Organic-inorganic fibre received by electric spinning method
SUBSTANCE: method includes spinning of electroconductive solution of organic and non-organic polymers and predecessor of organic polymer in presence of electric field between tip and earthing source till composite fiver is received. At that organic and non-organic phases of composite fibres are mixed and react with each other with production of -Si-O-M- links, where M is selected from the group consisting of Si, Ti, Al and Zr. The author offers composite fibre received by the above method and composite product including polymer matrix and composite fibres introduced to it.
EFFECT: improvement of method.
28 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
The technical field
The present invention relates to new organic-inorganic hybrid fibers and to methods for hybrid fibers and to composite articles comprising a polymeric matrix and entered in the matrix of organic-inorganic hybrid fibers.
The level of technology
Fiberglass-reinforced polymer products for use in industry for the manufacture of printed circuit boards are well known. Products form the media and the dielectric layer for the thin contours of copper, which form an electrical circuit. The so-called blanks printed circuit boards are made in the laminating under heat and pressure a thin copper foil on one or both main surfaces of polymeric substrates, reinforced with fiberglass. Alternatively, the copper foil is placed on a glass fiber nonwoven Mat, impregnowana partially utverzhdennym polymer called prepreg, followed by molding under high temperature and pressure. To determine the configuration of the printed circuit on the copper surface of the workpiece is applied suitable for use mask. After that masked foil will powerhaul effects of chemical method of departure for the dissolution of the unmasked portions of the copper foil. On the remaining part of the foil perform the function of the trajectories of electrical contacts of the finished PCB.
In recent years there has been a trend toward miniaturization of electronic equipment and to improve performance. As a result, this has led to reduced fees and higher density mounting. With increasing densities of installation also increases the amount of heat. Heat dissipation is a problem for blanks for PCB and for the finished PCB. The degree of thermal expansion of the glass is very different from the corresponding characteristics of the polymer matrix, which leads to warping of the copper coating. This can cause problems with adhesion and short circuit.
Summary of invention
The present invention provides an organic-inorganic hybrid fiber, including:
(a) an organic polymer phase and
(b) inorganic polymer phase,
where (a) and (b) are mixed and react with each other.
Hybrid fiber can be obtained by way of electroprecizia, in which the spinning conduct of electrically conductive solution of organic polymer and inorganic oligomer or its precursor in the presence of an electric field between the mouthpiece and the grounding source, where the organic and inorganic phases are mixed and react with each the other.
Hybrid fiber can be used for the reinforcement of polymeric materials, such as those associated with the manufacture of printed circuit boards. Thanks inorganic component fibers give the composite product dimensional stability, and the organic component makes the coefficient of thermal expansion closer to the relevant characteristics of the polymer matrix, which results in less warping of the copper coating. In addition, the method electroprecizia can afford to obtain fibers having nano, which further reduces distortion to a minimum.
Brief description of drawings
Figure 1 shows the basic system for electroprecizia.
Figure 2 simulates the image obtained by the method of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for non-woven Mat.
Detailed disclosure of the invention
For the purposes of the following further detailed description of the invention should be understood that the invention may take various alternative variations and sequence stages except in those cases where definitely will be back. In addition, unlike any working examples or cases when it is specified otherwise, all numbers expressing, for example, the number of ingredients used in the description of the image is to be placed and the claims, should be understood as in all cases modified by the term "approximately". Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters in the following description of the invention and the accompanying claims, are approximate values that may vary depending on the desired properties obtained in the present invention. At the very least, and not in an attempt to limit the application to the scope of the claims of the doctrine of equivalents, each numerical parameter should be construed, at least in the light of the given number of significant numerical digits and in the framework of the conventional methods of rounding. Notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and parameters representing the broad scope of the invention, are approximate values, numerical values shown in the specific examples described most accurately. However, any numerical value by its very nature, includes certain errors necessarily resulting from the availability of standard errors that occur in the results of measurement obtained in the respective tests.
In addition, it must be understood that any numerical range specified in the present document, is intended to include all podia asonov, included in its limits. For example, the range of "1 to 10" is intended to include all sub-ranges between (and including) the minimum value of 1 up to (and including) the maximum value of 10, that is, if the minimum value is equal to or more than 1, and a maximum value equal to or smaller than 10.
In this application the use of the singular includes the use of the plural, and the use of the plural includes the singular number, unless specifically do not specify another. In addition, in this application the use of "or" means "and/or", unless specifically do not specify another, even though clearly the use of "and/or" in some cases.
The term "polymer" also includes the incorporation of the copolymer and oligomer. The term "acrylic" refers to the inclusion of the term "methacrylic", and is represented as "(meth)acrylic".
As you can tell, referring to figure 1, the system for electroprecizia consists of three main components - power supply 1, the mouthpiece 3 and electrosensing collector 4. In the way electroprecizia can be used direct current or alternating current. The hybrid solution of polymer 5 is contained in the syringe 7. Syringe pump 9 perelavlivaet solution is via the mouthpiece 3 at a controlled flow rate. At the tip of the needle 11 is formed by a drop of the solution. When a voltage is usually in the range from 5 to 30 kilovolts (kV), the drop becomes electrically charged. Therefore, the droplet undergoes the impact of the electrostatic repulsion between the surface charges and the forces created by external electric field. Data electric power will distort drop and, ultimately, will overcome the surface tension of the polymer solution, resulting in the ejection of a jet of fluid 13 from the tip of the needle 11. Due to its charge jet is drawn down towards the grounded collector 4. During their movement in the direction of the collector 4 jet 13 is subjected to tensile impact, leading to the formation of fine fibers. Continuously formed of a loaded fiber is deposited on the collector 4 in the form of randomly oriented non-woven Mat, for the General case shown in figure 2. Alternatively obtained by the method of electroprecizia fiber can be collected ordering or alignment. This can be achieved in the use of a collector consisting of two conductive strips separated by a free space gap, reaching up to several centimeters. Obtained according to the method of electrorad is of the fibers during the process of electroprecizia can be on a large scale lengths are aligned in one direction. Introduction in the gap at the collector of the insulating strip changes the configuration of the electrostatic forces acting on the fibers overlying the gap. Under the effect of electrostatic forces in opposite directions charged fibers stretch, lining perpendicular to each edge of the gap despite the need for rapid changes of direction. Electrostatic repulsion between the deposited nanofibers can further improve the degree of alignment. Refer to the work of Li and Xia, Advanced Materials, 2004, 16, No.14, July 19, pages 1162-1163.
Organic polymers of the present invention may be acrylic polymers. In accordance with the usage in this document, the term "acrylic polymer refers to those polymers that are well known to experts in the relevant field of technology and which is obtained by carrying out polymerization for one or more of the polymerized materials with the unsaturation of ethylene type. (Meth)acrylic polymers suitable for use in the present invention can be obtained according to any one of a wide range of ways, as it should be understood by experts in the relevant field of technology. (Meth)acrylic polymers produced by carrying out polymerization connection for the unsaturated what's the polymerized materials, which have a silane group, carboxyl group, hydroxyl group and optionally a nitrogen-containing group. Examples Milanovich groups include the following, but are not limited to only these groups, which have Si-Xn(where n is an integer having a value from 1 to 3, and X is chosen from chlorine, complex alkoxyamino and/or complex allocation). Such groups are hydrolyzed in the presence of water, including moisture in the air, with the formation of silanol groups, which are condensed with the formation of groups-Si-O-Si-.
Examples selectarray of the polymerized materials with the unsaturation of ethylene type, suitable for use upon receipt of such (meth)acrylic polymers include the following, but are not limited to only these: alkoxysilane with the unsaturation of ethylene type and alloccasion with the unsaturation of ethylene type, more specific examples of which include vinylsilane, such as VINYLTRIMETHOXYSILANE, createassociation, such as gamma acrylonitrilebutadiene and gamma aryloxypropanolamine, and methacryloyloxyethyl, such as gamma methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, gamma methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and gamma-methacryloxypropyl(2 methoxyethoxy)silane; alloccasion, including, for example, Galatasaray, methacryloyloxyethyl and acetoxysilane with the unsaturation of ethylene type, such as createprofilerviewerelement and methacryloyloxyethyl. In certain embodiments of desirable may be the use of monomers, which results in the polymerization accession will result in a (meth)acrylic polymer, in which the Si atoms in the resulting hydrolyzable silyl groups will be separated from the main polymer chain, at least two atoms. The preferred monomers are (meth)aryloxyalkanoic, in particular (meth)aryloxyalkanoic, in which the alkyl group contains from 2 to 3 carbon atoms, and alkoxygroup contain from 1 to 2 carbon atoms.
In certain embodiments of the amount selectabase of the polymerized material, the unsaturation of ethylene type, used in the total mixture of monomers is chosen so that the result to obtain (meth)acrylic polymer having a silane group containing from 0.2 to 20, preferably from 5 to 10, weight percent of silicon in the calculation of the total mass of the combination of monomers used for obtaining the (meth)acrylic polymer.
(Meth)acrylic polymers suitable for use in the present izaberete the AI, are typically the reaction product for one or more of the above-mentioned selectarray of the polymerized materials with the unsaturation of ethylene type, and preferably the polymerized material, the unsaturation of ethylene type, which contains carboxyl, such as groups, carboxylic acid or its anhydride. Examples suitable for use acids with unsaturation of ethylene type, and/or their anhydrides include the following, but are not limited to only these: acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, taconova acid, cretonne easy acid, maleic acid, maleic anhydride, citraconic anhydride, itacademy anhydride, sulfonic acid with ethylene saturation type and/or anhydrides, such as sulfoaildenafil, and complex palefire maleic and fumaric acids, such as butylhydroxytoluene and acylhydrolase, in which one carboxyl group is subjected to esterification under the influence of alcohol.
Other examples of the polymerized monomers with the unsaturation of ethylene type, allowing to introduce carboxyl functionality are alkyl-, including cycloalkyl-, and aryl(meth)acrylates containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms in the alkyl group and from 6 to 12 carbon atoms in the aryl group. Specific examples of such monomers include methyl methacrylate, the-butylmethacrylate, n-butyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexylacrylate, cyclohexylmethyl and fenilsalicilat.
The amount of the polymerized carboxyl-containing monomers with ethylene unsaturation of the type preferably is sufficient to obtain the levels of carboxyla that goes up to 55, preferably in the range from 15.0 to 45,0, mass percent when calculated on the total weight of the combination of monomers used for obtaining the (meth)acrylic polymer. Preferably, at least a part of carboxyl groups was formed carboxylic acid so that the acid number of the polymer will be in the range from 20 to 80, preferably from 30 to 70, based on 100% solids resin.
(Meth)acrylic polymer used in the invention also preferably contains hydroxyl functionality, usually resulting from use hydroxypentanal of the polymerized monomer with the unsaturation of ethylene type. Examples of such materials include hydroxyalkyl esters of (meth)acrylic acid containing from 2 to 4 carbon atoms in the hydroxyalkyl group. Specific examples include hydroxyethyl(meth)acrylate, hydroxypropyl(meth)acrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl(meth)acrylate. The number hydroxyquinoline monomer with the unsaturated ethylene is the first type is sufficient for obtaining a content of hydroxyl, reaching down to 6.5, such as in the range from 0.5 to 6.5, preferably from 1 to 4, weight percent when calculated on the total weight of the combination of monomers used for obtaining the (meth)acrylic polymer.
(Meth)acrylic polymer optionally contains a nitrogen-containing functionality introduced with the help of nitrogen-containing monomer with the unsaturation of ethylene type. Examples of the nitrogen-containing functionality are amines, amides, urea, imidazoles and pyrrolidone. Examples suitable for use N-containing monomers with ethylene unsaturation type are: amidofunctional curable materials with the unsaturation of ethylene type, which include the following, but are not limited to only these: p-dimethylaminoacetyl, tert-butylaminoethyl(meth)acrylate, dimethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylate, diethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylate, dimethylaminopropyl(meth)acrylate and dimethylaminopropyl(meth)acrylamide; amidofunctional materials unsaturation of ethylene type, which include acrylamide, methacrylamide, n-methylacrylamide and n-ethyl(meth)acrylamide; mochevinoformaldegidnye monomers with the unsaturation of ethylene type, which include methacrylamidoethylene.
In the case of nitrogen-containing monomer with the unsaturation of ethylene type, quantities which is sufficient to obtain the level of nitrogen content, goes up to 5, such as in the range from 0.2 to 5.0, preferably from 0.4 to 2.5 mass% based on the total weight of the combination of monomers used for obtaining the (meth)acrylic polymer.
In addition to the above-mentioned curable monomers for obtaining (meth)acrylic polymer can be used and other polymerized monomers with the unsaturation of ethylene type. Examples of such monomers include poly(meth)acrylates, such as etilenglikoli(meth)acrylate, trimethylolpropane(meth)acrylate, diameteroperating; aromatic vinyl monomers such as styrene, vinyltoluene and alpha methylsterol; monoolefins and diolefins hydrocarbons, unsaturated esters of organic and inorganic acids and esters of unsaturated acids and NITRILES. Examples of such monomers include 1,3-butadiene, Acrylonitrile, vinylboronate, vinyl acetate, allylchloride, divinylbenzene, diallylmalonate, treelistener, and mixtures thereof. Polyfunctional monomers, such as polyacrylates, if their use is usually present in quantities reaching up to 20 mass percent. Monofunctional monomers, if present in use the number that goes up to 70 weight percent; the level percentage obtained when R is the score on the total weight of the combination of monomers, used to obtain the (meth)acrylic polymer.
(Meth)acrylic polymer is usually obtained in the solution polymerization for the polymerized monomers with the unsaturation of ethylene type in the presence of a polymerization initiator, such as azo compounds such as alpha,alpha'-azobis(isobutyronitrile), 2,2'-azobis(methylbutyronitrile) and 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile); peroxides such as benzoyl peroxide, Gidropress hydroperoxide and tert-AMYLPEROXY-2-ethylhexanoate; (tertiary butyl)peracetate; (tertiary butyl)perbenzoate; isopropylcarbonate; butylisopropylamine; and similar compounds. The amount of initiator used can vary considerably; however, in most cases desirable is the use of from 0.1 to 10 weight percent of the initiator when the calculation of the total mass used copolymerizing monomers. In the polymerization mixture can be added to the modifier circuit or controller of the degree of polymerization. This purpose can be used mercaptans, such as dodecylmercaptan, (tertiary dodecyl)mercaptan, artilleryman, exillerating, and mercaptoacetyltriglycine, such as 3-mercaptopropionylglycine and other regulators degree of polymerization, such as cyclopentadiene, alliacea is, allylcarbamate and mercaptoethanol.
The polymerization reaction for the mixture of monomers for obtaining the acrylic polymer can be carried out in a medium of an organic solvent using conventional methods, solution polymerization, which are well known in the field of polymers obtained by carrying out polymerization by accession, and specifically illustrated, for example, in United States patents No. 2978437; 3079434 and 3307963. Organic solvents that can be used in the polymerization of monomers include almost any organic solvents, often used to obtain acrylic or vinyl polymers, such as, for example, alcohols, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof. Illustrative organic solvents of the aforementioned type, which can be used are alcohols, such as lower alkanols containing from 2 to 4 carbon atoms, including ethanol, propanol, isopropanol and butanol; partial ethers of polyols, such as monoethylamine ether of ethylene glycol, monobutyl ether of ethylene glycol, onomatology ether of propylene glycol and monotropy broadcast dipropyleneglycol; ketones such as methyl ethyl ketone, methyl-N-butylketone and methyl isobutyl ketone; esters such as butyl acetate; and aromatic Plevo the cities, such as xylene, toluene and naphtha.
In certain embodiments of the polymerization components with the unsaturation of ethylene type is carried out at a temperature in the range from 0°C to 150°C, such as from 50°C to 150°C, or in some cases from 80°C to 120°C.
The polymer obtained as described earlier, usually dissolved in a solvent and typically get a level the solids content of the resin in the range from about 15 to 80, preferably from 20 to 60 weight percent when calculated on the total weight of the solution. The molecular weight of the polymer is usually in the range of 3000 to 1000000, preferably from 5,000 to 100,000, according to the definition by the method of gel chromatography using a polystyrene standard.
Inorganic polymer phase fibers may be derived from inorganic polymer or can be obtained from the predecessor, which forms an inorganic polymer. For example, an inorganic polymer phase can be obtained from the polymeric metal oxide, which has alkoxide groups and optionally hydroxyl groups. Preferably alkoxide groups contain from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, for example, in the case of methoxide and ethoxide. Examples of such polymeric metal oxides are polyalkylacrylate having the following structure is dependent on:
where R represents alkyl containing from 1 to 4, preferably from 1 to 2, carbon atoms, and n=3-10.
Examples of precursors of the inorganic polymer are metals having a hydrolyzable leaving group and capable of forming an inorganic polymer after hydrolysis and condensation. Examples suitable for use metals are electrophoretically metals, which may substitute the hydrogen atom of the acid and to form a base with a hydroxyl radical. The preferred metals are silicon, titanium, aluminum and zirconium. Suitable for use precursors are MX3and MX4where M represents a metal and X is a halogen, alkoxy, aryloxy, carboxy or a group NR2in which R represents a hydrogen atom and/or alkyl and/or aryl. Preferred are alkoxy groups containing from 1 to 4, preferably from 1 to 2, carbon atoms. In addition, can be used and other metals, in particular in combination with the preferred metals. Examples of such metals are boron, indium, tin, tantalum, lanthanum, iron, copper, yttrium, germanium, barium and magnesium. The preferred precursors are tetraethylorthosilicate, tetraethylorthosilicate, alcox the waters of metals, such as titanium and zirconium, in which alkoxide group contains from 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Examples include tetraisopropoxide titanium, Tetra-n-piperonyl zirconium and three second-piperonyl aluminum.
With regard to applications when electroprecizia, organic polymers, such as described previously, can be mixed with a polymeric metal oxide and/or precursor, such as alkoxides of metals, and water to initiate the completion of the hydrolysis and polymerization of alkoxides of metals and hydrolysis and subsequent polymerization of polymeric alkoxides of metals and various crosslinking reactions. The crosslinking reactions are those associated with acrylic-celanova polymer and the products of hydrolysis of alkoxides of metals and/or polymeric alkoxides of metals. Various reactions that seem to take place, match reaction Milanovich groups of the acrylic silane, with ourselves and with groups of metal hydroxide, which are a result of the presence of the products of hydrolysis of metal alkoxide and a polymer of a metal alkoxide. In addition, the group alkoxide of the metal can react with themselves. Data of different reactions that take place in the produce fibers comprising organic polymer phase and the inorganic polymer f is at, which are mixed and react with each other.
The relative amount of organic polymer phase and the inorganic polymer phase can vary within wide limits and depend on several applications in which fiber is to be used. Organic polymer phase may, for example, be from 5 to 95, for example, from 10 to 90 and from 30 to 70 weight percent fiber, inorganic polymer phase will be from 5 to 95, as from 10 to 90 and from 30 to 70 weight percent of the fiber, and the levels of mass percentage gain in the calculation on the total weight of the fiber.
As mentioned earlier, the solution of organic polymer and inorganic polymer of metal alkoxide and/or metal alkoxide, such as previously described, is mixed with water to initiate the crosslinking reaction and increasing the viscosity required for forming fibers. Usually the solution is added about 5 to 20, preferably from 10 to 15, weight percent water, and the mass percentage gain in the calculation on the total weight of the solution, and water. Preferably for catalysis reactions are stapled to the water solution is added a base, such as water-soluble organic amine. For better regulation of viscoelastic behavior Retz is ptory to electroprecizia it may not necessarily be added to the thickener, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, polyamides and/or cellulosic thickener. In the case of thickening agent is present in amounts not greater than 20 weight percent, usually in the range from 1 to 6 weight percent, based on weight of polymer solution.
Recipe for electroprecizia obtained as described earlier, then store to ensure increasing the viscosity to a level appropriate reaction stitching. At a sufficiently high viscosity, but shortly before the time of gelation, the formulation is subjected to the process of electroprecizia, as described previously.
In the way electroprecizia viscosity usually must be equal to at least 5 and less than 2000, typically less than 1000, such as preferably being in the range from 50 to 250, Centistokes. The viscosity is determined using a bubble viscometer in accordance with ASTM D-1544. The retention time of the formulation to electroprecizia will depend on several factors, such as temperature, functionality stitching and a catalyst. Usually the recipe for electroprecizia can be stored for a period of time ranging from as little as one minute up to two hours.
During the process of electroprecizia formulations described RA is it will result in fibers having a diameter that goes up to 10000 nanometers, more often 5000 nanometers and less, for example in the range from 5 to 5000 nm or in the range from 50 to 1200 nanometers, for example from 50 to 700 nanometers. Fiber can also have a belt configuration, and in this case, the diameter involves marking the largest dimension of the fiber. Usually the width of the ribbon-like fibers is reaching up to 5000, such as in the range from 500 to 5000 nanometers, and a thickness goes up to 200, such as in the range from 5 to 200 nanometers.
Hybrid fiber of the present invention can be used as reinforcing elements for polymeric materials, when the fiber is introduced into a polymer matrix to obtain a composite product. The fibers may be collected in the form of a nonwoven Mat and impregnated raw materials used to produce the polymer. Thereafter impregnated Mat can be subjected to molding under heat and pressure to obtain a composite product. Alternatively, minced hybrid fiber and raw materials to obtain a polymer can be entered in the form when the dispersion of the chopped fibers throughout the volume of source material, and then subjected to molding under heat and pressure to the teachings of the composite product. Typical choices of end use reinforced polymer material are blanks for printed circuit boards themselves PCB.
The material of the polymer matrix may be a thermoplastic material such as polyolefin, for example polypropylene or polybutadiene, or termotehnica material, such as one that is obtained from the epoxy resin or resins unsaturated complex polyester.
The levels of hybrid fibres in the composite product may vary within wide limits, that depends on several applications of composite products. Can be used the levels of fibre in the range from 0.1 to 95 weight percent when calculated on the total weight of the composite product. Typical and lower ranges from 0.1 to 5 mass percent or higher ranges from 10 to 80 mass%.
To demonstrate the General principles of the invention offers the following examples. However, the invention should not be construed as limited to the specific examples presented. All parts are mass unless otherwise indicated.
With regard to the following tables, the results for her were received for the supply of the reaction flask with stirrer, thermocouple, inlet for nitrogen and a refrigerator. the donkey was added load and under nitrogen atmosphere were stirring at temperatures up to boiling under conditions of flavobacteria (75-80°C). To boiling under conditions of flavobacteria ethanol for three hours at a time was added loading In and loading C. the Reaction mixture is in a state of boiling under conditions of flavobacteria maintained for two hours. After this period of time of 30 minutes was added load D. the Reaction mixture for two hours was kept in a state of boiling under conditions of flavobacteria, and then was cooled to 30°C.
|Download (weight in grams)|
|Ethanol SDA 401||360,1|
|Loading (weight in grams)|
|The methyl methacrylate||12,8|
|Ethanol SDA 40B|
|Download (weight in grams)|
|Ethanol SDA 40B||76,7|
|Download D (weight in grams)|
|Ethanol SDA 40B||9,1|
|Acid number (100% solids resin)||51,96|
|1Denatured ethyl alcohol, 200 of the first fortress on the system adopted in the USA, available in the company's Archer Daniel Midland Co.|
|2gamma methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, available from GE silicones.|
|32,2'-azobis(2-methylbutyronitrile), available in the company .I.duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc.|
Example 1. Solution of acrylic-a silanol resin from example A (10 grams) was stirred with metilpolisiloxana (SilbondŽ 40, 3 grams), polyvinylpyrrolidone (0.1 gram) and water (1.5 grams). The formulation was stored at room temperature for about 7 hours. Part of the formulation was loaded into a syringe to 10 ml using a syringe pump with a flow rate of 0.8 ml per hour was applied to the mouthpiece (a stainless steel tube with an outer diameter of 1/16 inch (1,59 mm) and an inner diameter of 0.010 inch (0.25 mm)). This tube is connected with the grounding aluminum manifold through the high voltage source, to which was applied a potential of approximately 21 kV. The supply tube and the collector was made in the case, a nitrogen blowing which made it possible to withstand a relative humidity less than 25%. On the ground the aluminum panel was assembled nanofibers having a diameter of approximately 2000 nanometers, which are characterized by the methods of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Example 2. Solution of acrylic-a silanol resin from example A (10 grams) was stirred with metilpolisiloxana (SilbondŽ 40, 2 grams), polyvinylpyrrolidone (0.1 gram) and water (1.5 grams). The formulation was stored at room temperature for 3.5 hours. Part of the formulation was loaded into a syringe to 10 ml using a syringe pump with a flow rate of 1.6 ml per hour was applied to the mouthpiece of example 1. Conditions for electroprecizia were the same as described in example 1. On the ground the aluminum panel was assembled nanofibers having a diameter of approximately 400 nanometers, which features what was rituali according to the methods of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Example 3. Solution of acrylic-a silanol resin from example A (10 grams) was stirred with metilpolisiloxana (SilbondŽ 40, 0.45 gram), dimethylethanolamine (0.05 g), polyvinylpyrrolidone (0.1 gram) and water (1.5 grams). The formulation was stored at room temperature for 5.3 hours. Part of the formulation was loaded into a syringe to 10 ml using a syringe pump with a flow rate of 1.6 ml per hour was applied to the mouthpiece of example 1. Conditions for electroprecizia were the same as described in example 1. On the ground the aluminum foil gathered ribbon-like nanofibers, having a thickness in the range from about 250 to 1500 nanometers and a width in the range from approximately 200 to 500 nanometers, which are characterized by the methods of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Example 4. Solution of acrylic-a silanol resin from example A (10 grams) was stirred with metilpolisiloxana (SilbondŽ 40, 1.01 grams), dimethylethanolamine (0.14 g), polyvinylpyrrolidone (0.2 grams) and water (1.5 grams). The formulation was stored at room temperature for 45 minutes. Part of the formulation was loaded into a syringe to 10 ml using a syringe pump with a flow rate of 1.6 ml per hour was applied to the mouthpiece of example 1. Conditions for electroprecizia were the same as described in example 1. On the ground aluminum panel gathered ribbon again the window, having a thickness in the range of from about 850 to 1100 nanometers and a width in the range from approximately 300 to 800 nanometers, which are characterized by the methods of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Despite the above, for purposes of illustration, the description of specific embodiments of the invention, the experts in the relevant field of technology should be obvious that without deviating from the invention defined in the attached claims, can be implemented with numerous variations of the details of the present invention.
1. Organic-inorganic composite fiber used in armorama polymeric materials, including:
(a) an organic polymer phase and
(b) inorganic polymer phase,
where (a) and (b) are mixed and react with each other to form-Si-O-M linkages, where M is chosen from the group consisting of Si, Ti, Al and Zr.
2. The fiber according to claim 1, having a diameter that goes up to 5000 nm.
3. The fiber according to claim 1, in which the organic polymer phase is obtained from a polymer having a silane group.
4. The fiber according to claim 3, in which the organic polymer phase derived from (meth)acrylic polymer or copolymer.
5. The fiber according to claim 3, in which the organic polymer phase is obtained from a polymer having a silane g is uppy and having a group selected from carboxyl and hydroxyl, and optionally nitrogen-containing groups.
6. The fiber according to claim 5, in which the organic polymer phase obtained from the polymer containing:
(a) from 0.2 to 20 wt.% Milanovich groups as measured on silicon
(b) from 1 to 20 wt.% carboxyl groups,
(c) from 0.5 to 6.5 wt.% hydroxyl groups and
(d) from 0.2 to 5.0 wt.% of nitrogen.
7. The fiber according to claim 1, in which the inorganic polymer phase obtained from inorganic polymer.
8. The fiber according to claim 7, in which the inorganic polymer phase is obtained from its predecessor.
9. The fiber according to claim 7, in which the inorganic polymer phase obtained from polymeric metal oxide having alkoxide group.
10. The fiber according to claim 9, in which alkoxide groups contain from 1 to 4 carbon atoms.
11. The fiber of claim 10, in which alkoxide group selected from methoxide and ethoxide.
12. The fiber according to claim 9, in which the metal in the polymeric metal oxide is silicon.
13. Fiber indicated in paragraph 12, in which the polymeric metal oxide is polyalkyleneglycol.
14. The fiber according to item 13, in which the alkyl group polyalkylacrylate selected from methyl and ethyl.
15. The fiber according to claim 1, containing:
from 10 to 90 wt.% (a) and from 10 to 90 wt.% (b)where the mass interest received calculated on the total weight of the fiber.
16. The fiber according to claim 1, containing:
from 30 to 70 wt.% (a) and from 30 to 70 wt.% (b),
where the mass interest received calculated on the total weight of the fiber, (a) receive (i) a polymer containing silane groups, and (meth)acrylic polymer or copolymer, or (ii) a polymer containing silane groups containing group selected from carboxyl group, hydroxyl group and, optionally, nitrogen-containing groups, and (b) receive from polyalkylacrylate or form from the predecessor.
17. Method for production of composite fibers used in armorama polymeric materials having an organic phase and inorganic phase, including:
electroprecizia electrically conductive solution of organic polymer and inorganic polymer or a precursor of the inorganic polymer in the presence of an electric field between the mouthpiece and the source ground to obtain a composite fiber, where the organic and inorganic phase composite fibers are mixed and react with each other to form-Si-O-M linkages, where M is chosen from the group consisting of Si, Ti, Al and Zr.
18. The method according to 17, in which the fibers are collected on the grounding source.
19. The method according to 17, wherein the fibers have a diameter that goes up to 5000 nm.
20. The method according to 17, in which the organic polymer or inorganic polymer or a precursor of reorganizes the second polymer have in common reactive functional groups, electroprecizia react with each other.
21. The method according to 17, in which the organic polymer has a silane group.
22. The method according to p, in which the organic polymer is a (meth)acrylic polymer or copolymer.
23. The method according to p, in which the organic polymer having a silane group also has a group selected from carboxyl, hydroxyl, and, optionally, nitrogen-containing groups.
24. A composite article comprising a polymer matrix and entered into the matrix fibers according to claim 1.
25. The composite product according to paragraph 24, where the fibers comprise from about 0.1 to 95 wt.% composite parts when calculating the total weight of the composite product.
26. The composite product according to paragraph 24, in which the polymer matrix is produced from a thermoplastic or termotorgmash resin.
27. The composite product according to paragraph 24, in which the polymer matrix is termotorgmash resin derived from an epoxy resin.
28. The composite product according to point 24 in the form of a printed circuit Board.
FIELD: textile; paper.
SUBSTANCE: polyketone fiber paper and method of its obtainment are intended for circuit card and core material production on the basis of claimed paper for circuit cards. Paper includes aliphatic polyketone fibers with recurrent links of the general formula -CH2-CH2-CO- and possibly with other additives and is obtained by wet spinning method. Circuit cards made of the claimed core material show low dielectric properties, stable dimensions, electric insulation properties and can be used for obtainment of homogeneous holes by laser perforation.
EFFECT: improved paper and core material quality due to enhanced durability, elasticity coefficient, stable dimensions, chemical and heat resistance, adhesion, insulating properties, reduced dielectric properties and water absorption, light weight, high porosity and homogeneity.
22 cl, 2 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: radio electronics.
SUBSTANCE: in multilayer printed circuit board, which contains layers with pattern of conductors and dielectric gaskets installed between them, from glass fibre impregnated with compound on the basis of epoxide resin, which differs by the fact that into impregnating compound methacrylic acid and unsaturated oligoether are introduced at the following ratio of components, wt % - Epoxide resin 15÷17 Methacrylic acid 3÷5 Unsaturated oligoether 79÷81.
EFFECT: increase of circuit board quality by improvement of dielectric properties.
FIELD: microelectronics, in particular, materials, used for making products, working in UHF range such as for example flexible electronic circuit boards, flexible circuit cables, flexible circuit inductiveness coils, capacitors and the like.
SUBSTANCE: material has multilayer structure, is made of separate thin films received from same material by similar method of practically even thickness d<80 mcm.
EFFECT: improved manufacturability and low values of tangent of angle of dielectric losses.
SUBSTANCE: fibre electrospinning is carried out from an electroconductive solution of polymer in presence of electric field between a nozzle and a source of earthing. In the method realisation the polymer before and after electrospinning process is exposed to linking reaction. At the same time the polymer contains linked silane groups along the length of the main chain of polymer, and the linked groups react with water, including water contained in air. The fibre made according to the method of electrospinning contains links -Si-O-Si-.
EFFECT: using linking reaction before and during the process of electrospinning results in increased viscosity of polymer solution, making it possible to form the fibre and to reduce usage of thickeners to the minimum.
14 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel polyethylene composition which is particularly suitable for making monothreads, monobelts and a stretched belt. The invention also relates to a film containing said composition, as well as use of the polyethylene composition to obtain textile articles made from fibre, monobelts or stretched belts. The composition contains 95.1-99.5 wt % polyethylene and 4.9-0.5 wt % polybutene. The polyethylene is a homopolymer or copolymer of ethylene, having density higher than 0.930 g/cm3, polydispersity Mw/Mn from 2.0 to 5.9 and MFR (190/5) from 1.5 g/10 min to 5.0 g/10 min. The polybutene is a homopolymeer of 1-polybutene or a copolymer of butene, and the polybutene has MFR (190/5) from 1 g/10 min to 10 g/10 min. The composition is used to obtain a film. The invention also describes use of the polyethylene composition to produce monothreads, monobelts or stretched belts, and a method of producing a stretched belt from the polyethylene composition.
EFFECT: stability of the sleeve and mechanical properties of films made from said composition are greatly improved.
10 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: first, a microscopically homogenised solution is obtained by dispersing 75-25 vol. % cellulose and 25-75 vol. % of at least another fibre-forming polymer in a water-containing ionic liquid while adding stabilisers and completely removing water using shear, temperature and vacuum. The solution is formed through at least one die hole into a fibre or bundle of fibres, which is directed through a conditioned gap while drawing in order to deposit directed jets of the solution via treatment with a temperature-controlled solution of a precipitation agent for cellulose and another fibre-forming polymer, mixed with an ionic liquid so that spinodal layering takes place. The directed jets of the solution are removed from the settling bath and undergo subsequent treatment.
EFFECT: obtained fibre has low swelling capacity and high resistance to wet wearing.
10 cl, 6 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: method for fibrous material production consists in short-term treatment of polystyrene or its wastes in reactor with air or steam and air mixture with steam content of 50% vol. at the temperature of 90-120°C, pressure of 3 MPa for 30 seconds.
EFFECT: simple, efficient and ecologically pure method is developed for production of fibrous material from polystyrene or its wastes with high yield and good sorption properties.
9 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: spinning solution for electrical formation of polymer precursor of fibres of siliconecarbide contains 50 - 70 % solution of polycarbosilane with average molecular weight of 800 - 1500 astronomical units of weight, cross-linking agent and photoinitiator at the following molar ration of components: polycarbosilane/cross-linking agent/photoinitiator = 1/(0.5-1.5)/(0.5-2). Method for obtaining silicone carbide fibres involves preparation of spinning solution, electrical forming of fibres of precursor of silicone carbide from spinning solution with simultaneous cross-link of precursor fibres by light irradiation in visible or UV radiation range and heat treatment of precursor fibres for their conversion to silicone carbide fibres. Silicone carbide fibres made in compliance with the above method have average diameter of 50 nm to 2 mcm and porosity of less than 10 m2/g.
EFFECT: invention provides high capacity and low cost of production of high-quality silicone carbide fibres characterised with high mechanical strength and low porosity.
6 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: fibre is obtained via wet spinning of a solution which contains poly-meta-phenyleneisophthalamide as the main component, and an amide solvent containing a salt in settling bath. The water coagulation bath contains 40-60% amide solvent and 0.3-10% salt. The obtained porous fibre is stretched 1.5-10 times in a stretch bath with aqueous 20-70% solution of amide solvent at 20-70°C and then washed with water. The fibre then undergoes thermal treatment in an atmosphere of saturated vapour at 0.02-0.5 MPa with stretch ratio of 0.7-5.0 and then undergoes dry thermal treatment at 250-400°C with stretch ratio of 0.7-4.0. The ready fibre contains 1.0% or residual solvent, a small amount of volatile substance which is dangerous at the step for thermal treatment at high temperature, and capable of preventing dyeing of the product made from the fibre. The degree of dry thermal setting at 300°C is equal to or less than 1.6% and breaking strength is equal to or more than 3.0 cN/decitex.
EFFECT: excellent high-temperature processability.
11 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of producing antimicrobial polyethylene terephthalate fibre comprises operations for treating fibre with a lubricating agent, wetting the fibre with aqueous emulsion of triclosan which contains a surface-active component of a lubricating agent, and subsequent orientation stretching of the fibre. The emulsion also contains sintanol, with the following ratio of components in wt %: triclosan 0.8-1.0; sintanol 3.0-4.0; distilled water 95.0-96.2.
EFFECT: composition of a modifying liquid in form of an aqueous emulsion which enables to lower expenses on production of antimicrobial fibre.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: fibre yarn is made up of multiple strands of elementary fibres. First, prior to cutting into staple fibres, fibre yarn is expanded in, at least, one expansion zone. Note hare that fibre yarn is treated by fluid medium. Then, after expansion, fibre yarn is subjected to thermal treatment for fixation. Note here that amount of fluid medium contained in fibre yarn before thermal treatment is reduced by squeezing out. Note also that fibre yarn inside expansion zone is squeezed out over its width so that weight fraction of fluid medium uniformly over said width makes less than 10%. Invention proposed also the device to this end.
EFFECT: power savings, higher-strength fibres.
20 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention refers to medicine, more specifically to a multi-component superabsorbent fibre which includes a first superabsorbent material and a second superabsorbent material. At least on a portion of a lengthwise (L) direction of the superabsorbent fibre, the first superabsorbent material and the second superabsorbent material are parallel in a crosswise (C) direction of the superabsorbent fibre. The first and second superabsorbent materials are selected so that in the given point during swelling, the swelling capacity (SC) of the first superabsorbent material exceeds the swelling capacity of the second superabsorbent material so that the superabsorbent fibre (10) curls in contact with fluid. Also, the invention refers to a method of reduced gel blockage in the superabsorbent fibre.
EFFECT: in contact with fluid, the fibres provided an open structure which reduces gel blockage.
10 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of making a bundle from acetate fibre involves a step for obtaining initial liquid by dissolving a starting polymer in a solvent, a spinning step on which the initial liquid is released from a draw plate, and the said solvent is evaporated in a heated medium, a moistening and corrugating step from which a primary bundle of fibres is obtained, having moisture content of 23-50 wt %, a step for primary drying at temperature equal to or higher than boiling point of the said solvent, but not higher than 85°C, and a step for secondary drying on which further drying is carried out until achieving the desired moisture content, thus obtaining the said bundle of acetate fibres. Disclosed also is an acetate bundle made using said method, in which solvent content is less than 0.10 wt %.
EFFECT: invention enables obtaining acetate bundles with very low solvent content and with high production efficiency.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: nanocomposite material contains polymer binder, filler and a nanoparticle fraction. The nanoparticle fraction contains multilayered carbon particles with a toroid shape with dimensions ranging from 15 to 150 nm, in which the ratio of the external diameter to the thickness of the toroid body is in the range of (10-3):1. The filler is selected from a group comprising glass, carbon and organic and boron fibre. The binder is selected from a group comprising epoxy resins, epoxy-novolak resins, epoxy-phenol resins, polyethers, polyimidazole or polyoxybenzimidazole. Use of the nanoparticle fraction in the nanocomposite material enables to achieve effective compaction and reinforcement near filler/binder interphase boundaries and increase average density, elasticity, hardness and strength thereof.
EFFECT: nanocomposite material can be used to make different components and articles for machine building and transport, including holders for tools for precision processing surfaces of components.
15 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex