Procedure for fabrication of briquettes from carbon containing materials
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure for fabrication of briquettes consists in preparation of raw materials, in loading into briquetting device, in briquetting and in briquettes drying. As carbon containing materials there is used peat and/or plant residues and/or wood wastes. Raw material is prepared in a disk extruder at temperature 70-100°C and humidity 45-60 %.
EFFECT: production of briquetted fuel from various kinds of carbon containing materials possessing high qualitative indices; reduced expenditures for production.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to the production of briquetted fuel from carbonaceous materials of vegetable origin, such as peat, vegetable waste (sunflower husk, straw, chaff, flax, buckwheat husks and walnut and the like), wood waste in the form of sawdust, bark, shavings, chips, which can be used in households and industry.
Currently known methods of obtaining briquetted fuel from materials of vegetable origin (sawdust and bark of various species of wood, sunflower husk, straw, chaff, flax, buckwheat husks and walnut) include the preparation of raw materials, loading it into the briquetting device, briquetting and drying briquettes [see Press screw (extruder) - equipment for briquetting of waste - http://www.kontakt-gas.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=39&Itemid=5 Line production of fuel briquettes - http://fire.escalade.com.ua/node/17]. At the same time preparing the raw material is pre-drying it to a moisture content of 7-12%, to achieve which is used as the heat generator (boiler) for a solid fuel and a drum dryer, briquetting is carried out in screw presses (extruders) under high pressure when heated from 250 to 360°C. the Disadvantage of these methods is the high energy intensity and the inability to use wet vegetable waste that p is igodit the cost of the finished product. In addition, these methods are not processed peat.
There is also known a method of producing fuel briquettes from crushed plant waste (wood aprovecha mixture of hardwood and softwood) 3,5 to 15% moisture them bursting through forming a channel under the influence of pulse pressure of 25-40 MPa with a frequency of 35-80 pulses/min during heating of the crushed waste inlet forming a channel to 120-160°C and output to 170-250°C With a temperature gradient of 0.1-2.8 deg/mm along the length of the forming channel [see A.S. USSR №1798367, IPC5C10L 5/44, publ. 28.02.1993]. The disadvantage of this method is the high energy intensity, because the raw materials should be pre-dried, and requires a special device installed on 100-ton friction press, to which are connected four groups of heaters and thermocouples that supports the specified temperature, which leads to higher finished goods. While this method is processed only wood-aprovecho a mixture of deciduous and coniferous species.
There is a method of producing fuel briquettes from peat [see technology for the production of fuel briquettes - http://torf.brest.gas.by/tehnology.ntml] includes preparation of raw milled peat or peat crumb moisture 40-53%, drying it to a moisture content of not more than 18%, and pressing the dried peat is the briquettes. The disadvantage of this method is the high energy consumption due to the need of drying peat. In addition, one of the main requirements for milled peat as a raw material for briquetting, is the constancy of quality indicators, therefore, fluctuations in the moisture content, ash content, density and contamination of raw materials greatly complicate the management of technological process of production and lead to lower quality and higher cost of the finished product. Thus in this way it is possible to process only the peat.
The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is a method for producing briquettes from carbonaceous material, in particular peat, including the preparation of raw materials, loading it into the briquetting device, briquetting and drying briquettes [see RF patent №2096441, IPC6C10F 7/06, publ. 20.11.1997], selected as a prototype. In the specified method for preparation of raw materials is performed by grinding and drying of peat until the water content is not more than 20% or a mixture of the composition: peat completely dry 50-80 wt.%, water - the rest, then served raw on the screw press, which passes under pressure 3-5 bar through the cone, preheated to a temperature of 120-150°C in cylindrical channels, forming briquettes.
The disadvantages of the known technical solutions are:
- low the quality indicators (strength, the calorific value and high moisture content of the obtained briquettes;
- high energy, caused by the necessity of pre-drying of raw materials and the heating cone with electroosmotic;
- the impossibility of producing fuel briquettes from other types of carbonaceous materials.
The problem to which the invention is directed, is to create a generic method of producing briquettes from various kinds of carbon materials, high-quality, and reducing costs of production.
The problem is solved in that in the method for producing briquettes from carbonaceous materials, including raw materials preparation, loading in a briquetting device, briquetting and drying of the briquettes according to the invention the preparation of the raw materials is carried out in a disk extruder at a temperature of 70-100°C and humidity of 45-60%. The carbonaceous materials used peat and/or vegetable waste and/or waste wood.
The invention is illustrated in the following. Almost all of carbonaceous materials of plant origin used for the production of fuel briquettes contain tar and bituminous substances. These substances are highly astringent properties and can be successfully used as SV is based upon the briquetting material. As any substance they have a melting point, for example, in the peat contains wax, resin and bitumen having a melting temperature, respectively, and 72°C, 70°C and 84°C, sawdust softwood resin substance having a melting point of 74°C.
In the process of mechanical impact (abrasion) in the disk extruder original carbonaceous material is heated. To obtain the desired result must be extracted from carbonaceous material tar and bituminous substances, evenly distribute them in the amount of raw materials and save their astringent properties before the end of the briquetting process. This set of processes is not possible without temperature regulation. Lowering the temperature in the disk extruder below 70°C will not allow you to get the tar and bituminous substances in the liquid state, which reduces the strength properties of briquettes and increasing energy consumption in the briquetting process. As the temperature increases above 100°C tar and bituminous substances lose their astringent properties. This reduces the strength characteristics of briquettes raw materials and increase the cost of briquetting.
For this process it is also necessary to adjust the composition of the gas phase. This is necessary to prevent oxidation of the tar and bituminous substances is the process of mechanical action on the material. Regulation of the gas-phase composition in the extruder is carried out by changing the humidity of the material. By reducing the moisture in the extruder is less than 45% of the amount of steam released during the abrasion, it is not enough to create a neutral atmosphere. Resulting in lower mechanical properties of briquettes and increase the cost of their production. By increasing the moisture of the raw material in the extruder is above 60% plasticized mass on exit contains an excessive amount of moisture, which reduces the strength of the briquettes and the increase in the cost of drying the final product.
The inventive method is as follows.
Carbonaceous material, for example, milled peat with optimal humidity of 45-60% warehouse of raw materials is fed into a hopper and from there the disc or screw feeder in a disk extruder. When fed through the extruder carbonaceous material with humidity below 45% of its doublenaut by feeding water into the extruder. When the abrasion of the material in the extruder keep the temperature of 70-100°C. the Obtained plasticized mass is loaded into the briquetting device, for example, briquetting press or screw press (extruder), or a roll press. These briquettes are sent to the warehouse, where dried for 3-5 days at a temperature of 18-25°C. and then ship to consumers. Cf is nitely techno-economic analysis of the technologies listed in table 1.
|Comparative analysis of technologies|
|Alternative technology||The original moisture content of the peat, %||Technological parameters||Quality indicators|
|The consumption of electricity. energy kW/h||Capacity, t/h||The compressive strength of the briquette, kg/cm2||The calorific value, kcal/kg||Moisture, %|
|According to the claimed method||40||110||1,1||125||4100||48|
The briquettes obtained from some other carbon-containing materials have the following quality indicators (table 2):
|Carbonaceous material||Quality indicators|
|The compressive strength of the briquette, kg/cm2||The calorific value, kcal/kg||Moisture, %|
|Sawdust softwood trees||115,0||4500||to 12.0|
|The husk of podzone the nick||110,0||5000||5,0|
|The buckwheat husk||115,0||4310||6,0|
|A mixture of peat and sawdust softwood trees||117,0||4700||30,0|
|A mixture of peat and husk sunflower||119,0||4900||15,0|
Thus, the inventive method allows to obtain bitterbynde fuel of various kinds of carbon materials, high-quality. This reduces the cost of production.
1. The method for producing briquettes from carbonaceous materials, including raw materials preparation, loading in a briquetting facility, briquetting and drying of the briquettes, characterized in that the preparation of raw materials is carried out in a disk extruder at a temperature of 70-100°C and humidity of 45-60%.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as carbonaceous materials use peat, and/or vegetable waste and/or waste wood.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: process to manufacture purified carbon from brown coal implies treating loosened batch mixed with water in cavitation apparatus, which provides for disintegration of organic portion of carbon-containing mixture down to particles of less than 20 mcm. Then, resulting water-carbon mixture is directed to separation tank for sedimentation of mineral mass, which is regularly dumped. From the separation tank, mixture is fed to electrophoretic separation device, out of which paste-like carbon-containing mixture is extracted. Cavitation apparatus power is selected in such a way so as to obtain inorganic particles larger than the organic ones in the water-carbon mixture. Impact cavitation action is applied to continuous slurry flow, while water-carbon mixture is held in the separation tank for at least 20 sec.
EFFECT: high efficiency; production of low-ash purified carbon from brown coal.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: carbon briquettes based on ground carbon-containing starting material (peat, coals, and the like) are fabricated by mixing starting material with 30-50% of water, treating the mix on rotary cavitation apparatus in 5 to 50 operation cycles at 15 to 70°С and cavitator rotor speed 3000-12000 rpm, pouring out thus treated mix into special molds, wherein mix is dried in air flow at 15 to 100°С to form ready-to-use briquettes (after cooling, if needed).
EFFECT: simplified fabrication process and increased process efficiency.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel briquettes from carbon-containing fine-fraction materials. Proposed method comprises preliminary mixing of melasses and lime-containing component to get modified binder to be mixed with fine-fraction carbon-containing mineral material and forming briquettes with the following ratio of components, % by weight: melasses 1.8-7.0, lime-containing component (in terms of Ca(OH)2) 0.8-3.2, fine-fraction carbon-containing mineral material making the rest. Ratio between melasses and carbon-containing component (in terms of Ca(OH)2) makes 1:(0.25-0.75), respectively. In compliance with the other version, proposed method comprises preliminary mixing of melasses and lime-containing component to get modified binder to be mixed with fine-fraction carbon-containing mineral material, fine-fraction vegetable materisl and forming briquettes with the following ratio of components, % by weight: melasses 3.0-9.0, lime-containing component (in terms of Ca(OH)2) 1.2-4.5, fine-fraction carbon-containing vegetable material 5.0-20.0, and fine-fraction carbon-containing mineral material making the rest. Ratio between melasses and carbon-containing component (in terms of Ca(OH)2) makes 1:(0.25-0.75), respectively.
EFFECT: improved ecological properties, simplified production process.
11 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: solid fuel technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for application in production of solid fuel in metallurgy and for domestic necessities. Method of restoring sieve composition of coke comprises mixing off-grad coke with binder, such as various cement brands and Portland cement, moistening, briquetting of mix followed by heat treatment, and cooling. Off-grad coke utilized is coke fines fraction 0-10 mm and/or coke nut fraction 10-25 mm belonging to a certain types, which are mixed with binder at ratio (60-95):(5-40), respectively. Moistening is provided by adding water to 35% based on the weight of mix. Heat treatment is effected with steam. Cooling proceeds at ambient temperature to residual moisture content 5%. Mix is completed with filler in the form of organic or inorganic naturally occurring or man-made substances. Briquetting is effected on either vibration or press equipment. Coke briquette contains 60 to 95% of above-defined off-grade coke and 5 to 40 % of binder. Size of thus manufactured briquettes corresponds to required sieve composition of coke.
EFFECT: enabled full restoration of all fractions of needless process coke residues to useful sieve composition appropriate for fabrication of environmentally safe briquettes with improved consumer's properties without considerable investments.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: solid fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabrication of hydrocarbon moldings in the form of briquettes or granules. Which can be used as natural solid fuel substitutes for municipal and industrial needs but also as fertilizers and/or soil structure improvers. Carbon-containing moldings contain (i) ground peat and/or lignin (5-50%), (ii) wood-vegetable components in the form of sawdust and/or wood chips, and/or bark, and/or straw, and/or chaff, and/or seed shells, and/or oilcake, and/or plant stems and leaves, and/or animal components in the form of poultry dung and/or manure (1-10%), and (iii) binder in the form of burnt lime, sodium hydroxide, or potassium hydroxide (balancing amount). Method of fabrication comprises dispensing, mixing, grinding, and activation of peat and/or lignin with binder, after which is added above-indicated wood-vegetable and/or animal components and resulting mixture is remixed. Final mixture is converted into moldings, which are then compacted by lying during 2 to 30 h.
EFFECT: extended consumer's market of low-cost and environmentally safe fuel product, enabled utilization of wide range of energy organic wastes, and improved fertility of soil.
6 cl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method of obtaining a product containing inflammable fuel from biomass raw material. The method involves pretreatment of biomass raw material having density less than approximately 0.5 g/cm3 using one or more pretreatment methods. The pretreatment methods are selected from a group comprising irradiation, ultrasonic treatment, pyrolysis and oxidation. Pretreatment via irradiation involves irradiation with an electron beam. The obtained biomass raw material then undergoes conversion using microorganisms to obtain a product containing inflammable fuel.
EFFECT: improved method.
16 cl, 40 dwg, 9 tbl, 20 ex