Burner for gas turbine, in which gas with low calorific value is used as fuel

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: burner (4) for gas burner includes: swirler (21), plate (58), the first channel (18) via which fuel gas with low calorific value is supplied, and second channel (17) via which combustion air is supplied. The first and the second channels (17, 18) are located concentrically relative to longitudinal axis (2). Output of the first channel (18) is formed with convergent nozzle (50). Swirler (21) is installed at the outlet of the second channel (17). Plate (58) is tightly installed in the first channel (18) upstream nozzle (50) and has many holes (56) with calibrated section of the passage. Holes (56) are inclined in tangential direction relative to longitudinal axis (2) at the specified angle. For fuel gases having flame propagation speed of less than 300 mm/s, plate (58) has 36 to 38 holes (56) the diameter of which is 11.5 to 12.0 mm, and inclination angle of holes (56) is approximately 22. For fuel gases having flame propagation speed of 300 mm/s to 400 mm/s, plate (58) has 80 holes (56) the diameter of which is 8.5 mm to 9.0 mm, and inclination angle of holes (56) is 17 to 22. If calorific value of gas with low calorific value from the first channel (18) is less than 4.0 MJ/kg, then natural gas consumption is assumed from pilot line (46). Burner (5) is used only when gases with low calorific value are not available.

EFFECT: high burner flexibility; operation is possible at the gas used with low calorific value and of any type within the whole working range of gas turbine.

12 cl, 3 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates

The present invention relates to a burner for a gas turbine, in which the use as a fuel gas with low calorific value, in particular the exhaust gas produced in the metallurgical industry.

The level of technology

Use of exhaust gases produced in the metallurgical industry, in burners for gas turbines is part of the prior art. In particular, the known burners are designed for use with fuel gases with constant composition obtained in the metallurgical industry, in production mode, or only gas furnaces or gas blast furnace gas coke oven gas and metallurgical plants (LD converters) with a given and constant percentage. Effective use in a wide scale of known burners is limited, on the one hand, the fact that the calorific value of gas is very low, and on the other hand, the fact that the composition of the gas is changed to various steel plants. In fact, often the gas, which can be available for the power burner is a mixture of gas blast furnace gas steel mills coke ovens and gas, the percentage of which varies substantially in accordance with your actual the following processes, typical for each steel plant.

In other words, the known burners are far from providing satisfactory results, as installed, they are hard to burn gases, having a calorific value of less 4,0 MJ/kg the Second reason is that the burners contain many elements that must be designed in a special way, as required in each specific case in accordance with the composition and, therefore, in accordance with a calorific value of gas on a particular steel plant.

There is therefore a need to increase the flexibility of the known burners, in particular, to use mixtures of gases produced in the metallurgical industry, the calorific value is very low, for example, component from 3.0 MJ/kg to 4.0 MJ/kg, should be guaranteed the stability of combustion.

Disclosure of invention

The aim of the present invention is to provide a burner for a gas turbine, which can be used as fuel gas with low calorific value and which would meet the above requirements, to achieve a simple and inexpensive way.

According to the present invention proposed a burner of a gas turbine containing:

the first is anal, which when using fed fuel gas with low calorific value, and the second channel, whereby when using the supplied combustion air, while the first and second channels are concentric relative to the longitudinal axis, and the output of the first channel is formed tapering nozzle;

swirl at the outlet of the second channel;

plate, hermetically installed in the first channel upstream of the nozzle and having a number of holes with a calibrated cross-section of the passage, the orifices is inclined in a tangential direction relative to the longitudinal axis at a selected angle;

and for fuel gases with the speed of flame spread less 300 mm/s, the plate has a 36 to 38 of holes, the diameter of which ranges from 11.5 mm to 12.0 mm, and the angle of the holes is equal to approximately 22; and

for fuel gases having a velocity of propagation of the flame from 300 mm/sec to 400 mm/s, the plate has 80 holes, the diameter of which ranges from 8.5 mm to 9.0 mm, and the angle of the holes from 17 to 22.

The burner is also preferably contains a means of connection made with the possibility of disconnection to connection plate in a fixed position and replace the plate.

In the proposed burner preferably the nozzle is limited in radial is upravlenii wall, attached to the plate carrier and the means of connection made with the possibility of disconnection.

In the proposed burner preferably the tool joints made with removable, contains a threaded connection.

In the proposed burner preferably the holes are located at the same angular distance from each other around the longitudinal axis.

In the proposed burner preferably the holes made in the plate along two concentric circles.

The burner is also preferably includes a pilot line that served when using natural gas.

The burner is also preferably includes a third channel through which served when using natural gas, while the first, second and third channels are concentric relative to each other.

In the proposed burner preferably the second channel is located in the radial direction between the first channel and the third channel.

According to the present invention proposed site burner of a gas turbine containing a burner carried out as stated above, in combination with the coaxial burner mixing fueled by natural gas.

According to the present invention proposed a method of supplying fuel gas to the burner, which is to be the more consumption of natural gas from the pilot line, if the calorific value gas with low calorific value of the first channel is less than 4.0 MJ/kg

In the proposed method, preferably the flow of natural gas from the pilot line (46) change continuously as a function of the calorific value and/or composition of the gas with low calorific value.

Brief description of drawings

Hereinafter the invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, which illustrates a variant of its implementation, does not limit the invention, and in which:

Figure 1 represents a cross-section of the burner of a gas turbine according to a preferred variant implementation of the present invention with some, not shown for clarity, elements;

Figure 2 is a cross-section of the burner element, shown in figure 1, on an enlarged scale; and

Figure 3 is a section along the line III-III in figure 2.

The preferred embodiment of the invention

Figure 1 shows a node of the burner, indicated by the number 1, forming part of a gas turbine (not shown), which when used result in rotation of the shaft of the electric machine (not shown) to generate electrical energy.

Node 1 runs along the longitudinal axis 2 and when using the camera 3 (shown frequent is the rule) provides combustion, and contains the Central burner 4 and the peripheral burner 5 burner type "pre-mixing", coaxially with the burner 4 and installed around it.

Burner 5 contains the device 6 with blades to create vortices or turbulence, usually called "swirl", which (vortices) are passed into the chamber 3 so-called "diagonal" flow of combustion air coming from channel 9.

Burner 5 also contains a line 13 for supplying the fuel gas, i.e. natural gas. On line 13 serves the fuel gas in the compartments between the vanes of the swirler 6 to obtain a mixture of gas and air, and the amount of air more theoretical stoichiometric relationships to ensure combustion of the previously prepared mixture.

Burner 4 (see figure 1) contains the channel 17 for supplying combustion air and a channel 18 for supplying the fuel gas, i.e. gas with low calorific value, in particular gas produced in the metallurgical industry. The channels 17, 18 are annular, are concentric about the axis 2 and are separated from one another by a tubular housing 20, the axis of which is also the axis 2.

In particular, the output of channel 17 is formed by a device 21 with blades ("swirl"), through which create vortices or turbulence in the flow of combustion air. In the channel 17 is vosplamenyat is a first electrode 24 and the line of the electric power of a known type for generating ignition sparks in the compartments between the vanes of the swirler 21.

The channel 18 is limited to the outside in the radial direction of the tubular body 32, and the channel 17 is limited to the inside in the radial direction of the tubular body 33, which terminates in the conical part 34.

The housing 33 is along the axis 2 and is installed around the gas, or fuel, nozzle 35, which acts in the axial direction from the center of the swirler 21 to the camera 3.

The housing 33 and the nozzle 35 is formed in the radial direction relative to each other annular channel 36, which serves the flow of fuel gas, i.e. natural gas, which comes out in the compartments between the vanes of the swirler 21 through the outlet openings (not shown), made in part 34, for combustion with the combustion air coming from the channel 17, and to obtain a diffusion flame.

In the channel 36 there are many tubes 46, parallel to the axis 2, isolated from the gas passing through the channel 36, which is formed by the so-called "pilot line" and which have respective ends of the crossing portion 34, to supply additional flow of fuel gas, i.e. natural gas, under special operating conditions of the gas turbine. In particular, the gas from the pilot line 46 serves for mixing with the combustion air coming from the channel 17, and it burns with the gas flowing out of the channel 18 ("joint burning"), and the pilot flame is formed, which is stabilized diffusion flame, created by gas flowing out of the channel 18.

The output of the channel 18 is a circular hole formed by the nozzle 50 tapering type, i.e. having a cross-section of the passage, which narrows to expedite the flow of gas with low calorific value.

The nozzle 50 is limited to the inside in the radial direction of the cylindrical axial end of the housing 20 and the outer annular wall 51 of the swirler 21, and the outside wall 52.

The wall 52 includes a tapered front portion 53 and a cylindrical rear portion 54, which is attached with the ability to detach axial end of the housing 32, in particular, by threaded connection 55.

Channel 18 (see figure 2 and 3) is associated with many holes 56, made in the annular plate 58 and having a grooved cross-section of the passage to determine the exact flow rate of the fuel gas, then passing through the nozzle 50.

The plate 58 is perpendicular to the axis 2, is attached to the rear end portion 54, in particular by spot welding and is sealed in the channel 18. In particular, the tightness is guaranteed, on the one hand, through the use of a threaded connection 55, and on the other hand, by coupling the inner cylindrical surface 59 of the plate 58 with the housing 20.

The number of holes 56 and the cross section of the passage is determined so that the relation between the pressure loss on the plate 58 and the pressure in the chamber 3 was greater than 5% at minimum load conditions, under the operating mode, when using the gas coming out of channel 18 (the greater the pressure loss, the less susceptibility to such a possible phenomenon, as the pressure fluctuations in the chamber 3).

In particular, the holes 56 are represented by two rings 56a, 56b of holes formed along respective concentric circles. Each ring 56a, 56b holes are located at the same angular distance from each other around the axis 2. The axis of the holes 56 are straight and inclined in the tangential direction relative to the axis 2 at a given angle. The said angle inform the gas flow turbulent motion of the vortex, similar to that generated by the blades in the nozzle 50. The direction in which the hole is inclined relative to the axis 2, is the same in the two rings 56a and 56b.

In particular, when the gas supplied through the channel 18, contains a relatively large amount of gas of the blast furnace, it is necessary to attain a relatively high turbulence for better mixing with air.

The fuel gas with low calorific value, entering into the nozzle 50, appropriately regulate and pre-set, by definition, at the beginning of the lifecycle, the number and cross-section of the passage holes 56, in soo is according to the calorific value and/or composition of the available fuel gas with low calorific value.

As an example, described two different types of configurations that can be installed as an alternative to each other:

-for fuel gas, with the speed of flame spread less 300 mm/s, corresponding essentially to the initial conditions under which the fuel gas has a percentage content of blast furnace gas, which tells thermal energy, comprising at least 70% of the total heat energy (or effective heat capacity), and the percentage of gas coke oven gas and metallurgical plants (LD converters), comprising not more than the remaining 30%, the number of holes 56 is from 36 to 38, the holes have a diameter of 11.5 mm to 12.0 mm, and placed at an angle constituting approximately 22;

for fuel gas, with the speed of flame propagation in the range of from 300 mm/sec to 400 mm/s, corresponding essentially to the initial conditions under which the fuel gas has a percentage content of blast furnace gas, which tells thermal energy component of less than 70% of the total heat energy (or effective heat capacity), and the percentage of gas coke oven gas and metallurgical plants (LD converters), constituting more than other 30%, the number of holes 56 is 80, the holes have a diameter of 8.5 mm to 9.0 m is, and they have the angle of inclination comprising from 17 to 22.

The following describes the operation of the node 1.

Ignition node 1 is produced by the flow of natural gas through the supply line, formed by the channel 36. Increase the speed of the gas turbine is produced again by the flow of natural gas through line 36 to until either it reaches the load, being 50% of the maximum load.

Further, there is a transition from action, which consists in the diffusion of natural gas to the action of using a gas with low calorific value (obtained in the metallurgical industry) by submitting the aforementioned gas channel 18.

The gas flow is as follows:

if the calorific value of the gas coming out of the channel 18, more than 4,0 MJ/kg, the consumption of natural gas supplied through the pilot line formed of tubes 46, 0;

if the calorific value of the gas coming out of the channel 18, is from 3.0 MJ/kg to 4.0 MJ/kg, the natural gas is supplied through the pilot line 46, spend for stabilization achieved combustion: consumption contributes to the overall effective thermal capacity of not exceeding 10%, in conditions of maximum load (for example, consumption is up to 1 kg/s).

In particular, the flow of natural gas through the pilot line 46 regulate and change continuously as a function of composition and/or calorific value gas with low calorific value, supplied through the channel 18.

The composition and/or the calorific value is determined using sensors of a known type (calorimeter, gas chromatographs, etc.).

When needed a break in the load, the flow of gas with low calorific value supplied through the channel 18, is reduced to a specified minimum and at the same time the consumption of natural gas supplied through the pilot line 46, increase up to a specified maximum, which is sufficient for operation of the gas turbine under conditions of no load. The subsequent increase of the load, start in these conditions, produced by gas with low calorific value on channel 18 without the use of natural gas supplied through line 36.

The burner 5 for pre-mixing is used for the combustion of natural gas in case of unavailability of gas with low calorific value. This excludes the use of steam and/or inert gases (e.g. nitrogen)that would be required to limit emissions of nitrogen oxides present in the exhaust gases, if, for example, used the line 36.

From the above, obviously, with 4 burner can burn gas with low calorific value by an appropriate choice of the form of plates 58 and nozzle 50.

In particular, using a connecting device made the possibility of disconnection, for example, a threaded connection 55, it is possible to give more flexibility to the design of the burner 4, so that it was necessary mainly to design and produce a special way only the holes in the plate 58 and the wall 52 of a corresponding form, based on the type of available fuel gas with low calorific value.

You can then easily modify the provided configuration by replacing exactly the element represented by the plate 58 and the wall 52, when should be changed the composition of the gas with low calorific value.

In addition, the item represented by the plate 58 and the wall 52 can be used to upgrade standard currently burner for use in applying gas with low calorific value.

By calibrating the cross-section of the passage in the plate 58 for passing fuel gas with low calorific value and, if necessary, by using the pilot line 46 to add natural gas in the chamber 3, it is possible to maintain a stable combustion using gas with calorific value, component of 3.0 MJ/kg to 4.0 MJ/kg

In other words, the flexibility of the burner 4 is so high that thanks to stabilize the combustion, achieved through the pilot line 46, can burn gas with low t is potworny ability of any type. In particular, it is possible to adjust the supply of natural gas supplied through the pilot line 46 continuously by changing the amount of natural gas supplied in accordance with the composition of the gas with low calorific value supplied through the channel 18.

Operation is possible when using a gas with low calorific value over the entire operating range of the gas turbine. The burner 5 is used only when not available gases with low calorific value.

From the above it follows that in the design of the burner 4 and node 1, is described here with reference to the accompanying drawings, may be amended and supplemented, is not beyond the scope of protection of the present invention.

In particular, the distribution of holes 56 may be different, such as holes 56 can be located in one ring.

1. Burner (4) a gas turbine, comprising:
the first channel (18), which when using fed fuel gas with low calorific value, and the second channel (17), which when using the supplied combustion air, while the first and second channels (17, 18) are arranged concentrically relative to the longitudinal axis (2), and the output of the first channel (18) is formed tapering nozzle (50);
swirl (21)installed at the outlet of the second channel (17); a plate (58), hermetically ustanovlenno is in the first channel (18) upstream of the nozzle (50) and having a number of holes (56) with a calibrated cross-section of the passage, the orifices (56) is tilted in the tangential direction relative to the longitudinal axis (2) at a given angle (A); and for fuel gases with the speed of flame spread less 300 mm/s, the plate (58) is from 36 to 38 holes (56), the diameter of which ranges from 11.5 mm to 12.0 mm, and the angle of inclination (A) of holes (56) of approximately 22; and
for fuel gases having a velocity of propagation of the flame from 300 mm/sec to 400 mm/s, the plate (58) is 80 holes (56), the diameter of which ranges from 8.5 mm to 9.0 mm, and the angle of inclination (A) of holes (56)-from 17 to 22.

2. Burner according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes means (55) connection is made with the possibility of disconnection to connection plate (58) in a fixed position and replace the plate (58).

3. Burner according to claim 2, characterized in that the nozzle (50) is limited in radial direction by a wall (52)attached to the plate (58) and the carrier means (55) connection is made with the possibility of disconnection.

4. Burner according to claim 3, characterized in that the means (55) joints made with removable, contains a threaded connection.

5. The burner according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the holes (56) are located at the same angular distance from each other around the longitudinal axis (2).

6. Burner according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized by those who, what holes (56) are made in the plate (58) along two concentric circles.

7. The burner according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that it contains a pilot line that served when using natural gas.

8. Burner according to claim 7, characterized in that it includes a third channel (36), which served when using natural gas, while the first, second and third channels (17, 18, 36) are arranged concentrically relative to each other.

9. Burner according to claim 8, characterized in that the second channel (17) is located in the radial direction between the first channel (18) and the third channel (36).

10. Site burner of a gas turbine containing a burner made according to any one of claims 1 to 9, in combination with the coaxial burner mixing fueled by natural gas.

11. The method of supplying the fuel gas into the burner according to claim 7, characterized in that the set flow rate of natural gas from the pilot line (46), if the calorific value gas with low calorific value of the first channel (18) is less than 4.0 MJ/kg

12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the flow of natural gas from the pilot line (46) change continuously as a function of the calorific value and/or composition of the gas with low calorific value.



 

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13 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas turbine comprises compressor linked up with the drive. In its turn, compressor drive comprises 1st and 2nd stages, inner and outer shafts with blower fitted on inner shaft and compressor fitted on outer shaft. It includes also HP and LP turbines with cooling system, primary combustion chamber arranged between compressor and HP turbine. Gas turbine comprises also outer combustion chamber and heat exchanger-heater arranged behind HP turbine and communicated, via heat carrier circulation lines, with heat exchanger arranged behind outer combustion chamber.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: burner (4) for gas burner includes: swirler (21), plate (58), the first channel (18) via which fuel gas with low calorific value is supplied, and second channel (17) via which combustion air is supplied. The first and the second channels (17, 18) are located concentrically relative to longitudinal axis (2). Output of the first channel (18) is formed with convergent nozzle (50). Swirler (21) is installed at the outlet of the second channel (17). Plate (58) is tightly installed in the first channel (18) upstream nozzle (50) and has many holes (56) with calibrated section of the passage. Holes (56) are inclined in tangential direction relative to longitudinal axis (2) at the specified angle. For fuel gases having flame propagation speed of less than 300 mm/s, plate (58) has 36 to 38 holes (56) the diameter of which is 11.5 to 12.0 mm, and inclination angle of holes (56) is approximately 22. For fuel gases having flame propagation speed of 300 mm/s to 400 mm/s, plate (58) has 80 holes (56) the diameter of which is 8.5 mm to 9.0 mm, and inclination angle of holes (56) is 17 to 22. If calorific value of gas with low calorific value from the first channel (18) is less than 4.0 MJ/kg, then natural gas consumption is assumed from pilot line (46). Burner (5) is used only when gases with low calorific value are not available.

EFFECT: high burner flexibility; operation is possible at the gas used with low calorific value and of any type within the whole working range of gas turbine.

12 cl, 3 dwg

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