Procedure for fabrication of briquettes from carbon containing materials

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: procedure for fabrication of briquettes consists in preparation of raw materials, in loading into briquetting device, in briquetting and in briquettes drying. As carbon containing materials there is used peat and/or plant residues and/or wood wastes. Raw material is prepared in a disk extruder at temperature 70-100°C and humidity 45-60 %.

EFFECT: production of briquetted fuel from various kinds of carbon containing materials possessing high qualitative indices; reduced expenditures for production.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the production of briquetted fuel from carbonaceous materials of vegetable origin, such as peat, vegetable waste (sunflower husk, straw, chaff, flax, buckwheat husks and walnut and the like), wood waste in the form of sawdust, bark, shavings, chips, which can be used in households and industry.

Currently known methods of obtaining briquetted fuel from materials of vegetable origin (sawdust and bark of various species of wood, sunflower husk, straw, chaff, flax, buckwheat husks and walnut) include the preparation of raw materials, loading it into the briquetting device, briquetting and drying briquettes [see Press screw (extruder) - equipment for briquetting of waste - http://www.kontakt-gas.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=39&Itemid=5 Line production of fuel briquettes - http://fire.escalade.com.ua/node/17]. At the same time preparing the raw material is pre-drying it to a moisture content of 7-12%, to achieve which is used as the heat generator (boiler) for a solid fuel and a drum dryer, briquetting is carried out in screw presses (extruders) under high pressure when heated from 250 to 360°C. the Disadvantage of these methods is the high energy intensity and the inability to use wet vegetable waste that p is igodit the cost of the finished product. In addition, these methods are not processed peat.

There is also known a method of producing fuel briquettes from crushed plant waste (wood aprovecha mixture of hardwood and softwood) 3,5 to 15% moisture them bursting through forming a channel under the influence of pulse pressure of 25-40 MPa with a frequency of 35-80 pulses/min during heating of the crushed waste inlet forming a channel to 120-160°C and output to 170-250°C With a temperature gradient of 0.1-2.8 deg/mm along the length of the forming channel [see A.S. USSR №1798367, IPC5C10L 5/44, publ. 28.02.1993]. The disadvantage of this method is the high energy intensity, because the raw materials should be pre-dried, and requires a special device installed on 100-ton friction press, to which are connected four groups of heaters and thermocouples that supports the specified temperature, which leads to higher finished goods. While this method is processed only wood-aprovecho a mixture of deciduous and coniferous species.

There is a method of producing fuel briquettes from peat [see technology for the production of fuel briquettes - http://torf.brest.gas.by/tehnology.ntml] includes preparation of raw milled peat or peat crumb moisture 40-53%, drying it to a moisture content of not more than 18%, and pressing the dried peat is the briquettes. The disadvantage of this method is the high energy consumption due to the need of drying peat. In addition, one of the main requirements for milled peat as a raw material for briquetting, is the constancy of quality indicators, therefore, fluctuations in the moisture content, ash content, density and contamination of raw materials greatly complicate the management of technological process of production and lead to lower quality and higher cost of the finished product. Thus in this way it is possible to process only the peat.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is a method for producing briquettes from carbonaceous material, in particular peat, including the preparation of raw materials, loading it into the briquetting device, briquetting and drying briquettes [see RF patent №2096441, IPC6C10F 7/06, publ. 20.11.1997], selected as a prototype. In the specified method for preparation of raw materials is performed by grinding and drying of peat until the water content is not more than 20% or a mixture of the composition: peat completely dry 50-80 wt.%, water - the rest, then served raw on the screw press, which passes under pressure 3-5 bar through the cone, preheated to a temperature of 120-150°C in cylindrical channels, forming briquettes.

The disadvantages of the known technical solutions are:

- low the quality indicators (strength, the calorific value and high moisture content of the obtained briquettes;

- high energy, caused by the necessity of pre-drying of raw materials and the heating cone with electroosmotic;

- the impossibility of producing fuel briquettes from other types of carbonaceous materials.

The problem to which the invention is directed, is to create a generic method of producing briquettes from various kinds of carbon materials, high-quality, and reducing costs of production.

The problem is solved in that in the method for producing briquettes from carbonaceous materials, including raw materials preparation, loading in a briquetting device, briquetting and drying of the briquettes according to the invention the preparation of the raw materials is carried out in a disk extruder at a temperature of 70-100°C and humidity of 45-60%. The carbonaceous materials used peat and/or vegetable waste and/or waste wood.

The invention is illustrated in the following. Almost all of carbonaceous materials of plant origin used for the production of fuel briquettes contain tar and bituminous substances. These substances are highly astringent properties and can be successfully used as SV is based upon the briquetting material. As any substance they have a melting point, for example, in the peat contains wax, resin and bitumen having a melting temperature, respectively, and 72°C, 70°C and 84°C, sawdust softwood resin substance having a melting point of 74°C.

In the process of mechanical impact (abrasion) in the disk extruder original carbonaceous material is heated. To obtain the desired result must be extracted from carbonaceous material tar and bituminous substances, evenly distribute them in the amount of raw materials and save their astringent properties before the end of the briquetting process. This set of processes is not possible without temperature regulation. Lowering the temperature in the disk extruder below 70°C will not allow you to get the tar and bituminous substances in the liquid state, which reduces the strength properties of briquettes and increasing energy consumption in the briquetting process. As the temperature increases above 100°C tar and bituminous substances lose their astringent properties. This reduces the strength characteristics of briquettes raw materials and increase the cost of briquetting.

For this process it is also necessary to adjust the composition of the gas phase. This is necessary to prevent oxidation of the tar and bituminous substances is the process of mechanical action on the material. Regulation of the gas-phase composition in the extruder is carried out by changing the humidity of the material. By reducing the moisture in the extruder is less than 45% of the amount of steam released during the abrasion, it is not enough to create a neutral atmosphere. Resulting in lower mechanical properties of briquettes and increase the cost of their production. By increasing the moisture of the raw material in the extruder is above 60% plasticized mass on exit contains an excessive amount of moisture, which reduces the strength of the briquettes and the increase in the cost of drying the final product.

The inventive method is as follows.

Carbonaceous material, for example, milled peat with optimal humidity of 45-60% warehouse of raw materials is fed into a hopper and from there the disc or screw feeder in a disk extruder. When fed through the extruder carbonaceous material with humidity below 45% of its doublenaut by feeding water into the extruder. When the abrasion of the material in the extruder keep the temperature of 70-100°C. the Obtained plasticized mass is loaded into the briquetting device, for example, briquetting press or screw press (extruder), or a roll press. These briquettes are sent to the warehouse, where dried for 3-5 days at a temperature of 18-25°C. and then ship to consumers. Cf is nitely techno-economic analysis of the technologies listed in table 1.

Table 1
Comparative analysis of technologies
Alternative technologyThe original moisture content of the peat, %Technological parametersQuality indicators
The consumption of electricity. energy kW/hCapacity, t/hThe compressive strength of the briquette, kg/cm2The calorific value, kcal/kgMoisture, %
Prototype401601,0120400055
According to the claimed method401101,1125410048
45871,3130400 40
55801,5140500035
60851,3135470038
651001,05122420042

The briquettes obtained from some other carbon-containing materials have the following quality indicators (table 2):

Table 2
Carbonaceous materialQuality indicators
The compressive strength of the briquette, kg/cm2The calorific value, kcal/kgMoisture, %
Sawdust softwood trees115,04500to 12.0
The husk of podzone the nick 110,050005,0
The buckwheat husk115,043106,0
A mixture of peat and sawdust softwood trees117,0470030,0
A mixture of peat and husk sunflower119,0490015,0

Thus, the inventive method allows to obtain bitterbynde fuel of various kinds of carbon materials, high-quality. This reduces the cost of production.

1. The method for producing briquettes from carbonaceous materials, including raw materials preparation, loading in a briquetting facility, briquetting and drying of the briquettes, characterized in that the preparation of raw materials is carried out in a disk extruder at a temperature of 70-100°C and humidity of 45-60%.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as carbonaceous materials use peat, and/or vegetable waste and/or waste wood.



 

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