Method for intensifying combustion process of tpp solid low-reactive fuel

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for intensifying the combustion process of TPP solid low-reactivity fuel involves preparation of pulverised-coal mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition; pulverised-coal mixture is subject to ultrasonic treatment immediately prior to supply to burners, and then to ignition and burning in the boiler. As nanoadditions there used are astralines - multi-layer fulleroide nanoparticles or Taunit - carbon nanomaterial. Nanoadditions are introduced to pulverised-coal mixture in the form of homoeopathic doses as per weight of solid fuel of 0.01 - 0.02%. The method results in increase of response rate of ignition and combustion of fuel mixture; besides, at combined burning of low-reactivity coal and fuel oil in the steam boiler furnace the method leads to reduction of unburnt carbon, nitrogen and sulphur oxides emissions, and therefore, to reduction of corrosion of heating surface and to improvement of reliability of power equipment; increase in combustion efficiency of pulverised-fuel mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition owing to avoiding the agglomeration of components. The effect is achieved due to intensification method of combustion process of TPP solid low-reactivity fuel, which involves preparation of pulverised-coal mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition, ultrasonic treatment, ignition and its burning in the boiler.

EFFECT: increasing combustion efficiency of low-reactivity solid fuel.

4 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a power system and can be used in thermal power plants to improve combustion efficiency low reactivity of solid fuels.

There is a method of igniting and stabilizing the combustion of the pulverized coal flame by additional combustion of fuel oil or natural gas [doroshuk VE and Ruban V.B. have been Boiler and turbine installation units with a capacity of 500 and 800 MW. M: Energy, 1979]. The starting oil or gas nozzles are mounted together with the main coal burners, or are additional to them. For example, the boiler PK-39 has 12 major coal-fired burners with capacity of 8 t/h and 8 fuel oil injector performance 1.3 t/h When entering the furnace fuel oil and coal is ignited highly reactive liquid fuel. When burning fuel oil releases a significant amount of heat, which heats the coal dust. As a result of heating the coal particles are allocated flammable volatile and increases the temperature of the particles of solid fuel. When this occurs, the ignition of coal particles and provides intensive ignition and stabilization of combustion of pulverized coal flame.

The disadvantages include the inability to increase the rate of reaction of the ignition and combustion of the fuel mixture. In addition, when the joint sigani the low reactivity of coal and fuel oil, in the furnace increases mechanical underburning, increase emissions of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, increased corrosion of the heating surfaces and reduced reliability of power equipment.

A known method of burning pulverized coal mixture [application RU # 2008139658], which is the prototype, including the formation (training) of coal-fired mixture of fuel with air, ignited (ignition) and its combustion in the boiler, namely, that in pulverized-fuel mixture with the air in addition enter the activated additive consisting of carbon polaroiding nanocluster (nontobacco).

The disadvantages of the method include its lowefficiency due to agglomeration of the coal particles and particles of activated additives included in the composition of the mixture fuel. Aglomerate reduces the possibility of effective influence on the speed, reliability, and completeness of combustion of the low reactivity of the coal.

The objective of the invention is to develop a method of intensification of the process of combustion of solid low reactivity fuel thermal power plants, allowing to increase the speed of combustion and the completeness of the burn in the boilers of thermal power plants.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the reaction rate of the ignition and combustion of the fuel mixture, in addition: when co-firing low reactivity of coal and fuel oil in the combustion chamber p. the world of the boiler leads to reduction of mechanical underburning, to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, consequently, to reduce corrosion of the heating surfaces and increase the reliability of power equipment; improving the combustion efficiency of coal-fired low reactivity of the mixture of fuel and air nontobacco due to prevent agglomeration of the components.

The technical result is achieved by that method of intensification of the process of combustion of solid low reactivity fuel thermal power plants, including the preparation of coal-fired low reactivity of the mixture of fuel and air nontobacco, ultrasonic treatment, ignition and combustion in the boiler.

The drawing shows a diagram of a pulverized-coal to implement the method of intensification of the process of combustion of solid low reactivity fuel thermal power plants.

Diagram of coal pulverisation, private, closed, with the intermediate container, drying and transportation is hot air from the heater 1 contains the raw coal hopper 2, from which the fuel enters the ball drum mill 3, where the dust carried by the air stream into the separator 4. In the separator 4 separates the coarse particles of coal which are returned to the ball drum mill 3 and the dust enters the cyclone 5. Here up to 90% of dust is separated from the air and deposited. From the cyclone 5 dust napravlyaet is in the hopper 6, where feeders 7 is fed to the ultrasonic disperser 8, where intensively mixed with nontobacco supplied through the feeder 10 from the hopper 9. Ready fuel-air mixture is directed into the burner 11 boiler (not labeled). Poorly dust-Laden air is extracted from the cyclone mill fan 12 and flows into the air supply line to the main or sbresny burners (not labeled).

Achievement provided by the invention technical result is possible due to falling into the furnace with the air-fuel mixture of homeopathic doses of nano-additives, by weight of the solid fuel 0,01-0,02%, which are used astroline - layered fulleroid nanoparticles and Taunit - carbon nanomaterial. Nontobacco, through light and thermo radiation exposure to the furnace of the boiler of a thermal power plant, contributes photophysical reactions of formation of singlet-excited state in contacting molecular oxygen. Singlet-excited photoluminescence molecular oxygen almost immediately goes into a highly stable singlet state energies on a 94.2 kJ/mol (0,98 eV per molecule) is greater than in the ground state, which leads to an increase in the rate of the chemical act of process of oxidation of organic carbon component is Oliva and directly, to increase the reaction rate of ignition and combustion in General. Ultrasonic treatment prevents agglomeration of the components of the fuel mixture, which leads to an increase of the specific surface of the reacting components. This treatment promotes intensification photophysical reactions of formation of singlet-excited molecular oxygen and the reaction of the ignition and combustion of the fuel-air mixture. The increasing dynamics of the process of ignition and combustion leads to lower mechanical underburning.

The proposed method allows to increase the speed of combustion of the low reactivity of coal, to reduce the share of ignition and stabilizing fuel (gas, oil), reduce mechanical underburning, thereby decreasing the emissions of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur to improve the reliability of power equipment.

1. Method of intensification of the process of combustion of solid low reactivity fuel thermal power plants, including the preparation of coal-fired low reactivity of the mixture of fuel and air nontobacco, ignition and combustion in the boiler, characterized in that the pulverized coal mixture immediately before feeding to the burner shall be subject to ultrasonic processing.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as nano-additives are used astroline - layered fulleroid nanoparticles.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized who eat as nano-additives used Taunit - carbon nanomaterial.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the nano-additives are introduced into the pulverized coal fuel mixture in homeopathic doses by weight of solid fuel 0,01-0,02%.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method to generate power in a power plant by burning carbon-containing fuel in substantially pure oxygen, at the same time the method includes the following stages, at which: (a) carbon-containing fuel is supplied into a furnace; (b) substantially pure oxygen is supplied from a source of oxygen into the furnace to burn fuel in oxygen to produce waste gas, containing mainly carbon dioxide and water; (c) waste gas is released from the furnace by means of a channel for waste gas; (d) the whole amount of low-potential heat is extracted from the waste gas by usage of multiple coolers for waste gas, arranged in the downstream part of the channel for waste gas, at the same time the first part of the extracted low-potential hat is used for pre-heating of feed water; (e) the pre-heated feed water is turned into steam by extraction of high-potential heat at heat-transfer surfaces arranged in the furnace and located closer along the flow of the part of the channel for waste gas; (f) pressure of the first part of the waste gas is increased in multiple compressors for waste gas to produce liquid carbon dioxide; (g) the second part of waste gas is recirculated into the furnace by means of the channel for waste gas recirculation; (h) steam is expanded in the steam-turbine system to actuate the power generator; (i) the whole amount of steam is extracted from the steam-turbine system, and the first part of the extracted steam is used to pre-heat feed water, at the same time the first part of the extracted low-potential heat makes more than 50% of the whole amount of extracted low-potential heat, which makes it possible to minimise the first part of the extracted steam, and the method includes an additional operation: (j) the second part of the extracted steam is expanded in at least one auxiliary steam turbine for actuate at least one compressor or at least one pump of the power plant.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to minimise costs or losses of produced power caused by removal of carbon dioxide.

14 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: investigation device of underwater burning of solid monofuels in the field of centrifugal forces includes tested cylindrical sample on the lower end of which a fastener is located, and the upper end of which is closed with movable burning positioner in the form of heat-resistant shell in turned-out position, and electric igniter; tested sample is arranged in combustion chamber installed on platform with possibility of rotation about vertical axis; at that, for attachment of one end of sample there provided is hinge support with side instability, which is installed on side inner wall of combustion chamber and which allows rotation about vertical axis, and heat-resistant shell is provided with the guide enclosing the tested sample and fixed on the support installed at the chamber bottom; at that, as to length the enclosing part of the guide is chosen so that it corresponds to that part of the sample, which is meant for burning. The guide is made in the form of tube with longitudinal holes for passage of combustion products. Support and guide are made in the form of threaded pair.

EFFECT: invention allows underwater combustion of solid monofuels in field of centrifugal forces at movement of gas formation front in the overloads action direction.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: combustion device of poor coals, which contains pulverised fuel provision system, furnace, heat exchangers; furnace is provided with internal cooled fairing arranged inside emitting spiral and supplying the fuel gas to high ionisation zones in order to use the obtained plasma in MHD generator; at that, device has the possibility of supplying superheated steam from fairing to steam turbines and their use for generation of electric power. Besides this, heat exchangers receiving hot fuel gas are provided with possibility of implementing the function of cyclones; at that, housing of heat exchangers is isolated from exhaust pipe, which allows using high electric potentials created at various parts of equipment.

EFFECT: invention allows generating electric power and heat power at almost absolute burnout of carbon in fuel mixture.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: vertical furnace of a steam-water heating boiler for transformation of loose fuel types into thermal energy, under action of gravity of those lowering from a hopper above into a fully filled furnace with a heat transfer volume made of gaps and channels of the boiler, and also contact zones formed by boiler elements and accumulators-conductors of high temperature installed in the furnace, zones are designed for fuel contact with only the necessary air for passage, stable mode of burning with pyrolysis or pyrolysis with burning of fuel having various moisture extent and heating power in the whole volume of the furnace, installed by closure or opening of a gate and a slide valve, with fire bars that are also accumulators-conductors of high temperature and distributors of only that air, which is required for burning of air that arrives from a sol chamber with an adjustment door via holes in fire bars to contact zones, besides, combustible pyrolysis gases are mixed with heated air supplied via accumulators-conductors and fire bars and are burned in contact zones, channels of boiler elements, smoke gases are exhausted via channels into boiler structures and gaps between the boiler and a water jacket into gas flue of fuel hopper and a flue funnel.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase controlled capacity of the furnace with most complete processing of all heat-producing properties of materials used as fuel at certain dimensions of the device and to reduce emissions into the environment.

4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: vertical furnace of a steam-water heating boiler for transformation of loose fuel types into thermal energy, under action of gravity of those lowering from a hopper above into a fully filled furnace with a heat transfer volume made of gaps and channels of the boiler, and also contact zones formed by boiler elements and accumulators-conductors of high temperature installed in the furnace, zones are designed for fuel contact with only the necessary air for passage, stable mode of burning with pyrolysis or pyrolysis with burning of fuel having various moisture extent and heating power in the whole volume of the furnace, installed by closure or opening of a gate and a slide valve, with fire bars that are also accumulators-conductors of high temperature and distributors of only that air, which is required for burning of air that arrives from a sol chamber with an adjustment door via holes in fire bars to contact zones, besides, combustible pyrolysis gases are mixed with heated air supplied via accumulators-conductors and fire bars and are burned in contact zones, channels of boiler elements, smoke gases are exhausted via channels into boiler structures and gaps between the boiler and a water jacket into gas flue of fuel hopper and a flue funnel.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase controlled capacity of the furnace with most complete processing of all heat-producing properties of materials used as fuel at certain dimensions of the device and to reduce emissions into the environment.

4 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: device includes horizontal oriented disc-shaped combustion chamber installed on platform with possibility of rotation and in which on its diametrically opposite sides there installed are two additional combustion chambers made in the form of composite shells the bottom part of which faces the rotation axis, and tested fuel samples with glowing filament are fixed in them. In one of additional chambers there provided is thickened bottom providing the location of centre of gravity of non-equipped shell on its inner surface of bottom, and on outer side surface of shell there provided are projections with cylindrical cavities. Pins of clamp fixed in disc-shaped combustion chamber are inserted in the above cavities with possibility of turning the additional combustion chamber relative to transverse axis through 180°; at that, counter-weight is fixed on outer side of bottom part of composite shell. Glowing filaments of both additional chambers are electrically connected to lower electric contact installed on insulating stool in central part of bottom of disc-shaped combustion chamber. On upper edge of electric contact there is a cavity into which mating upper electric contact installed on central fixed head piece is inserted.

EFFECT: invention allows providing underwater combustion of solid monofuels at overloads, determining combustion speed in these conditions and investigating the shape and structure of combustion surface after interruption of gas formation during the test.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: modular thermal power station on wood fuel granules includes supply mechanism of wood fuel granules (5a), combustion chamber, ash removal device and Stirling engine (22), recuperator (11) of waste gas for pre-heating of air for combustion (10); at that, wood fuel granules are gasified with some portion of this hot air (13); at that, some portion (13) of hot combustion air (10) is directed from above grate (4) to gasification combustion chamber (3a) and thus, combustible gas (18) together with ash is ingested with pressure blower (7) of side channel through grate (4) downwards; at that, combustible gas (18) under grate (4) is mixed with pulse of flow of the rest portion (14) of hot combustion air (10) so that low lambda value is kept near limitation as to CO, and combustion in central nozzle (19) is stabilised depending on temperature in combustion chamber (3b), or flameless combustion state is set with increasing temperature in combustion chamber (3b); at that, in combustion chamber (3b) the potential vortex appears (20), which intensively mixes waste gas (6), combustible gas (18) and hot combustion air (14) so that combustible gas (18) and ash particles are completely combusted. Ash together with waste gas (6) is drawn through recuperator (11) of waste gas and heat exchanger (24) connected after it with temperature of waste gases below due point; at that, such high flow velocity is maintained so that ash particles cannot deposit on heat exchanger walls; ash particles in heat exchanger (24) with temperature of waste gases below due point are mixed with water vapour condensate appearing there; at that, soluble components are dissolved in water vapour condensate, and non-soluble component parts are washed away or entrapped with water vapour condensate and waste gas flow (6), and even small particles are washed away by means of internal mixing of waste gas (6), ash particles and water vapour condensate from waste gas (6). Waste gas - water vapour condensate - ash mixture is separated before and after pressure blower (7) of side channel in separator (27) of waste gas and condensate of water vapour, for example in cyclone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of the plant.

6 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: modular thermal power station on wood fuel granules includes supply mechanism of wood fuel granules (5a), combustion chamber, ash removal device and Stirling engine (22), recuperator (11) of waste gas for pre-heating of air for combustion (10); at that, wood fuel granules are gasified with some portion of this hot air (13); at that, some portion (13) of hot combustion air (10) is directed from above grate (4) to gasification combustion chamber (3a) and thus, combustible gas (18) together with ash is ingested with pressure blower (7) of side channel through grate (4) downwards; at that, combustible gas (18) under grate (4) is mixed with pulse of flow of the rest portion (14) of hot combustion air (10) so that low lambda value is kept near limitation as to CO, and combustion in central nozzle (19) is stabilised depending on temperature in combustion chamber (3b), or flameless combustion state is set with increasing temperature in combustion chamber (3b); at that, in combustion chamber (3b) the potential vortex appears (20), which intensively mixes waste gas (6), combustible gas (18) and hot combustion air (14) so that combustible gas (18) and ash particles are completely combusted. Ash together with waste gas (6) is drawn through recuperator (11) of waste gas and heat exchanger (24) connected after it with temperature of waste gases below due point; at that, such high flow velocity is maintained so that ash particles cannot deposit on heat exchanger walls; ash particles in heat exchanger (24) with temperature of waste gases below due point are mixed with water vapour condensate appearing there; at that, soluble components are dissolved in water vapour condensate, and non-soluble component parts are washed away or entrapped with water vapour condensate and waste gas flow (6), and even small particles are washed away by means of internal mixing of waste gas (6), ash particles and water vapour condensate from waste gas (6). Waste gas - water vapour condensate - ash mixture is separated before and after pressure blower (7) of side channel in separator (27) of waste gas and condensate of water vapour, for example in cyclone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of the plant.

6 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: modular thermal power station on wood fuel granules includes supply mechanism of wood fuel granules (5a), combustion chamber, ash removal device and Stirling engine (22), recuperator (11) of waste gas for pre-heating of air for combustion (10); at that, wood fuel granules are gasified with some portion of this hot air (13); at that, some portion (13) of hot combustion air (10) is directed from above grate (4) to gasification combustion chamber (3a) and thus, combustible gas (18) together with ash is ingested with pressure blower (7) of side channel through grate (4) downwards; at that, combustible gas (18) under grate (4) is mixed with pulse of flow of the rest portion (14) of hot combustion air (10) so that low lambda value is kept near limitation as to CO, and combustion in central nozzle (19) is stabilised depending on temperature in combustion chamber (3b), or flameless combustion state is set with increasing temperature in combustion chamber (3b); at that, in combustion chamber (3b) the potential vortex appears (20), which intensively mixes waste gas (6), combustible gas (18) and hot combustion air (14) so that combustible gas (18) and ash particles are completely combusted. Ash together with waste gas (6) is drawn through recuperator (11) of waste gas and heat exchanger (24) connected after it with temperature of waste gases below due point; at that, such high flow velocity is maintained so that ash particles cannot deposit on heat exchanger walls; ash particles in heat exchanger (24) with temperature of waste gases below due point are mixed with water vapour condensate appearing there; at that, soluble components are dissolved in water vapour condensate, and non-soluble component parts are washed away or entrapped with water vapour condensate and waste gas flow (6), and even small particles are washed away by means of internal mixing of waste gas (6), ash particles and water vapour condensate from waste gas (6). Waste gas - water vapour condensate - ash mixture is separated before and after pressure blower (7) of side channel in separator (27) of waste gas and condensate of water vapour, for example in cyclone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of the plant.

6 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device to burn lump solid and liquid fuels in a pulsating flow comprises a shaft with two horizontal fire grates, a pipe, a heating surface, a fuel supply tube, a fuel hopper, an ignition device, besides, the heating surface is arranged away from the combustion zone, the fuel supply pipe is located outside the shaft, its free end is connected to a ring-shaped plate installed at the distance of 1.5-2 of the shaft diameter from its lower cut.

EFFECT: invention helps to increase reliability of furnace operation, especially with low consumption rates of liquid fuel.

2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a fuel mixture via successive mechanical mixing of oxidising agent with fuel-binder. The oxidising agent used is either ammonium perchlorate (APC) or ammonium nitrate (AN) or octogen (HMX) or a mixture of APC/AN, APC/HMX, AN/HMX, components being in ratio 1/1 for each mixture. The fuel-binder used is inert rubber (SKDM-80) or active rubber - polyurethane which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The mixture additionally contains tin chloride powder with particle size (100-150) mcm, which is premixed for not less than 30 minutes with ultrafine aluminium powder with particle size less than 0.1 mcm, with the following ratio of components in wt %: ultrafine aluminium powder 87.5, tin chloride powder - 12.5. A hardener is added to the obtained mixture and the fuel composition is stirred for not less than 30 minutes.

EFFECT: rate of combustion of the mixed solid fuel increases depending on compositions of the oxidising agent and fuel-binder used in the fuel.

2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical mixture of an oxidising agent, fuel binder and metallic fuel. The oxidising agent used is ammonium perchlorate with particle size not greater than 50 mcm and ammonium nitrate with particle size (165-315) mcm. The fuel binder used is butadiene rubber which is plasticised with transformer oil or polyurethane rubber which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The metal fuel used is aluminium micropowder or aluminium nanopowder or mixtures thereof. Further, silicon dioxide with average particle size not greater than 50 mcm is added to the fuel in amount of 1-2 wt % over 100% of the fuel mass. The mixture is further mixed and evacuated. The obtained fuel mass is moulded into fluoroplastic units, polymerised and plated on the lateral surface with a solution of linoleum in acetone.

EFFECT: high rate of combustion and low content of solid condensed combustion products.

5 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sulphur-containing fuel additives and can be used in thermal power for desulphuration of liquid and solid fuel, mainly solid ash-bearing fuel during combustion. The composition of sulphur-containing fuel additives for desulphuration of said fuel during combustion contains the following, wt %: alkali metal hydroxide 19-29; alkali metal carbonate 26-37; alkali metal chloride 29-50; alkali metal hydrocarbonate 1-2; cryolite 3-4; alkali metal chromate 0.0001-0.0003.

EFFECT: additive is mainly meant for solid ash-bearing fuel, lowers temperature for deformation, melting and molten state of sludge, which prevents formation of refractory slag and solves the problem of outlet of slag and cleaning heat-generating equipment from deposits, thus increasing efficiency and service life of the equipment, as well as improving degree of neutralisation of sulphur compounds.

2 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises coal crushing and damping. Crushed and damped coal is heated to sulfur melting point to deposit sulfur on steel electrodes arranged in coal and receiving direct current. Voltage effect on damped coal in air-water medium at sulfur melting point (119.4°C) time sufficient for sulfur that features polar electronegativity to get transferred onto anode steel electrode.

EFFECT: simplified process, high degree of extraction of sulfur and sulfur-containing compounds.

6 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method for performance improvement of incinerators includes the following stages: burning of the hydrocarbon fuel in incinerator, determination of the given incinerator burning conditions which can be improved by adding of the special additive which conditions are determined on the base of measuring and calculations including hydrodynamical ones; determination of special points location whereat the additives are added to the incinerator; providing on the base of the said stages of the mode of special additive adding to the incinerator in the determine points. The using of the said mode allows to achieve one or more effect selected from the group including: decrease of the flame non-transparency, burning intensification, scorification decrease, reducing of limiting oxygen index, decrease of unburned coal amount, corrosion decrease and improvement of the electrostatic precipitator performance. In the said method the special additive contains the alloy of following general formula (Aa)n(Bb)n(Cc)n(Dd)n(…)n whereat every capital letter and (…) means metal with A being burning modificator, B meaning modificator of deposits, C meaning corrosion inhibitor, D meaning comodificator of burning/intensificator of electrostatic precipitator perfomance whereat each subindex means the stoichiometric index of the composition with n being not less than zero, sum of all n is more than zero; alloys includes two different metals; if metal is cerium the stoichiometric index is less than approximately 0.7.

EFFECT: non-transparency decrease of the flame released into atmosphere by large-scale incinerators used in for power production and waste burning industry and community facilities.

30 cl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety metal-bearing additives improving burning for usage in communal and industry furnaces. Additive contains: complex of metal-bearing catalyst, containing manganese with ligands and dissolvent for transfer of complex catalyst/ligands where steam pressure of additive is less than preliminary 200×10-5 Torr at 100°F. Method of additive receiving, by which: it is chosen metal-bearing catalyst containing manganese for usage in furnaces of general-purpose and/or industrial furnaces, it is formed complex of current metal-bearing catalyst, containing manganese with ligands and it is added dissolvent in order to transfer this complex catalyst/ligands, where steam pressure of additive is less than preliminary 200×10-5 Torr at 100°F.

EFFECT: receiving of additives safety for inhalation.

13 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas production industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to coke-chemical and blast-furnace operations area. Furnace coke processing method that consists of processing pieces of furnace coke unloaded from coke furnace, slaked and sorted at temperature 20-50°C and placed in shipment hoppers by spraying with 2-20% water solution of borate selection from the range: sodium pyroborate, potassium pyroborate, calcium pyroborate. Water solution of pyroborate of concentration required for coke processing is prepared by simple mixing in process vessel of calculated weight of pyroborate and water. The volume of finished solution used for processing shall ensure that amount of dry pyroborate in coke corresponds 0.05-0.5% (weight) in terms of coke. Calculated volume of solution to surface of coke pieces is applied by spraying through nozzles with use of pump.

EFFECT: improved strength of coke after reaction and reduced reactivity.

2 tbl, 14 ex

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to compositions for producing a granulated fuel for pyrolysis on the base of peat with modified additives and can be used in minor energetics and housing and communal services. The invention facilitates efficiency of the granulated fuel for pyrolysis. The assigned task and the said technical result are achieved by means of the fuel containing peat as an organic filling material and aluminium silicate material as a modifying additive at a following composition of elements, mas.%: aluminium silicate material 2-30% and peat 70-98. Granules can be made from 5 to 30 mm size by the method of balling on various types of granulators. A betonite clay, clay marl, Cambrian clay, kaolin clay, synthetic zeolite H-Beta-25 or synthetic zeolite H-MORD can be used as an aluminium silicate material.

EFFECT: increased combustion value of the fuel facilitating its efficient implementation at low temperature pyrolisis.

9 cl, 9 ex, 2 dwg, 10 tbl

FIELD: power-supply processes and equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises providing furnace having combustion chamber, wherein coal is combusted in presence of oxygen, supplying coal and metal-containing combustion catalyst to combustion chamber, and supplying oxygen to combustion chamber in amounts reduced relative to those required in absence of metal-containing combustion catalyst, which reduced amounts of supplied oxygen constituting up to 50% of the amount of oxygen above its stoichiometric amount.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of oxygen without losses in thermal efficiency and burning stability.

9 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: treatment of coal for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions during burning of coal.

SUBSTANCE: coal at high content of sulfur is placed in low-pressure medium for cracking of part of coal by extraction of atmospheric fluids entrapped in coal. Then cracked coal is brought in contact with aqueous composition of colloidal silicon oxide oversaturated with calcium carbonate and larger part of aqueous composition is brought out of contact with coal, after which coal is acted on by high pressure in carbon dioxide medium during period of time sufficient for penetration of calcium carbide into cracks in coal. Description is also given for coal cracked in vacuum which contains about 0.5 wt-% of sulfur and additionally contains calcium carbonate deposited in cracks in coal in the amount sufficient for obtaining Ca:S molar ratio equal to at least 0.5. Specification contains also description of obtaining energy in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur at simultaneous reduction of sulfur dioxide in emissions. Specification contains also description of increase of calcium sulfate obtained in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur and aqueous composition used for treatment of such coal. Specification contains also description of preparation of aqueous composition for treatment of coal at high content of sulfur in combustion products. Description is also given for device for treatment of coal at pressure.

EFFECT: considerable reduction of sulfur dioxide and other toxic gases formed during burning of coal.

25 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanocomposite material based on mineral binder and can be used as construction material when building buildings and structures, including transport and hydraulic engineering. The nanocomposite material contains mineral binder, mineral filler and a fraction of nanoparticles which contains multilayer carbon particles with a toroid shape with size of 15-150 nm, in which the ratio of the outer diameter to the thickness of the torus body is in the range of (10-3):1. The invention is developed in subclaims.

EFFECT: high density and strength.

15 cl, 1 tbl, 14 ex

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