer travel into lengthwise and crosswise deformation, contraction ratio, conditional Poisson factor and allow visualising travel of said pointer on monitor and version results. Loading and straining mechanism is made up of spaced apart current conducting buses, one representing moving bus. Note here that said busses are connected with computer by aforesaid mouse.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and automatic measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway diagnostics complexes. Proposed complex comprises control and measuring complex and onboard computation complex. Said control and measuring complex comprises system to control and estimate track geometrical parameters, system for contactless control of rails geometry, high-speed rail flaw detection system, track defect visual detection system, train dynamics control system, speed georadar control system, structure approach speed control system, ACS and telemetry state high-speed control system, contact circuit state control system, analog radio communication parameter control system and digital radio communication parameter control system. Proposed complex is equipped with multiple-discrete track and geophysical track coordinate synchroniser connected with each control and measuring system. Onboard computation complex incorporates universal system for visualisation of synchronised data of all control and measuring systems equipped with integral interface, system with combination analysis and railway structure state forecast, as well as control system provided with communication with integrated data space of railway infrastructure.
EFFECT: higher speed and validity of measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway transport, particularly, to auxiliary railway equipment. Proposed complex comprises removable rail carriage accommodating positioning device, track measuring equipment to measure currents track coordinates, track width, mutual position of rails in height, system to analyse track parameters, data transfer interface to transmit data to external data base computer via communication adapter, automatic device to measure curvature of rails in horizontal plane, and programmable analyser. The latter consists of measurement results registrator, device to detect the departure of track parameters from preset ones, in-situ digital indication and graphical visualisation unit that allows audio comments on every mark, and track parameters memory.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of diagnostics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railroad transport. Servo drive centering device of mobile flaw detector along rail lengthwise axis comprises detectors furnished with self-centering device. The latter is made up of permanent magnets arranged on faces of every detector on crosswise displacement carriages articulated with detectors and arranged on guide bars rigidly coupled with load bearing bar of servo drive system suspension.
EFFECT: higher quality of rail state control, possibility for flaw detection at high speeds.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises data collection device mounted at rolling stock head and consisting of microcontroller whereto connected are transmitter, receiver and data output unit, transceiver module arranged at rolling stock tail and comprising transmitter and receiver, transmitter being connected via intercom line with data collection receiver. Measuring module is arranged on controlled track section. Said measuring module consists of receiver with its output connected to power accumulator, transmitter with its input connected to microcontroller output with its input connected via interface with vibration and temperature pickups. Vibration pickups are secured to rails or sleepers of controlled track section. Temperature pickups are secured to controlled track section rails. Power accumulator output is connected to microcontroller and transmitter supply inputs.
EFFECT: higher validity of control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control instruments. Proposed system comprises radiation source 2 and signal processor 3 and photo receiver 1 made up of level transducer 21 and receiving analyser system 11 including lens 13 and position-sensitive optical radiation receiver 15, arranged on control truck 9 arranged on track 10. Output of photo receiver 1 is connected to input of signal processor 3. Radiation source is arranged on at least one contact-wire line support 4 or other structure, and is made up of reference mark containing at least two modulated light diodes 5 and photo receiver (b) and radiation source control circuit connected to independent power supply input 7. Photo receiver unit comprises extra receive-and-analyse system 12, control module 17 including at least one light diode radiator 18, photo receiver 18 and data signal processing circuit 20 with its output connected with input of second processing unit 3 with third input connected to level transducer 21 rigidly coupled with photo receiver 1.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway transport. Proposed method comprises measuring rails spacing by means of contact and contactless (laser) metres. Distances between rails measured by contact and contactless metres are compared. If discrepancy in readings of said metres falls below tolerance, mean arithmetic values is entered into memory. If discrepancy in readings of said metres exceeds tolerance for straight track section, readings of contactless metre are entered in memory. In control track curved section, track curve radius is defined.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of control.
6 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to railway transport. Proposed method comprises measuring rail profile, track gauge and distance to rails with the help of beams of two laser senders arranged on track-tester car platform above the rails. Measured data is entered into onboard computer memory together with data on run time to determine departure from preset values. Laser senders are secured to turn around. Turn of laser senders is synchronised. Proposed track-tester car comprises two laser senders secured on car platform above the rails and connected via controller to computer. Said senders encased in protective enclosures arranged to turn relative the axis perpendicular to lengthwise axis of senders and are connected with, at least, one drive, e.g. hydraulic cylinder with rod.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurements.
11 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway transport. Proposed device comprises transducer of distance covered and displacement transducer to measure distance between rails, controller, processor and storage unit mounted on truck. Said truck comprises measuring rule with support and measuring wheels articulated with platform by means of hinged tie rod. Measuring wheel is spring loaded in direction opposite the support wheel and fitted on axle that can axially displace to get in contact with displacement transducer. Hinged tie-rod comprises pins coupled with angular turn transducers electrically connected with processor.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurements.
4 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measuring technique, particularly to means of diagnostics for transport facilities with ICE and can be used at self-propelled special rolling stock used for repair and maintenance of railways in operation. Proposed system comprises microprocessor, interface between microprocessor and serial data transfer channel, tank fuel level metre, ambient temperature metre, transport facility assembly units and part performances control unit, location determination unit, sound synthesiser unit, unit to store data and transfer them to dispatcher station, multifunction display and microprocessor switching and control unit. Besides onboard diagnostics system comprises operating conditions determination unit and process conditions determination unit, both being communicated via microprocessor with unit to store data and transfer them to dispatcher station.
EFFECT: expanded performances, higher quality of railroad repair.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway transport and can be used to control track state, namely for measuring dynamic deformability of rail bed and possible deviations of track. Proposed method comprises measuring track width with the help of optical pickups mounted on track measuring car and revealing defects of track attachment. Said optical pickups are mounted on track measuring car in three zones corresponding to different zones of load said car applies onto track in motion. Track width is consecutively measured by said optical pickups of every said zone. Two of said pickups are arranged on car ends and one is arranged between car running wheels. Track attachments defects are revealed allowing for measurements results provided by pickups of aforesaid three zones. All pickups are arranged in one plane. Optical pickups inquiry is performed at spacing making at least 25 cm in motion along track.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and reliability of control.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; measuring facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to special purpose devices for measuring separate geometric parameters of reinforced concrete ties, i.e. propelling and canting of rail flats on reinforced concrete ties. Proposed device contains housing 1 with fitted-on transport handle 2, right-hand support 3 and left-hand support 4. First support screw 5 and second support screw 6 are installed on right-hand support 3, third support screw 7 and fourth support screw 8 are installed on left-hand support 4, right-hand catcher 9 and left-hand catcher 10 are installed on ends of housing 1, sensor 11 is secured on first support screw 5. Housing 1 carries also right-hand orientation handle 13 with pushbutton 15 and left-hand orientation handle 14. Base 16 is fastened in central part of housing 1, controller 17 and supply compartment 18 being secured on base 16. Device for measuring rail flat canting contains housing 1 with fitted-on transport handle 2, right-hand support 3 and left-hand support 4. First support screw 5 and second support screw 6 are installed on right-hand support 3. And third support screw 7 and fourth support screw 8 are installed on left0hand support 4. Right-hand catcher 9 and left-hand catcher 10 are installed on ends of housing 1, first sensor 11 is secured on first support screw 5, and second sensor 19 is installed on fourth support screw 8. Housing 1 carries right-hand orientation handle 13 with pushbutton 15, and left-hand orientation handle 14. Base 16 with fitted-on controller 17 and supply compartment 18 is secured in central part of housing 1. Moreover, support 21 is connected to housing 1 through vertical rods in central part.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of measurements, increased accuracy and provision of operative measurement of parameters under checking.
3 cl, 2 dwg