Method and device of energy conversion of sea waves to electric energy by differentiating between form coefficients determining hydraulic resistance
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: store of energy created with wind force includes sufficient amount of energy to meet the demands of the whole mankind. The invention represents effective device supplying this energy store for practical use. On rotating drive shaft 3 there installed is a pair of shaped parts 1, 2 of convex and concave profile, open V-shaped profile with rounded top, which reverses its orientation through 180 degrees, i.e. it is rotated from convex state to concave state. Drive shaft is rotated through 180 degrees. Circular movement of water, which takes place in the wave, effectively brings into operation such turbine, while the wave dies away. Pair of concave and convex shaped parts 1, 2 is spirally spread about drive shaft 3, by means of which the streams in all directions, which come into contact with pair of shaped parts, create the torque moment.
EFFECT: improving the use efficiency of streams and multidirectional oscillatory movements occurring in waves.
25 cl, 20 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates
The invention relates to a gradual conversion of the reciprocating motion of sea waves by differences in the coefficients of the form, determining the hydraulic resistance, using a pair of fittings, spiral continued around the shaft 180+180 degrees and gradually open to the power flow or oscillatory motion.
Specifically, the invention relates to a method and apparatus for the convenient extraction of environmentally friendly and cost effective way mechanical kinetic and centrifugal energy vibrations of the molecules of liquid water in large sea waves in different directions and even with different levels of depth directly in the form of electricity, for example, floating and swinging platforms with generator. This method requires no bulky equipment or conversion of energy into other forms, as in a rotating turbine of structurally solid material directly used hydrodynamic forces present in water waves in the form of natural oscillatory motion, flow, pressure and inertial forces, as well as hydrostatic potential energy. Differences in hydraulic resistance caused by the unequal coefficients of the form is connected to the s shaped parts, used on opposite sides of the drive shaft to create a torque force to the shaft, and usually without large currents parallel to the shaft. Therefore, the sea water passes through the turbine, the energy is extracted by rotating fittings and through the drive shaft is transmitted to the generator, in which mechanical energy is converted into electricity without creating significant emissions. For example, in electricity generation and in General supply for public purposes, and also for water and rail transport, when using the invention can be successfully perform the Kyoto Treaty on emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in marine areas. At the same time, the air mixed with water, can be removed by centrifugal method especially from water layers near the surface and can be focused on practical application, for example, to prevent freezing of the harbours or sea routes by the ascent from a depth of more warm water to air bubbles, for example, porous ducts, laid on the seabed parallel to the sea route.
The level of technology
The working platform can be constructed using, for example, pontoon or floating raft that floats and bobs on the surface of the sea and which is attached to others who Gomu the pontoon or anchors to hold the stator and the choice of the generator rotor about its orientation and still even at great depths. In addition, this can be done through parachuters floating anchors canvas, which are mounted, for example, metal cables or ropes in a large and less mobile or calm body of water. In addition, floating anchors can serve as mounting brackets during operation.
In the wave of sea water force, pressure and potential energy of the vibrational motion can be perceived, for example, spiral, dvojakoperistye, concave (Ko), usually continuous, grooved surfaces, extending 180 degrees, or half the circumference around the shaft and which is at least partially open to the flow or current. Opposite the concave grooved surface, presently perceiving over on the other side of the rotating shaft is convex (Ku) surface of the blade. Each blade is concave on its surface facing the shaft, and convex at its opposite or outer surface. As the blades are open V-shaped or A-shaped blades, which are generally arcuate in cross section. The blades are spaced from each other with the concave sides facing each other, and the light is rounded at the sharp end. A pair of blades, complementing each other, makes it possible to transmit a rotational force to the drive shaft of the rotor, which is usually located between the blades. By means of spacers, which are streamlined in the direction of motion of sea water, i.e. which provide low resistance, inertia and centrifugal force waves are transmitted from the shaped parts for rotating the drive shaft, which is preferably horizontal, but can also be vertical. Concave surface during rotation perceives the force of flow and pressure, while the convex surface at the same time rotates around the shaft. The various components of force and energy, such as movement, speed, inertia, pressure and potential, are in complex interaction on the surface of the turbine in accordance with natural laws. They can unite on the drive shaft of the rotor, as often slightly arched and sloping in the axial direction of the surface of the blade force to rotational movement in response to inertial forces caused by wave or mass flow, or becomes generally open to the promotion of centrifugal forces of water. The electromagnetic force generator usually tend to work against all the kinetic energy of the water waves applied to the blades of the device, but forces the resistance inferior to the forces of water waves, acting on the blade and converted into electricity in the generator windings.
On the sea, its area or fluctuating course affected by many factors. Even in water waves many different variations will be summarized in the longitudinal, transverse and vertical directions as a result of reflection and deflection.
The waves always carry a very large total energy. Currently, this amount of energy, i.e. marine "battery", hardly used, despite the huge need for it. Indeed, at the present time the supply of energy is too expensive and polluting manner, for example by burning oil, coal, wood, waste, or by the atomic energy stemming from radiation and waste generation.
Indeed, using only about 2% of the energy of sea waves would produce enough electricity to meet the world demand for energy. The energy of ocean waves in the maximum is about 100 kW/m of wave front or the shoreline. In ice-free areas of the existing energy at the edges of the sea is usually about 10-50 kW/m Strong emotion can also support to generate electricity in the winter through the air when warm heavy water carried over with the depth up to the top of the spine together with air. In particular, the sea route can be maintained free from solid ice, forming waves in the wind by air bubbles rising from the warmer and deeper layers, and partly also by warmer water rising from the bottom and having a high heat capacity. In the end, every single moving mass wave carries a small supply of energy or a mechanical battery.
The mechanism that supports the waves of the sea, includes mainly the unstable wind direction and strength, as well as occasionally underwater earthquake, leading to the formation of a tsunami. In the latter case, water mass, moving forward in a wave of compression rises with education of high and long waves, as the overlying air has a small resistance rising wave. Indeed, the horizontal and vertical movement of water molecules is usually the most intense near the surface, but becomes slower with increasing depth and increasing the moving water mass thickness. Due to the volatility of this source of energy extraction and accumulation of energy have so far been difficult and expensive.
Large water masses of the waves seem to be constantly moving and pumped back and forth. To generate electricity you use is that the energy of sea waves instead so, for example, to build additional nuclear power plants. The method of power generation according to the invention almost completely eliminates the formation of emissions and waste during the entire period of operation of the equipment.
This invention enables the use of open bilateral (dvojakoperistye) concave and convex shapes of the parts connected to the drive shaft, the said spirally shaped parts continue on 180 degrees and gradually open in the direction against the flow. Convex surface opposing flow, or current, for gradually converted into a concave surface, perceiving the current and force on the rear downstream side of the same blade device. Concave grooved surface, open to the flow of water, at the sight in the direction of flow is usually around 30-40% of the projected lateral area of the turbine, and the rest directed upstream side of the normally closed grantourismo convex blade turbine. The convex surface of the course is reflected in the hand, for example, on a concave surface. Along the flow of the turbine rotating concave blade is protected by a convex blade up until its functions gradually reversed on the spiral length of 180 degrees.
Spiral body, lying within currents or oscillations, is always at least part of the concave surface in the process of perception of the strength of the currents from all directions, numerous create obstacles or barriers to flow during each cycle and the pressure transfer or kinetic force of the waves or vibrations through the hole or slot 4 between the shaped parts for the drive shaft 3 by means of the spacers 5A or supporting plates 55.
More specifically, this invention relates to a method according to claim 1 and the device according to item 13 of the claims. The improvements are aimed mainly at improving the efficiency of multidirectional currents and oscillatory movements occurring in water waves.
According to the invention the improvement realized in such a way that the turbine, rotating, for example, is unstable in the direction of the sea current or oscillatory movements, uses its concave surface to the perception of even multidirectional currents and pressure effect, while the turbine spiral revolves around almost immobile or slow-moving shaft.
In this application, the term "sea" is used to denote, for example, open ocean, sea, inland lakes, artificial lakes, river or reservoir having an exposed surface, which podvergaet the action of the wind to maintain water waves and accumulation of energy in the form of wave motion to generate energy. In particular, the surface layers of the sea exposed to strong wind, which creates water waves and increases their size due to its friction.
In this application the term "energy waves" is used to describe the mechanical movement of water that occurs in almost any direction, vibrations or waves rise of several waves, i.e. the interference. When the wave motion of molecules flowing water moving in one direction or back and forth in an almost continuous way during rolling transition, at least two different types of energy, this energy passes through the water.
In this application, the term "shape factor k is used to denote the proportionality of the force of the hydraulic resistance created a specific form. The results of experimental investigation of the resistance movement within created various forms presented in the Finnish textbook High School Physics (Nurmi-Ahlman-Fedosov-Höglander-Qvickström), 1961 Measurements with air conducted Dr. Uuno Nurmi, and figure 1 shows the measurement results for shaped parts a-f. The resistance to movement caused mainly by turbulence behind the shaped parts according to the direction of flow. Square projection in the plane perpendicular to the flow are equal, and also other factors are constant. At the bottom is part of figure 1 shows the formula for determining the resistance forces F for surfaces with different profiles. Force resistance is determined by multiplying the form factor k on the density of matter in the flow or oscillating motion, the projected area of the shaped part in the plane perpendicular to the flow, and on the square of the speed. The coefficient obtained for a particular form presented in the form of the shape factor k on the right side of figure 1, with the over going from left to right, as shown by the arrows.
In this application, the term "structurally solid" is used to denote material that is essentially impermeable to gas or liquid, for example, composite structure, which usually has a smooth surface and is easy and able to resist the main force, and various types of abrasion.
The values of the shape factor k, as shown in figure 1, is applicable not only to the air, but also close to the water, even if the density of water is about 1000 times more than the density of air. Due to differences in density wind energy really effectively removed a small equipment of waves waterways than from the air. The force of the water are much more powerful in a small space than air power. In addition, liquid water has a large inertia and centrifugal force.
The new device according to the invention, which is used to extract the energy of the C of the waves directly in the form of electricity through a generator, is more reliable than, for example, a traditional windmill, as the sea "action", i.e. the oscillatory motion of the waves continues for a long period of time in response to inertial force even after the wind dies down, especially at great depths. The reflection of the waves and the deviation of the wave front increases the continuity and duration of power generation, for example, behind the Islands, even if it decreases the perceived kinetic energy of water. The value of the mass variable, wave motion, provides continuity in energy production, even if water molecules or "adiabatic centers" liquid usually move along trajectories that are circular or elliptical in longitudinal section, taken in the direction of wave propagation.
This patent application covers all sectors of the society in which it is used or consumed energy, for example, transportation, housing, industrial production. Among its benefits include reducing consumption of raw materials and reduce emissions of all kinds.
The invention also feasible as protivobolevykh method and device, able to absorb or eliminate water waves by combining forces, existing in water waves. When energy production is the "protivobolevoe device is istwo" usually forms the calm surface of the sea water, as usual swell-forming power of the previous waves spent on the drive shaft of the generator and power generation. The rotational speed of the turbine can reach very high values in response to high or high frequency multiple rolling waves. In addition, the invention is feasible with the low-energy fluctuations, i.e. low amplitude or high frequency, for example, through a streamlined V-shaped blade elements or the summation of the energy from waves.
In addition, sinks waves also act as effective breakwaters or energy-producing malls in the absence of large construction and expensive additional equipment.
In addition, the invention is useful as an energy source for traffic message to the courts or as a means to ensure smoother motion with a very heavy seas in cases where an oscillating swell is usually strong, and the court tends to keel and side strokes. Therefore, when an appropriate distance for the passage of a vessel can be positioned, for example, at the end of a long rod small movable device according to the invention, which suppresses waves and extracts energy from the sea swell in the form of electricity for the propulsion of ordinary court is a, ship hydrofoil or hovercraft, for example, even at high frequencies of rotation of the propeller.
Reverse the motion of the waves can have an impact even in remote places. Indeed, the energy of sea waves can effectively remove even with a large area within the few and distant from each other, as the oscillation quietly and efficiently apply water to the desired places of extraction of energy, especially in long waves that carry more energy. Resulting from the adjustment of energy kinetic energy from waves near the quieter places always advancing forward or pull is transmitted to more peaceful areas. The movement of the advancing wave with its inertial forces can be by means of the blades and the drive shaft of the turbine is directed to the generator, in which the electromagnetic forces of resistance must be overcome work. The kinetic energy of the wave after its supply to the generator is not able to create a new wave in the water, so there is a destruction wave without creating a new rising wave.
In most cases, the wave motion is almost symmetric. Courses of wave propagation become readily accessible when, for example, wave motion created by moving a pebble in still water and rasprostranyautsa the Xia clearly from the point of impact, and rejected or reflected wave passing backwards or inside, are almost identical with respect to the distribution of their energy.
Almost all the energy of the wave front can be by means of the device according to the invention is concentrated near the drive shaft 3 even with a vast area. As a result of genuine oscillatory movements performed by the molecules of water waves, there is also a reverse phase in the wave, supplying the turbine shaft more energy on a surface that is angled in the same direction of rotation. Wave motion is always the inclination to provide their impacts on bezvoleva region. Turbine does not "know" the direction of arrival of the wave, as the currents and vibrations in all directions tend to increase in the same direction rotational force on the drive shaft 3 of the turbine. Symmetric and dvojakoperistye design often makes for easy turning 180 degrees and the perception of power, even just partially open V - or A-shaped blades in a pair of blades. When waves of water remain almost stationary relative to the molecules, and the energy of waves is moving with a reciprocating oscillatory movement, the device according to the invention offers the possibility to convert into electricity the swings in both directions. When the interference waves can be used on lesofat waves for all values of frequencies and wavelengths. Usually the natural way to regulate the speed of the device. As described above in connection with the swing pebbles, circular waves are also functional in the opposite sense.
In water, the electrical equipment may be placed, for example, in air - or vacuum-insulated casing like a thermos, for example a device with a horizontal shaft, with a strong movement of the wave surface are directed to the "manopause" device, for example, through the gap 4 between the blades 1 and 2 or in any recess or notch of the blade for the perception of power.
Each reciprocating separate wave causes the horizontal and vertical movement in the sea, which can be used in both directions turbine to generate electricity. Thus, the extracted total energy numerous bidirectional waves in General much larger than the number of short-term unidirectional energy extracted, for example, of the pools, tidal power plants. Indeed, waves waterways provide a power output that exceeds the total capacity of existing hydropower. Actually there is a shortage of energy in the world, despite the fact that will someday be depleted reserves of oil and coal. Permanent waves provide Ecevit energy sufficient for all men.
A water vortex in the free vortex motion creates a column of air in the center and high speed as the static water pressure is converted to velocity in a small radius while maintaining the moment of inertia. Under high centrifugal force light gases are separated from the water on the inner curved side of the movement. High speed cyclonic vortex, creating a centrifugal force, usually caused by narrow slits for dodaci tangential flow in long distance relative to the shaft, even at low speed. In the vortex region can be formed adjacent to each other adjacent or successive vortices, if there is no wall between vortices.
The usefulness of the invention increases due to the fact that to create the largest electric power generator using a three-phase frequency Converter. For free speed adjustment, together with a stock mechanical energy girosi you can use a permanent magnet, DC.
The equipment, known from the prior art
In the patent Finland and U.S. patent No. 1697574 patented Finnish jog the rotor Savonia, which refers to the air flow in the wind. Energy use sea ox is discussed in U.S. patent No. 6622483 and 4221538. They describe the use of, for example, air pressure and compression waves in a narrow course with special reflectors. The equipment, known from the prior art has many disadvantages, which can be eliminated by means of this invention, for example, to simplify the design and increase the perception of energy is proportional to the size of the device. Floating anchor is described, for example, in U.S. patent No. 4733628. It also describes how many wind turbines, but they have low performance.
In the publication WO 96/38667 describes how to use the energy of sea waves using a pair of shaped parts or groups of shaped parts having a teardrop-shaped profile in cross section. None of these devices are unable effectively to derive full benefit from a certain movement of the waves. The area of perception of force is small compared to the diameter of the rotor. No difference in the coefficients of the form teardrop-shaped profile in opposite directions of flow is not sufficient to compensate for this.
Below only as examples describe embodiments of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which
figure 1 shows the results of experimental measurements of hydraulic resistance, held in Finland the AI with air for a number of forms, same but size
figure 2 is a view of one device according to the invention, slightly tilted down, which is able to resist large forces and which are assembled from the elements under floating and swaying pontoon platform, when considering in the direction shown on the form in the section in figure 4,
figure 3 is a view in section, perpendicular to the drive shaft 3, the device at different levels of depth, which according to the invention on opposite sides of the drive shaft 3 has two shaped parts having a profile of a circular arc in cross section and combined concave and convex (Ku) form, in the presence of flow lines on fig.3b and their absence on figa. Shaped parts are in position surrounding the shaft 180 degrees in a continuous spiral device
4 is a view in section of one spiral shaped surface according to the invention, surrounding the shaft 3 and having a concave (Ko) and rotated 180 degrees convex (Ku) profiles within, shows a small arrow,
5 is a General view of the streamlined struts 5A, drifting in the sea water and often have a hollow or porous shell structure, or as a solid supporting cross, fastening at the ends of the blades, for example, with a hollow solid shaft 3,
6 shows the fabrication of concave and convex shaped parts of the profiles, farazandeh in massive elements, through their bonding with each other and embedding spacer plate to transfer forces to the drive shaft,
7 is a bottom view or, optionally, on top of the turbine, which is attached to a horizontal drive shaft 3 and is provided with an open spiral slit or hole 4, while underwater or sometimes surface a pair of shaped parts has a V-shaped profiles, which are usually rounded (Py), but can also be more or less pointed. The turbine is used to eliminate strong horizontal movement near the water surface,
Fig shows the hydraulic resistance of the new open deakebredly V-shaped and a-shaped profiles and their estimated coefficients of the form,
Fig.9 is a view in section of a pair of shaped parts according to the invention at various levels of depth in the layers of currents with different directions and speeds in the presence of flow lines on fig.9b and their absence on figa. Shaped parts are V-shaped profile with pointed apex (Py),
figure 10 is a partial view, showing the manufacture of the blades or shaped parts 1 and 2 of the closed cross section of the pipe And through the diagonal cut in half relative to the drive shaft for the formation of two spiral parts In and around 180 degrees to the Central axis 3.
Figure 1 shows the results of an experiment is analnyj measurements, received in Finland for the shape factor of the current environment, as for example, for multiple forms of a-f in one direction of flow from left to right, as shown by arrows in the drawing. Under a partial view of f the above formula to determine the strength F of the hydraulic resistance. In the form of a "C" for comes in contact with the convex (Ku) profile and on form f - with complementary concave (Co) profile. The only difference is offset by 180 degrees in the provisions of parts, but one part due to its shape, has a hydraulic resistance 3 times more, even if these parts are equal in respect of their squares projection.
Among the parts a-d, one can observe a different impact back in the flow direction on the hydraulic resistance when that hits for about the same convex (Ku) profile. The coefficients of the form k demonstrate significant differences in the result of the interference of turbulence in the flow at the rear edge.
Among the rounded front parts a-d with equal squares projection greatest resistance to movement demonstrates part "C", which creates a powerful turbulence in the rear during the period. From the given parts the most resistance shows part of f, which by its resistance in water of the same with a floating anchor. If desired, the entire generator and, in the hour of the activity, the stator and the shaft can be fixed at great depths, for example, by turning on the spot, the open top of the Cup to prevent vertical lifting. Horizontal movement can be prevented, for example, by floating anchors, which absorb horizontal forces and which place as anchors, for example, in the direction of the radius of rotation or the tangent of the shaft. Floating anchors of appropriate size, set in divergent directions, you still have to fix all the device and especially the shaft. In this case, the anchoring carried out to a very large volume of water, not the usual way to the bottom of the sea.
As shown in figure 1, the lowest resistance demonstrates streamlined, almost pear-shaped part and which has a pointed rear end (Te). Converging at one point, streamlined rear end (Te) reduces the hydraulic resistance in all forms. Part "a" in combination with a rounded convex (Ku) front end gets its shape factor equal to 0.03. If the front end would be made sharp, as the kayak, then the resistance would be even less. It also begins to resemble the form of a sharp fall of a fast-moving water fish, such as pike. According to the experiments convex (Ku) rounded shape of the nose submarines on figa-d does not provide favorable resistance compared to the more acute forms.
When comparing the tested convex (Ku) parts a-d with each other can be noted that the length increase is only slightly increases the resistance to the flow or movement, despite the increase in surface friction. The profile of the rear end is more important for. Indeed, the rear edge of the wings and the rear end of the fuselage of the aircraft are usually pointed (Te), and the front edge of the wings and the front end of the fuselage are usually rounded (Ku, Py) to prevent, among other things, a variable flow distribution, i.e. vibration on both sides of the sharp separating edge. This gives the opportunity to avoid the effect of the sound pipe in the stream.
When the tests conducted by the applicant at the pulp mill, it was found that the fiber suspension in water sticking to a sharp edge, but convex (Ku) rounded (Py) profile clean.
Lower part f posted the formula for determining the resistance forces on the shape factor k, the density of the medium, square projection And perpendicular to the flow, and speed v.
In the perspective view of figure 2 and in section in figure 3 shows a pair of concave and convex blades 1 and 2 to the turbine, this convex (Ku) and concave (Ko) profiles rotated streamlined struts 5A is connected to the drive shaft 3, which is very resistant to forces and may be the made, for example, lightweight and high-strength titanium, not oxidized in the water.
If the blade has a V-shaped profile shown in figure 9, to prevent vibration of the front edges of the blades should normally be rounded (Py) like the leading edge of the wing. In addition, rounded (Py) profile is useful for flow transverse to the rotating shaft.
In addition, the blades 1, 2 may have a U-shaped profile, as in figure 3, or the profile with a varying curvature, as in figure 4, where the edge of the blade, located closer to the drive shaft 3 forms a steeper curve in the direction of the other blades. This gives the opportunity to form a very sharp profile, effortless to cut the water like a sharp jaws of a pike. Concave profile continuously spins by 180° and thus at a distance, with unidirectional drive shaft 8, is converted into a convex profile, when the direction of the examination or course remains the same. Accordingly, a convex profile that is present on the opposite side of the drive shaft, spinning 180° and is converted into a concave profile.
On figa shown in section bonded pair of blades 1 and 2, creating a barrier to flow and located on both sides of the drive shaft 3, with the blade on one side of the shaft has an arcuate concave (Ko) partially U-shaped profile, and the blade on the other side of the shaft has a curved convex (Ku) profile. Extending in the axial direction of the drive shaft 3 from one end of the blades to the other end, the blades preferably extend spirally over 0-180°. Current water first fills the concave grooved profile, which is shaded in the figure. Then this flowing water can continue forward in the same trench, revolving around the drive shaft 3. The drive shaft 3 may be porous or hollow. A thicker middle part 5 of the spacers 5A provides a strong connection to the drive shaft 3, which may be hollow or porous mesh shaft, partially permeable to water contained in the gas and transporting them along its center line in the longitudinal direction of the shaft.
Turbine spiral blades may be assembled in such a way that the solid shaft 3 will be screwed on his lungs base plate 5, which is supplied, for example, holes for receiving the shaft and may be porous in the middle and are rotated radially around the shaft. Ready-to-use, spiral vane element 1 or 2, having a corresponding pitch of the helix, is attached in the appropriate places, for example, by screws 15 or other fastening means. The pitch of the helix, the depth and height of the blades can be changed in the axis of the ω direction. This is particularly useful when the rotor vertical shaft, because the wave motion fades out with increasing water depth, the increase in the mass of moving water and decreasing the amount of air mixed with the water. Spiral grooved or hrebtovaya surface at an inclined position relative to the shaft capable of perceiving also directed along the axis of the force from the inertia mass is water.
Figure 4 in the section perpendicular to the drive shaft shown a pair of blades 1 and 2, forming the concave and convex surface of the shaped parts. Streamlined support cross member 14, 5A makes it possible to transmit power to the shaft 3 even from the extreme edges 15 of the concave and convex (Ku) of the blades 1 and 2. The device, shown in figure 4, can be constructed with horizontal shaft or vertical execution.
The course can be reflected from the convex surface (Ku) in the direction of the concave surface (PES). The blades 1 and 2 can be streamlined struts 5A low resistance, for example, shown in figure 5 and having a porous or hollow design to remove air from the waves.
Concave and convex (Ku) surface, if necessary, may vary in curvature in different parts of the device and at different depths. Molecules of the waves are the most mobile in the horizontal direction near the surface the displacement, usually in response to the friction of the wind. That's why concave shaped surface, perceiving pressure, is located in this layer with a large or small radii of rotation. The whole drive shaft 3 along its entire length takes more force or high velocity from the inertial forces in the body of water. The rotating shaft is positioned essentially in a horizontal position across the many waves, so that strong waves, moving near the surface, made its momentum to ensure a strong or high-speed rotation of the turbine or generator around the shaft, depending on the length of the force arm. Even reverse the phase of a wave always causes the shaft to rotate in the same direction after rotating 180 degrees.
During the turbulence of the water its vortex creates a hydrocyclone separation effect, as in conventional washing when water is discharged along the Central air column, and a large centrifugal force is generated near the Central air column. According to the results of experiments conducted by the applicant, this process produces high-speed, thin, directed along the axis of the flow to the surface. The placement of turbines according to the invention next to each other or sequentially enables you to create a cyclone separator, in which adjacent or consecutive qi is Lona have the same direction and speed, since cyclones are based on each other. The power device can be easily realized tangentially, for example, near the surface to create a cyclonic vortex that separates the space between the shafts.
Figure 5 is proved perspective view of the spacers 5A, which is attached to the drive shaft 3 and are located between the edges of the blades 1 and 2. Spacers 5A have low resistance and are hollow or solid and moving in sea water 7. Hollow or porous pipes give the ability to delete, for example, the air dissolved in the water. The front edge of the blade or spacers is often rounded and rather thick, and tapering in the direction of motion. The blades 1 and 2 at their extreme edges 15 can be, for example, screws are attached to the spacers 5A (figa). However, the manufacturing process is facilitated by a symmetric brace or cross member 5A, which is independent of the direction of flow.
The device can be manufactured using the blades 1 and 2 with the contour of the cross section as that of the fungus, and in the form of a spiral mating parts forms for the implementation of the spiral slide. The spiral part is installed on the rotating shaft so that one side of the shaft is concave, and on the other side of the shaft - complementary convex surface.
On figa shows a pair of blades 1 and 2 in the section perpendicular to the drive shaft 3, the blade in the specified pair of blades have a concave V-shaped or A-shaped profile with a rounded (Py) for the top. The blades together constitute dvoyakovpukluu, spiral, continuous V-shaped structure around the drive shaft 3. As figa, this technical solution obtain the concave and convex profile, and the profile, which is like the tip of the spear penetrates within, depicted by lines. The expansion in the transverse direction, which is formed as a sharp "fall pike", creates on both sides of the shaft 3 is equal to divergent resistance within, so you do not create an obstacle for the rotation.
A V-shaped profile in the form of an arrowhead facilitates movement of the fittings in the water, especially in counter-current. In the opposite direction, the hydraulic resistance is especially large in the hole 4 between the edges of the blades 1, 2.
Resistance within a shaped part having an inverted concave V-shaped profile, is approximately equal to the resistance of the shaped part f in figure 1 in the direction shown (0,6), while the resistance of the shaped part has a convex V-shaped profile, is approximately equal to the resistance of the shaped part C (0,20) in the same direction. Thus, the effect of the profile is almost 3-fold when rotated 180 degrees. This kind of difference in what rotellini noticeable is achieved by V-shaped profiles at different flow directions, as acute dissecting the top effectively cuts through the sea water than with arcuate profiles, such as profiles a-d.
Horizontal movement of the sea surface waves can be through its inertial forces squeezed through the horizontal hole 4 in a horizontal turbine, shown in Fig.7, and used to bring the rotation of the drive shaft in the direction of wave propagation. During the circular movement around the shaft also found counterflow part or quiet water, with sharp or rounded V-shaped profile helps raseiniu or splitting of water, when the inertial force of the wave motion are perceived open fitting. On the next cycle always repeats the same thing in the same direction. In the turbine with horizontal shaft and a V-shaped profile of the blades is not detected countervailing power, preventing a strong movement of water surface waves. Therefore, the rotation frequency becomes large. 7 shows the device according to the invention, having a horizontal shaft and curved blades, together with the generator 9.
On fig.9b shows a view in section, similar to the view on fega, but adding in its lines flow. Acute, rounded, elongated top (Py) create hydraulic pressure in b is signed or the transverse direction, are equal in the short period, shown by the dotted lines on the drawing, so that you do not create an obstacle in a circular motion around the shaft 3.
On figa, and shows the method of manufacturing a blade from the closed pipe with a curved profile in cross-section by cutting diagonally in half by turning 180 degrees, so as to form a spiral concave (Ko) and spiral convex (Ku) surface, which, in General, are the same. The use of commercially available tubular or V-shaped profiles facilitates the manufacture of the device. For example, the composite material is practical and easily attachable to the connecting cross member 5A.
In addition, when the mass production of spiral elements b and C can be efficiently manufactured at the top of the form, for example, from a composite material, so as to form a corresponding 180-degree spiral and light and durable shell structure, the concave and convex parts A and B which when attached to the shaft 3 by means of cross-beams 5A can be used to obtain doamortn, structurally solid pair of shaped parts, which are the main difference in the form factors of the form.
Figure 6 fittings carved in massive elements 12, placed perpendicularly to the axis of rotation and PEFC is therefore bound to each other in the direction of the shaft when the speed is shifted positions relative to each other to form a spiral concave and convex forms. Between the elements 12 can be located cushioning plate, which is attached to the first shaft, and then attach the elements 12.
The rotational speed of the pair of fittings is usually a multiple of the frequency of the waves, which gives the possibility to extract energy from long waves in both directions of currents or oscillations of the wave flow.
7 shows a perspective view of the rotor, which is provided with a pair of cross-posted spiral blades 1 and 2, attached to a horizontal drive shaft 3 and perceiving hydrodynamic force powerful with bigger mass, surface waves, with the specified pair of blades between their edges forms a spiral slit or hole 4. Surface waves are amplified inertial forces within the rotor through the opening or slit 4 near the surface, which causes the drive shaft 3 to rotate below the surface or above the surface, provided that the drive shaft may be held stationary, for example, by pulling a floating anchor to a stationary layer of water. Downstream of the reverse movement of the rotor resulting from the rotation is created by sharp or rounded (Py) V-shaped profile. When the rotation of the turbine openings 4 support protruding from the water for their willingness to accept an open V-obraz the m profile powerful kinetic force of surface waves. Behind the V-shaped openings of the wall of the blade forms the crest of complementary shape, shown by a line Py-Py. This comb is usually rounded to prevent vibration. The electromagnetic forces of resistance in the generator 9 to overcome the inertial forces of the mass of water waves and converted into electricity. Power is transmitted to the shaft, for example by streamlined struts 5A, or by means of base plates or partitions 55, which is perpendicular to the shaft and cross to him, i.e. extend in the direction of wave propagation. The open V-shaped profile can be achieved by high speed with a strong movement of surface waves, because the profile of the pointed tops easily occurs downstream of the reverse movement of the rotor.
Parallel turbine, for example, similar to the turbine 7 can be placed on the sea in overlapping staggered arrangement so as not to interfere with navigation on the surface.
Long drive shaft 3 may be provided with a conventional universal joint, or can be used, for example, a flexible metal cable to turn it around with a small gradient in the transmission (not shown).
In the case of a large excess of water big wave can sweep over the entire rotor or to pass under it in itbegan the e damage to the rotor or exceeding its allowable speed. The transfer of forces from the blade to the drive shaft 3 may be implemented, for example, by streamlined struts 5A, or, for example, by means of base plates 55, more or less perpendicular to the shaft and unidirectional wave motion.
High-speed surface movement preferably can be "collected" by scuba or, optionally, the surface of the water-wheel or impeller with horizontal shaft, i.e. turbines, or through waterproof generator 9, when the air creates a slight resistance or never creates any resistance.
Large forces are transferred from the place near the water surface to the drive shaft 3 of the alternator through a solid mounted on the shaft supporting plates 55, passing in the direction of wave propagation. If desired, the space between the plates 55 may be used for mixing air and water with each other and even to create some foaming. The resistance of the shaft 3 in the sleeve is provided by the small oil ring or special plastics.
On Fig shows the approximate hydraulic resistance and the shape factor of k for new deakebredly, slightly curved or straight in cross section open V-shaped or A-shaped profiles of the blades "SS" is "ff" in the rotating rotor, who, for example, corresponds to the rotor 7 and is rotated around the shaft 3. Large waves enter through the opening 4 and its inertial force cause the impeller to fast rotation, but almost more than the rise of a new wave of energy consumed to generate electricity in the generator. In addition, it is possible rounded U-shaped profile, but in this case, the resistance is higher, especially during the reverse-flow movement of the rotor, if not given the sharp vodolazskyi profile in the form of "the jaws of a pike".
Torque or speed, enclosed by a pair of shaped parts 1, 2 to the drive rotor 3, it is possible to increase or decrease by changing the length of the force arm between the shaped parts and the drive shaft at different phases of the wave motion or at different depths in the water layers with dissimilar rheological properties. This can be accomplished, for example, hydraulically by means of telescopic rods. Equipped with spring loaded telescopic rod provide automatic control of torque and speed.
The device can be kept at the desired depth by means of pontoons, the buoyancy of which can be adjusted to change the precipitation device and thereby optimize its work on the basis of currently available numerous waves. PL is vucast pontoons can be adjusted, for example, the injection of air or ballast water.
The device can be placed on the anchor to a depth at which it is partially or completely above the surface of the water in the troughs of the waves and completely immersed in the crests of the waves. While numerous high waves, the device can swing up and down with the waves. However, the amplitude of this vertical movement may be less than the height of the waves.
1. Method for the production of electricity from energy that is generated sea waves during the reciprocating movement and which is gradually extracted for use directly in the form of electricity on the basis of differences in the coefficients of the form, determining the hydraulic resistance, using a pair of shaped parts (1, 2)connected to the drive shaft (3), characterized in that the two structurally solid pair of shaped parts (1, 2), each of which in cross section has an open V-shaped profile and the spiral continues around the drive shaft (3) 180+180°, rotate under the action of the kinetic energy of waves by reversing the form factor of the fitting parts (1, 2) is always at intervals of 180°, and apply power to the drive shaft in both directions of the reciprocating wave motion, as the pair of fittings has its floor is Bered, alternately providing high and low resistance to flow.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to prevent the buildup of fibrous particles or flow oscillations round off the pointed top of the V-shaped profile.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the concave grooved surface between the legs of the V-shaped profile of each of the fitting parts (1, 2) perceives the inertial force of the wave motion, and convex hrebtovaya the outside surface of the legs of the V-shaped profile initially protects concave grooved surface at least partially within and reflects current in the direction from the concave surface.
4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that to provide rotational movement to the horizontal or vertical drive shaft (3) combine several different components of the force, especially in both directions of the wave flow.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for the application of rotational force to the drive shaft, which rotation is resisted electromagnetic force generator, transmit energy waves of great length, i.e. waves of low frequency, by a pair of shaped parts (1, 2).
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that establish the difference in the resistance of the shaped parts (1, 2)by increasing or decreasing the length of fittings in healthy lifestyles the Sri movement.
7. The method according to claim 1, wherein performing the back edge of the shaped parts (1, 2) in the form of edges of the open V-shaped profile, which as it rotates repeatedly takes over, and the edge of which is defined between the shaped parts hole, whose circumferential dimension less than the circumferential size of the shaped parts (1, 2).
8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the increase or decrease torque or the rotational speed, enclosed by a pair of shaped parts (1, 2) to the drive shaft (3), changing the length of the force arm between the shaped parts and the drive shaft at different phases of the wave motion or at different depths in the water layers with dissimilar rheological properties.
9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a cyclone separator for gases, mixed with water, use a pair of shaped parts (1, 2).
10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for eliminating or suppressing waves focus and direct the wavefront to a pair of shaped parts (1, 2) and thereby reduce the effect of multiple waves not only in the short scope of fittings, but also in another place.
11. The method according to claim 1 or 10, characterized in that for the formation near the sea surface layer with small waves through selection of the inertial forces of the waves from the generator in the form of electricity use shaped parts (1, 2).
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein using the extracted energy as an energy source for marine and railway transport or energy supply for public purposes.
13. Wave energy device for the gradual conversion of sea wave energy directly into electricity, contains a drive shaft (3), the generator (9), powered by the drive shaft, and a pair of shaped parts (1, 2), which are mounted on the drive shaft, and each of which has a first shape factor, proportional hydraulic resistance in the first flow direction, and a second shape factor, proportional hydraulic resistance in the reverse flow direction, the shaped parts convert the kinetic energy present in the inertial force of the waves, the energy of rotation of the drive shaft based on the difference the coefficients form shaped parts, wherein the first shape factor is defined by a concave surface shaped part, and the second, much smaller, the shape factor is defined by the convex surface of the shaped part, and a pair of shaped parts (1, 2) is bilateral, continuously or stepwise continuing spiral, the concave and convex shaped element around the drive shaft (3), each of Vogue is by Uta and convex surfaces shaped element is made thus what is asked in cross section a V-shaped profile.
14. The device according to item 13, wherein a pair of shaped parts (1, 2) consists of a durable and light hollow elements, which are connected to the drive shaft (3), and both spiral continued at 180° around the drive shaft on opposite sides of the shaft.
15. The device according to item 13, characterized in that the profile shapes of the parts cut in massive elements (12)mounted perpendicular to the axis of rotation and connected with each other for the formation of concave and convex form.
16. The device according to item 13, wherein edges and spacers (5A) of the shaped part (1, 2) are rounded at their front or side edges in the direction of rotational motion.
17. The device according to item 13, characterized in that the shaped part (1, 2) are made with decreasing thickness in the direction of motion of the rotating part.
18. The device according to item 13, wherein the direction of the drive shaft (3) is deflected from the direction of the edges of the shaped parts (1, 2).
19. The device according to item 13, characterized in that the shaped part (1, 2) their edges attached fastening means such as screws, to the streamlined struts (5A) or to the supporting wall, rounded at its edge.
20. The device according to item 13, wherein the horizontally mounted drive shaft (3) is prove the ü with a wave front to allow transmission of waves over the device or under it without failure.
21. The device according to claim 20, characterized in that several drive shafts (3) connected in series in the direction of the axis by means of a universal joint or metal cable.
22. Device according to any one of p-21, characterized in that in cross section the General profile of the shaped parts is an open V-shaped profile.
23. The device according to item 13, 20 or 21, characterized in that the device is anchored to the depth at which it is partially or completely above the surface of the water in the troughs of the waves and completely immersed in the crests of the waves.
24. The device according to item 13, 20 or 21, characterized in that the device is held at the desired depth by means of pontoons, the buoyancy of which can be adjusted to change the precipitation device and thereby optimize its operation based on multiple waves.
25. The device according to item 23, wherein the device is held at the desired depth by means of pontoons, the buoyancy of which can be adjusted to change the precipitation device and thereby optimize its operation based on multiple waves.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: underwater river-run hydroelectric power plant includes housing 1 with convergent supply and divergent discharge water passages, working chamber 4 with impeller placed in it. Working chamber 4 is toroidal-shaped. Impeller is made in the form of circular screw 5. The latter is kinematically connected in series to carrier 7, multiplying gear 8 and electric generator 9, which are arranged in air dome 6 located in central part of working chamber 4.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency due to increased torque moment of impeller shaft when obtaining electric power as a result of conversion of kinetic energy of water flow passing through river-run power plant irrespective of seasonal state and economic belonging of water reservoir.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: floating power plant includes two pontoons with parts tapering at the front connected between themselves by axis 14, at which there is a stabilising plate 15 and impeller 6 that has concave blades 32, connected to electric generators through horizontal shaft 7. After the axis 14 at longitudinal shaft 22 and support-thrust bearing 23 there fixed is a screw-propeller connected to electric generator 12 mounted at horizontal platform 13 connecting both pontoons through reducer 24 and vertical shaft 11. Vertical supports 26 attached to pontoons have piezoelectric film 29 with photoelectric converters 30 attached to it from above.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to use wind energy by power station, sheltering electric equipment from weather conditions and water flow control at impeller.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: action hydraulic turbine consists of rotor 1 with horizontal shaft 2 and with blades 3 telescoped by means of springs. Blades are arranged around the rotor. Also, the turbine consists of device pulling the blades into after coming out of a working zone. The turbine is equipped with electro-magnetic catches 26 and piezo-elements 8 installed in blades 3 and with a device for transmitting current generated with the blades. The device pulling blades 3 in after telescoping from a working zone consists of electro-magnetic element 25 stationary mounted on shaft 2. Upon telescoping from the working zone this element 25 interacts with spring-loaded electro-magnetic catches 26, springs of which are installed in rotor 1. The springs interact with blades 3. Rotor 1 is freely mounted on stationary shaft 2 and rotates around it.
EFFECT: raised efficiency and expanded functionality.
2 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydraulic power engineering and is intended to produce electric energy by converting kinetic energy of sea waves to electric energy. Wave plant includes impeller, generator and wave receiver located after impeller in wave direction. One end of wave receiver is hinged to support on the shore, and the other end by means of holders is rigidly fixed on pontoon. Impeller is rigidly fixed on pontoon by means of holders.
EFFECT: providing the possibility of maximum use of kinetic energy of sea wave.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic turbine consists of horizontally positioned rotor with assembled blades 4. The rotor corresponds to two half-axles with disks and is equipped with two side profiled disks. Blades 4 are made in form of V-shaped plates arranged along circumference from the disk of the rotor half-axle and are equipped with metal sheets rigidly fixed to sides of V-shaped plates, with angles and leak-proof spacers. At least each second metal sheet of blade 4 is fixed with angles on side profiled disks of the rotor. The circular leak proof spacers are positioned from the half-axle of the rotor to a point of V-shaped plate fixture to the metal sheet. The spacers are of a rectangular form and are installed under the angles between the V-shaped plates and the metal sheet.
EFFECT: simplification of structure fabrication and operation, increased efficiency of hydraulic turbine, efficient utilisation of river hydro-resources, reduced expenditures for power production, improved ecology and increased service life.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: tubular impeller comprises closed tube section with its walls having lengthwise slots. Tails-vanes are arranged above said slots that direct pressure flow coming out of said slots along tangent to impeller circle.
EFFECT: simplified design of tubular impeller that allows high-power small-diametre impellers without turbine shafts or guide vanes.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to wind and hydraulic power engineering, namely to hydro-electric power station and wind-mill electric generating plants of independent and individual use, both in private and small farms, and large manufacturing outfits. Turbine for conversion, simultaneously or separately, of force of flow of two media to rotation energy includes wind turbine and hydraulic turbine, which are installed on rotation axis. Wind turbine and hydraulic turbine are volumetric, e.g. in the form of cylinder with working blades e.g. in the form of flexible pockets or hinged rigid vanes arranged along outer surface of cylinder in a cross row or in a staggered order against medium flow in recesses with replaceable elements of working blades. The latter are provided with possibility of self-filling with medium flow. In internal wall of wind turbine cylinder there located are constant magnets creating induction of electric current. Fixed winding unit is installed in the centre.
EFFECT: development of turbines with simple design and fast payback.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to low speed turbine mechanisms for liquid or air medium, for generation of electric energy. Blade for low speed turbines, which carries the load from medium flow and transmits it to power mechanisms, is rigid and consists of two different arms and axial bushing installed with possibility of blade rotation at the pressure thereon of medium flow in operating position or automatic folding of the blade at relief of flow pressure when the blade gets into counter-flow. Large arm is made so that it carries the power load of flow. Smaller arm is supporting at operating position. Blade is equipped with separate replaceable element to which there attached is axial bushing and rotating elastic roller attached in the axis to external edge of the blade.
EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of energy relief of water stream and increasing the efficiency of the whole plant.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to designs of plants for transformation of sea current energy into electric energy. Generator that operates at sea current comprises cylindrical jacket 19 with inlet and outlet nozzles 20 and 21, two power generators 1 installed parallel to each other with cylindrical body 3 and external rotor 4, installed outside body 3, and hydrodynamic drive 2, made in the form of blades 9, which are radially installed on external surface of external rotors 4 in both power generators 1. Power generators 1 are arranged as birotating and are equipped with internal rotor 5, installed inside body 3. Internal and external rotors 4 and 5 are connected to each other by means of reduction gear 12, cavity of which is filled with lubricating liquid, which provides for opposite rotation of rotors 4 and 5, and blades 9 are arranged as flat.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at higher efficiency factor of plant with reduction of its dimensions and simultaneous increase of power.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: motors and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: motor for fluid energy utilisation consists of a frame with an orifice. There are drums in the cylindrical chambers of the frame. They are installed on vertical shafts, which are cinematically coupled with electrical generators. Blades are attached to the external cylindrical surfaces of the drums along helical line so that front edge of each blade is shifted on one end of the drum in the rotation direction relative to the blade end on the second drum end by 1 or 2 intervals of blades arrangement on the drum. The width of orifice inlet is no less than the doubled blade width and no more than the drum diametre. The exit cone along flow axis is less than the inlet cone no less than in two times.
EFFECT: simple structure, improved reliability, increased efficiency factor and wide range of application.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic turbine of immersion type includes rotor 20, housing-stator that is integrated into rotor 20 and electricity generating means. Rotor 20 has outer rim 22 that encircles the blades 21. There is one or more floating chambers 60 located in outer rim.
EFFECT: rotor weight reduction for floating obtaining.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to devices wherein flow of liquid rotates big rotor of screw type or rotor wheel having external circular rim positioned inside big circular case. A hydro-electric turbine consists of rotor 20 positioned inside case 30 with external circular rim 22 located in channel 32 made in case 30. The turbine is improved due to making at least one exit channel 50 for removal of foreign particles. Foreign objects caught between rotor 20 and case 30 are removed through exit channel 50.
EFFECT: avoiding or minimisation of foreign objects accumulation in channel of case.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: blade system of impeller of radial axial hydraulic turbine includes rim 1, hub 2 and blades 3, each of which is connected to rim 1 and hub 2 and provided with inlet and outlet edges 4 and 5 of bent shape and smoothly changing thickness in the direction from inlet edge to outlet edge and from hub 2 to rim 1. Blades 3 of blade system have thickened part near inlet edge 4. Maximum thickness of blade 3 in its section with hub 2 is more than maximum thickness of blade 3 in its section with rim 1. Optimum intervals of values of parameters are determined: maximum thickness of section of blade 3 with hub 2, maximum thickness of section of blade 3 with rim 1, as well as their location places along straightened middle line of the appropriate section.
EFFECT: preventing flow separation after inlet edges of blades at operation of hydraulic turbine in modes with increased heads and modes with partial loads in the whole range of working heads.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydraulic power engineering and can be used at hydraulic turbine plants; namely, in orthogonal-type hydraulic turbines with low heads. Hydraulic turbine consists of a wheel, a shaft, blades having aerodynamic profile, and traverses providing blades-to-shaft attachment. Blades are sectional and consist of pressure and back elements equipped with connection plates arranged between them and rigidly connected on one side to pressure element, and on the other side - to the back element of the blade. Pressure and back elements of the blade are made in the form of curved surfaces from sheet material of the same thickness. Section of the blade back element located close to the blade inlet edges is C-shaped and bent relative to the blade pressure element. Traverses rigidly connected to the shaft penetrate with the blades which are rigidly fixed on their ends.
EFFECT: invention is intended for increasing power, reliability of the design, decreasing material consumption, the manufacturing labour input and decreasing the cost owing to blades with aerodynamic profile being used.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydropower engineering, namely to design of turbine impellers. Tubular impeller comprises blades and shaft with upper and lower bearing disks. Tubular blades bent in the shape of elbow are installed between disks. Outlets of tubular blades are oriented horizontally along tangents to circumference of lower disk. Blades are arranged in the form of pipe sections, inlet upper sections of which are installed vertically. All pressure flow passes only inside tubular blades, which excludes non-power flow of water passing through turbine, improves cavitation characteristic of turbine and flow laminarity. External surfaces of tubular blades and surfaces of other impeller parts remain dry, which reduces losses for friction.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of impeller.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: centrifugal reaction impeller can be used in non-pressure devices, for example in centrifugal pumps and turbines. The impeller if made up of two plates with a circular belt rigidly fitted there between and furnished with closed discharge channels made therein. The aforesaid impeller is fitted on the shaft and has a hole to receive working medium. The discharge channels are arranged along the axial component perpendicular to the impeller radius, their outlets being directed towards the direction opposite to the impeller rotation. The impeller inner space features toroidal shape with a golden cross section.
EFFECT: reduced mechanical friction losses and higher efficiency.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic unit contains hydro generator, working blades rotating around a horizontal axis and having a shape formed with one parabola or with a cross of two parabolas, and a shaft running inside a bar to transfer a torque to the generator. The unit is equipped with a hollow drum with supports providing its floatation ability, and with a rotary table whereon the hydro generator is assembled. Also the hydro generator has inertial wheels with massive rims secured to both sides of the drum, and the second bar. The working blades are fastened flexibly with loops to the drum and pressed to the supports by flat springs. The shaft is made flexible and runs through both rods by means of which the axis of the unit is held and directed.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a hydro unit.
FIELD: turbine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: blade system comprises blades whose inlet and outlet edges are made so that the working section of the inlet blade edge adjacent to the hub prevents against cavitation.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic jet device includes water conduit made in the form of system of channels with inlet water intake holes, which are located symmetrically relative to its longitudinal axis, vertical side walls common for all channels and with curved walls which are horizontal in cross section of channels, which form nozzles converging in the flow direction and having the outlet holes for conversion of mechanical energy of the ship's rolling to hydraulic jet energy. System contains three stages of energy conversion, which are located one after the other. Each of the stages is made in the form of system of channels located one above the other in vertical longitudinal plane of the water conduit section and symmetrically relative to its longitudinal axis.
EFFECT: increasing use efficiency of hydraulic jet device at conversion of wave energy to hydraulic jet energy.