Aircraft with inductive drag reducer

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft comprises fuselage, two wings arranged in symmetry on fuselage sides, and jet engine nacelle secured by means of pylon 18 to every wing. Every said pylon is provided with shaped bearing housing 20, 30 arranged to create resultant propulsion by oblique airflow. Housing 20, 20 extends from end 20a, 30a secured on jet engine pylon 18 toward elongation inclined for 30 with respect to wide wing top surface.

EFFECT: lower drag.

8 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to devices for reducing the aerodynamic drag on the aircraft.

On aircraft are constantly trying to reduce aerodynamic drag during flight at cruising speed for various reasons, in particular with the aim of saving fuel.

Therefore, the main objective of the present invention is the reduction of the aerodynamic drag of the aircraft.

In this regard, an object of the invention is an aircraft containing the longitudinal fuselage, at least two side wings, symmetrically attached on one side of the fuselage, and at least one jet engine nacelle mounted on each side wing using the pylon mounting a jet engine.

According to the invention on each of the pylons attaching a jet engine to perform at least one profiled carrier body so as to produce a resulting driving force under the action of the oblique air flow.

This case is blown local air flow large forces resulting from the interaction of the fuselage and the main bearing surface with the front longitudinal air flow aircraft. The direction of this paragraph the current is not in line with the General longitudinal direction of the front of the air stream of the aircraft, and directed at an angle with respect to the main direction. The lifting force is generated in this case, is directed perpendicular to the oblique direction of the local flow. This lifting force is directed more towards the end of the main bearing surface and to a lesser extent in the direction of the nose of the aircraft. Such power in the projection of the flight path creates a resulting driving force.

It should be noted that the case creates a local force of drag.

However, the participation of these local forces in the resulting frontal resistance of the aircraft is substantially compensated by the resulting driving force is generated in the projection of the bearing strength of the hull axis, the resulting drag of the aircraft.

According to distinctive feature mentioned in at least one case passes from the end attached to the pylon for a jet engine and away from the end in the direction of elongation, with the inclination of at least 30 with respect to the upper surface of the considered side of the wing.

The tilt directions of elongation of the body is not necessarily vertical (90), but should not be too close to the horizontal, as in this case, the body will not be able to use the air flow, inclined relative to the horizontal direction, front air flow, to create a carrier force.

According to distinctive feature mentioned at least one building is located on the line of the upper edge of the pylon mounting a jet engine or near it.

With this arrangement, the Cabinet, it can absorb part of the energy contained in a transverse air stream.

According to distinctive feature mentioned at least one building is located along the longitudinal direction of the pylon mounting a jet engine at a distance from the side of the pylon attached to the side wing, comprising from 10% to 70% of the local chord bearing surface.

At the location of the housing at a distance from the bearing surface, it can take energy oblique flows. Indeed, if the case was too close to the bearing surface, there would be an undesirable interaction with the stream of the leading edge of the bearing surface.

According to distinctive feature mentioned in at least one case contains the wetted surface and has a size of lengthening or height, measured from the end of the said housing, fixed to the pylon for a jet engine, while the wetted surface and height are in the ratio surface/height, Zack is Uchenna between 1 and 4.

Indeed, too much wetted surface of the hull would create a very good bearing strength, but at the same time, and too much of its own drag.

It should be noted that increasing the height of the body at constant area, reduce created their own drag.

Thus, correspondingly adapting the size and height of the case, get a good compromise between the received carrier power, which is desirable to increase, and their own frontal resistance created by the body, which it is desirable to minimize.

According to distinctive feature mentioned in at least one case contains the wetted surface, which is regulated depending on the extent required to reduce drag and the total size of the aircraft.

According to distinctive feature mentioned in at least one case contains the so-called free end opposite the end attached to the pylon for a jet engine, with the free end directed backward relative to the front position of the fixed end, giving, thus, the body tilted backward in the longitudinal direction.

It should be noted that when the velocity of the aircraft about 0.4 or 0.5 Mach Mach free end to which Cusa can be located essentially on the vertical ends of the housing, attached to the pylon mounting. However, when the aircraft reaches transonic speeds, it is preferable to tilt the free end of the back housing to limit supersonic phenomena.

Therefore, limit the drag created by the body at transonic speed.

According to distinctive feature mentioned in at least one case has the shape of a small wing, which gives the body aerodynamic profile.

According to distinctive feature mentioned, at least one housing includes a wall that defines an internal channel removal of the fluid flow, while the said channel at one end communicated with the interior of the pylon mounting a jet engine where it comes from fluid flow, and at a distance from this end, at least one hole made in the wall of the housing and outside of this building.

This design allows, for example, be removed through the body's internal airflow in the pylon for a jet engine to the outside of the pylon.

Other distinguishing features and advantages will be more apparent from the following description, provided solely as a non-restrictive example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

figure 1 - is the overall schematic view in perspective, illustrating the location of the lifting body, in accordance with the present invention, with respect to the fuselage and to the bearing surface of the aircraft;

figure 2 is an enlarged schematic view in perspective, from the side of the fuselage, hull, shown in figure 1;

figure 3 is an enlarged schematic top view of the housing shown in figure 2, and actors;

4 is a schematic front view of the housing shown in figures 1 and 2;

5 is a view of a variant of implementation of the housing, shown in figure 4, in another angular direction;

6 and 7 is a schematic view of the housing according to a variant of execution with the internal channel delete thread and holes.

As shown in figure 1, the overall position 10 aircraft includes a fuselage 12, which are connected by two side wings arranged symmetrically one on each side of the fuselage.

Figure 1 shows only one of the side wings 14.

Gondola 16 jet engine mounted on the wing 14 by means of the pylon 18 mounting a jet engine.

The pylon 18 mounting fixed under a wing, while it is not shown in the drawing, the fastening is known and its detailed description is omitted.

The above-mentioned structure, consisting of the gondola 16 jet engine and pylon 18 mounting identical structure provided on the other side wings which, not shown in this drawing.

It should be noted that depending on the type of aircraft on each side wing is possible to provide several such arrangements.

As shown in figures 1 and 2, the bearing housing 20 is located on the pylon 18 mounting a jet engine.

This case has, for example, the profile in the form of small bearing surface, so as not to create too large private drag.

In the example shown in figure 1 and 2, the housing 20 is made in the form of a small wing.

Indeed, hull shape similar to the shape of the wing, which flew with the average local velocity of the place of installation of the bearing housing on the pylon 18.

As shown in figure 3, when the aircraft is flying at cruising speed, the total air flow acting on the aircraft has a longitudinal direction F. During contact of the aircraft with this thread formed local oblique, i.e. the longitudinal threads, which help to reduce the overall drag of the aircraft, in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 3 by the arrow 22 indicates the direction of one of the oblique flow, also known as side streams.

At a meeting of this local oblique flow and bearing housing 20 which creates a drag force on 24 perpend is its oblique to the direction of the local flow.

This bearing force contains a significant longitudinal component 26, which represents a resultant driving force to help reduce the overall aerodynamic drag of the aircraft.

Although meeting local oblique flow with the bearing housing 20 also creates a local force of drag in this case (these parasitic forces not shown), they are largely compensated for by the longitudinal component of the generated resultant driving force 24.

In addition, as will be shown below, can also reduce these local forces drag.

As shown in figures 1 and 2, the bearing housing 20 is located longitudinally along the upper edge of the pylon 18 mounting a jet engine, on the one hand, at a distance from the side of the pylon attached to the wing 14 and, on the other hand, at a distance from the side of the pylon attached to the nacelle 16.

In particular, the housing is located in front of the front edge of the bearing surface at a distance of 10% to 70% of chord bearing surface.

Indeed, it is necessary that the case was not too close to the bearing surface, in order to avoid the negative impact of the interactions of this bearing surface at the front edge.

In addition, too much proximity carried the future of the housing 20 from the pylon 18 mounting, connected to the nacelle 16 may hinder the creation of a sufficiently strong oblique flows.

The housing 20 include, for example, on the pylon 18 mounting a jet engine in the place where slippage, i.e. the deviation between the local oblique flow and forward flow of aircraft (longitudinal flow) is maximum.

In particular, the bearing body 20 includes two opposite end: end 20A, which is the base, which is attached to the pylon for a jet engine (figure 2), and the end 20b, remote from this pylon.

Thus, the case goes in the direction of elongation, also called the height, which in the example shown in figure 4 (the gondola front; the arrow shows the direction of the fuselage), is essentially perpendicular to the essentially horizontal upper surface (back) of the bearing surface 14.

However, it should be noted that the direction of elongation of the bearing housing 20, shown in a vertical position in figure 1 and 2 may be inclined relative to the upper surface of the bearing surface at an angle of inclination, which is not necessarily equal to 90, and at least equal to 30.

The angle of other than 90, shown in figure 5 (the gondola front; the arrow shows the direction of the fuselage).

Indeed, this inclination of the trunk call which allows him to create a sufficient bearing strength, to significantly reduce the overall aerodynamic drag of the aircraft at the meeting of the housing with the local oblique flow.

It should also be noted that the bearing body may adopt such inclination when he is pinned to the upper edge of the pylon 18 mounting a jet engine, and when it is located near the upper edge.

It should be noted that the wetted surface of the bearing housing 20 regulated depending on the desired degree of reduction of the aerodynamic drag of the aircraft, as well as from the overall size of the aircraft.

Determining the dimensions of the lifting body, strive to create maximum bearing strength due to minimal surface, so that the bearing housing is not created too much drag.

It should be noted that determine the laws of twisting and bending of profiles forming the bearing body, depending on the changes along the leading edge lifting body, with one hand, slipping, measured in total aerodynamic coordinate system of the aircraft, and, on the other hand, the necessary aerodynamic loads on the body.

In particular, define the profile of each of the cross-section of the body taken perpendicular to its height, depending on the local skew flux is A.

It should be noted that the sizing is produced by adjusting the amount of extension or height of the hull wetted surface.

Thus, the ratio between the outer surface of the housing and its height usually ranges from 1 to 4 (this value depends on the overall size of the aircraft), in order to achieve a good tradeoff between the bearing force created when meeting local oblique flow with the body, which should be the maximum, and its own local inductive drag, which must be reduced.

For example, the wetted surface is 4 m2and body height is 1 m, which gives a ratio of 4.

In addition, in order to obtain maximum bearing strength for the housing 20, the angular position of the body regulate the rotation around the vertical axis, which define its height.

Thus, carry out the adjustment of the housing relative to the axis, generally perpendicular to the profile forming body, that is, adjust the position of the body relative to the local slanted flow to one of the bearing surfaces of the housing optimally Abduvali stream.

Thus, it is possible to achieve a glide ratio, i.e. the ratio between the carrier power and frontal resistance.

It should be noted that in C the dependence on pressure field, which is formed on the housing, that is, depending on the characteristics of the flow surrounding the aircraft, the presence of the above-mentioned case can improve air flow to the bearing surface.

In some conditions, you can actually use the inductive effect of the compression ratio for the trailing edge of the lifting body to delay the compressibility of the main bearing surface.

Thus, the profile of the wing, which are at the rear of the bearing housing act speed, lower speed, which would be created in the absence of a body.

As shown in the example of figures 1 and 2, the free end 20b of the housing is not necessarily located on the vertical end 20A. Indeed, the end 20b can be shifted in the longitudinal direction (axis of the fuselage) to the back so that he was back relative to the front position of the end 20A fixed to the pylon 18 mounting a jet engine.

Thus, the housing 20 is tilted back, which has a special meaning to limit its own drag created by the body in the mode of transonic velocities, i.e. for local Mach numbers in excess of 0.6.

As shown in Fig.6 (a partial view in section of the pylon with his surroundings), according to a variant, the housing 30 contains an internal channel 32, which forms a passage for air flow, comes the future of the inner part of the pylon 18 mounting a jet engine.

In particular, the internal thread in the pylon 18 attachment comes, for example, from a cold part of the inner air-conditioning system of a jet engine.

Thus, the availability of housing 30 is used to remove this thread, coming from the pylon.

In particular, the housing 30 includes a wall, the outer surface of which defines the outer shape of the hull and the internal surface of which defines an inner channel of removal of the fluid flow.

As shown in Fig.6, this channel is reported by end 32A with the interior of the pylon 18 mounting a jet engine and pylon and along the body, being directed towards its free end 30b its opposite end 32b.

In the wall of the housing in one or more areas of the body has one or more through holes, such as hole 34, as shown in the enlarged view in section along the line a-a in Fig.7. in order to ensure the removal of outward flow circulating in the channel.

7 shows the profile 30C wall of the bearing housing in cross-section incision, as well as the profile of this wall in the base, which coincides with its end 30A.

It should be noted that the holes can be run along the wall of the casing uniformly or non-uniform.

They are on the side of the housing, the opposite side of the blown oblique sweat the kom (side, facing up figure 3).

The hole or holes can alternatively be performed at the free end 30b of the housing or near this end.

The end 32b of the channel itself forms a hole.

It should be noted that the holes have the flow area of 0.1 to 2 DM2depending on the aircraft.

It should also be noted that it is possible to combine two possibilities, namely to comply with the holes along the casing wall and to its free end.

1. Aircraft containing the longitudinal fuselage, at least two side wings, symmetrically attached on one side of the fuselage, and at least one jet engine nacelle mounted on each side wing using a pylon (18) securing the jet engine, wherein each of the pylons attaching a jet engine to perform at least one profiled bearing housing (20; 30) thus, to produce a resulting driving force under the action of the oblique air flow, while mentioned, at least one case (20; 30) is, starting from the end (20A, 30A), mounted on a pylon (18) securing the jet engine, and away from the end in the direction of elongation, with the inclination of at least 30 with respect to the upper surface rassmatrivaemoj the side of the wing.

2. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the said at least one housing (20; 30) is located on the line of the upper edge of the pylon (18) attaching a jet engine or near it.

3. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the said at least one housing (20; 30) is located along the longitudinal direction of the pylon mounting a jet engine at a distance from the side of the pylon attached to the side wing, comprising from 10% to 70% of the local chord bearing surface.

4. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the said at least one housing (20; 30) contains the wetted surface and the amount of elongation or height, measured from the end of the said housing, fixed to the pylon for a jet engine, while the wetted surface and height are in the ratio surface/height concluded between 1 and 4.

5. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the said at least one housing (20; 30) contains the wetted surface, which govern according to the degree necessary to reduce drag and the total size of the aircraft.

6. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the said at least one housing (20; 30) contains the so-called free end (20b; 30b), opposite con is, attached to the pylon for a jet engine, with the free end directed backward relative to the front position of the fixed end (20A, 30A), giving, thus, the body tilted backward in the longitudinal direction.

7. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the said at least one body has the shape of a small wing.

8. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the said at least one housing (30) includes a wall that defines an internal channel (32) removal of the fluid flow, while the said channel at one end (32A) is communicated with the interior of the pylon (18) securing the jet engine where it comes from fluid flow, and at a distance from this end at least one opening (34, 32b), made in the wall of the housing and outside the housing.



 

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