Method of determining amount of applied liquid during leather and fur production processes using smearing methods

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: amount of liquid which can be absorbed by leather fabric is determined in from moisture content at the moment of shrinkage of samples when joining together in percentages. The difference in moisture content and total volume of the liquid located between molecules and in fibrils is then calculated.

EFFECT: establishing moisture distribution on skin structural levels.

1 dwg, 5 tbl, 9 ex

 

The invention relates to the development of nanotechnology in the leather and fur industries using nanotransporters and can be used in other sectors of the economy.

Currently there are no ways to determine the quantity of the applied liquid, which can absorb the leather is without a remainder when the implementation process in the leather and fur industries namesname ways.

The most common method of determining the quantity of the applied liquid, which is that based on the information about the number of the absorbing fluid in a completely or partially flooded the leather it is concluded that the amount of liquid that can be applied or embedded so that the liquid does not remain on the surface after the execution of processes. This value for squeezed in any way the leather, a priori estimated to be equal to 30%. It can be either more or less than the specified value. At the same time, the exact knowledge of this indicator, it is important from the point of view of economy and standard processes when using namesnik ways of manufacture. Fastest reagents reach the centers of response when the liquid containing the reagents, penetrates into the thickness of the leather free from water capillaries.

When the volume rate of penetration is determined by the rate of wetting of the walls of the capillaries penetrating fluid. If the capillary walls are already covered with a wetting liquid, the wetting process proceeds very quickly and this reduces the time of delivery dissolved in the liquid materials to the centers of the response and, accordingly, during the process. In addition, if the penetrating liquid contains surfactants, due to the transfer of the liquid on the surface of the capillary penetration is enhanced even more.

If the capillaries filled with liquid, the effect of no wetting and penetration of reagents into the dermis becomes normal diffusion. And diffusion penetration runs many times slower than the wetting and spreading wet solvent pore surface. Therefore, knowledge about the occupancy of the capillaries of the dermis is an important part of technology nanotransporters for skin and fur. However, it should be noted that the rate of penetration of the ingredients of the compositions of nanotransporters several times higher as due to the presence of surface-active substances, and due to the high concentration of introduced materials, even when using not damp dermis with a fully water-filled capillaries.

The technical object of the present invention is to develop a method that allows to determine the number of nano is a property of the fluid, which can be absorbed by the dermis without a trace when executing processes, manufacture of leather and fur industries using nanotransporters namesname ways.

The technical result of the invention consists in establishing the distribution of moisture on the structural levels of the dermis and on this basis to determine the number of solutions can be applied to the surface of the dermis, so that the liquid is completely absorbed in the process of the leather and fur industries using nanotransporters and getting new features flooded the dermis.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of determining the amount of coating used in the process of the leather and fur industries namesname ways, according to the invention the amount of liquid which can absorb the leather is determined by the moisture content at the time of shrinkage of the samples when welding in percent, followed by calculating the difference between total moisture and the amount of the liquid between the molecules and fibrils.

This approach stems from the understanding of the structure of the leather - molecules, having an approximately round cross-section are combined into fibrils that make up the fiber and in General the leather. Therefore, all the fluid that is in the leather, includes the molecular moisture, which is able to fit with increase in the diameter of the molecule from the absolutely dry (0,95 nm) to fully irrigated (1,4 nm). That is, the amount of moisture will be equal to the difference of the volumes of the cylinder length in one gram molecule, since the density of water is 1000 kg/m3the volume equate weight. Also, the total volume is the moisture that is in the fiber. According to the structure of the fibrils she has an inner element and perpendicular to it on the space between the ends of the molecules. The volume of these spaces will be found as the length of the fibrils before welding (welding space between the ends of the molecules disappear, molecules move end to end, these spaces were filled with water) minus the length of the fibrils after welding (i.e. length, remaining after welding, otherwise shrinkage during welding), multiplied by the cross sectional area of the fibrils. The volume of the inner element is the length of the fibrils before joining multiplied by the cross sectional area of the inner element. The sum of the volumes of the inner element and the volume of the transverse spaces between the ends of the molecules will give the amount of moisture in the fiber. And the difference between the total moisture content (volume of moisture in the skin) and the sum of the volumes of water molecules and the fiber will give the amount of moisture between the fibrils and fibers (see Titov S.A., Titov OP ABOUT the structure of the fibrils is of ollagen. Leather and fur in the XXI century. Technology, quality, environment, education: Materials of the conference. - Ulan-Ude: Publishing house of SGTU, 2006. - 352 S.).

A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that at the same time define a set of indicators characterizing the structural features of the dermis and change them when the execution of the processes, such as the porosity of the skin, the porosity in the molecular space, the porosity of the fiber, the amount of space between molecules in percent, the amount of spaces in the fiber percentage, the amount of spaces in the fibers in the percent surface area of all molecules in 0.1 kg of absolutely dry matter, surface area of all of the fibrils.

In addition, by changing the input parameters in the algorithm in table 1 in italics, you can simulate the structure of the dermis and on this basis to identify specific samples hides their internal structure. For example, in terms of total porosity. Perform other comparisons with the real samples.

The difference in the present invention, when performing the process of the leather and fur industries namesname ways is that the claimed technology provides for the transportation of nanoscale objects, carried out by chemical forces: osmoticeskih or spreading, liberative and so on. Nanotransporter receive in the form of particles formed in the dispersion and emulsification of the solid phase in the presence of surface-active substances, for example, an emulsion and foam.

Thus, a new set of techniques set forth in the claims means of determining the amount of coating used in the process of the leather and fur industries namesname ways, ensures the achievement of the technical result consists in establishing the amount of liquid that can absorb the leather during the implementation process of the leather and fur industries and acquiring new characteristics watered dermis.

The proposed method of determining the amount of coating used in the process of the leather and fur industries namesname ways illustrated by the photograph, which shows a moving layer of liquid surface-active substance.

The proposed method of determining the amount of coating used in the process of the leather and fur industries namesname ways as follows.

From fresh raw materials or raw material after soaking or other liquid processes, cut out a sample of size 100×(2:10) mm Long portion of the sample is strictly placed in the longitudinal direction of the fibers. The length of the image is and can be and the other, 100 mm take for ease of measurement and calculation of shrinkage. The cut sample is measured with a ruler, grab the tweezers and fully immersed for 5-10 seconds in boiling water, while the shrinkage of the sample during welding in boiling water reaches the limit values for 3-4 seconds. Then, immediately after welding, measure the length with a ruler and calculate the shrinkage of the sample in percent. To determine the humidity of the adjacent plot a sample is taken for determination of moisture according to standard methods GOST - 938.1 - 67 Skin. The method of determining the moisture content.

The calculation of the structural characteristics carried out in the following, developed by the authors, the algorithm:

Table 1
The algorithm for calculating structural characteristics of the dermis
1The diameter of the molecules in the absolutely dry state, nm0,95
2N3,141592654
3The diameter of the molecules in the flooded condition, nm1,4
4The length of the period Pervin the th iscertainly, nm60
5The diameter of the fibrils, nm120
6The ratio of the diameter of the fibrils to the diameter of the inner element8,003251563
7Avogadro's number6,E+23
8The length of the projection of amino acid residue on the axis of the molecule, nm0,286
9The number of amino acid chains in the collagen molecule, units3
10The molecular mass of a single amino acid chain in the polypeptide chain, AEM92,6
11The mass in grams of one unit of atomic mass, kg1,A-27
12The mass of absolutely dry matter of the sample of collagen, kg0,1
13The amount of moisture kg 0.1 kg and is absolutely dry substance, kg0,305
14The number of periods transverse iscertainly in length molecule6
15The length of the molecule, nm360
16The cross-sectional area of the molecule in the absolutely dry state, nm20,708821842
17The amount of molecules in the absolutely dry state, nm3255,1758633
18The amount of molecules in the absolutely dry state, m32,A-25
19The mass of the molecule, AEM349678,3217
20The mass of the molecule, kg5,A-22
21The number of molecules in 0.1 kg of absolutely dry mass1,E+20
22The density of the absolutely dry substance (molecular), kg/m32275,54354
23 The volume of dense brand of dry matter by mass of 0.1 kg m34,E-05
24The cross-sectional area of the molecule in the flooded condition, nm21,5393804
25The amount of molecules in a flooded condition, nm554,1769441
26The amount of molecules in a flooded condition, m35,A-25
27The volume of all water molecules in 0.1 kg of absolutely dry matter m39,E-05
28The molecular density of molecules in the flooded condition, kg/m31047,794921
29The amount of water in the molecular space, m35,E-05
30The moisture content in the molecular volume g in 0.1 kg51,4929788
31The diameter of the inner element fibrils, nm14,9939058
32 The cross-sectional area of a fiber, occupied by the molecules, nm211133,16253
33The cross-sectional area of a fiber, occupied by the molecules, m21,E-14
34Shrinkage of the fiber during welding (the length of the zone in the fiber, not occupied by the molecules), %50
35The length of the fibrils occupied by the molecules in 0.1 kg of absolutely dry matter m8572453973
36The length of the zone occupied by the molecules in the fiber, %50
37The length of the fibrils, not occupied by molecules in 0.1 kg of absolutely dry matter m8572453973
38The cross-sectional area of the inner element, nm2176,5710246
39The cross-sectional area of the inner element, m21,E-16
40The amount of DNAs is Rennie element, m33,E-06
41The volume not occupied part of the fibrils, m39,E-05
42The total volume of fibers with a mass of absolutely dry matter 0,1 kg m30,000193904
43The density of fibrils with a mass of absolutely dry matter 0.1 kg, kg/m3515,7182127
44The porosity of the fibers with a mass of absolutely dry matter 0,1 kg %50,78061532
45The amount of moisture in the fiber, kg0,098465817
46The moisture content of fibrillar volume, g 0.1 kg98,46581732
47The amount of moisture in mifepriston space, g 0.1 kg of absolutely dry matter155,0412039
48The volume occupied by water between fibers, m30,000155041
9 Weight watered skin with a mass of absolutely dry matter 0.1 kg0,405
50Volume watered skin with a mass of absolutely dry matter 0.1 kg0,000386526
51The entire volume of unoccupied spaces in the skin, m30,000305
52The porosity of the skin, %78,90801254
53Porosity in the molecular space %53,95408163
54Porosity in fiber, %50,78061532
55the volume of the space between the molecules, m35,1493E-05
56the volume of the spaces in the fiber, m39,E-05
57the volume of the spaces in the fibers, m30,000155041
58The porosity (volume of space between the molecules), %16,88294387
59The porosity (volume of spaces in the fiber), %32,28387453
60The porosity (volume of space in the fibres), %50,8331816
61The surface area of all molecules in 0.1 kg m2757,448598
62The surface area of all fibrils in 0.1 kg m2514,3472384
*Note. In bold are the parameters determined instrumentally. Italicized figures taken from literature data. Normal font selected to calculate the indices. The calculation is carried out using well-known mathematical operations on the computer.

Examples confirming the specific implementation of the method of determining the amount of coating used in the process of the leather and fur industries namesname ways.

Example 1. For research use fur sheepskin fresh-dry canning. Method of asymmetric fringe of it cut out samples of size 10×100 mm Sample was measured and weighed before and after the flooding, after processing in to the slots and alkali, after tanning with chromium compounds and after joining them for 5 seconds in boiling water. The number of samples in each experiment from 30 to 50. Next, using the obtained results, calculate the amount of water in different structural levels, using the above algorithm (see table 1). The results of the calculations are shown in table 2.

The flooding. After irrigation, the moisture content was190,27g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter. Shrinkage of the sample during welding was38,86%.

Example 2. Carried out analogously to example 1. The plumping in acetic acid solution. Humidity after plumping was 441,39 g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter. Shrinkage of the sample during welding was15,96%. The results of the calculations are shown in tables 2, 3, 4.

Example 3. Carried out analogously to example 1. The plumping in sulfuric acid. Humidity after plumping was 376,76 g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter. Shrinkage of the sample during welding was 21,01%. The results of the calculations are shown in tables 2, 3, 4.

Example 4. Carried out analogously to example 1. The plumping in sodium sulphide solution. Humidity after plumping was 356,30 g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter. Shrinkage of the sample during welding was27,78%. The results of the calculations are shown in tables 2, 3, 4.

Example 5. Carried out analogously to example 1. The plumping solution of calcium hydroxide. Humidity is after plumping amounted to 308,32g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter. Shrinkage of the sample during welding was 25,17%. The results of the calculations are shown in tables 2, 3, 4.

Example 6. Carried out analogously to example 1. The plumping solution of calcium hydroxide and sodium sulphide. Humidity after plumping amounted to376,16g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter. Shrinkage of the sample during welding was 28,699%. The results of the calculations are shown in tables 2, 3, 4.

Example 7. Carried out analogously to example 1. Pickling acetic acid.

The flooding. After irrigation, the moisture content was192,45g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter, shrinkage of the sample during welding was 24,52%.

After pickling, the moisture content was201,80g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter, shrinkage of the sample during welding wasto 26.02%. The results of the calculations are given in table 5.

Example 8. Carried out analogously to example 1. Pickling with sulphuric acid.

The flooding. After irrigation, the moisture content was178,4375g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter, shrinkage of the sample during welding was39,698%.

After pickling, the moisture content was165,43g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter, shrinkage of the sample during welding was39,379%. The results of the calculations are given in table 5.

Example 9. Carried out analogously to example 1. The flooding. After watering with the holding moisture was 197,59g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter, shrinkage of the sample during welding was 24,52%.

Pickling. After pickling, the moisture content was195,88g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter, shrinkage of the sample during welding was 26,78%.

The tanning. After tanning for 1 hour, the moisture content was 198,17 g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter, shrinkage of the sample during welding was 26,73%.

After tanning for one day, the moisture content was 203,68 g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter, shrinkage of the sample during welding was 25,86%.

After tanning for six days the moisture content was 206,17 g per 100 g of absolutely dry matter, shrinkage of the sample during welding was 24,91%. The results of the calculations are given in table 5.

Table 2. Changing the moisture content of interrelations of structures in the spaces of the dermis depending on the type of material that creates the plumping
Structural spaceChanging the amount of moisture between the structural elements, depending on the type of material, creating a plumping, g / 100 g D.S.
Example 1Example 2Example 3 Example 4Example 5Example 6
WaterAcetic acidSulfuric acidSodium sulfideCalcium hydroxideCalcium hydroxide + sodium sulfide
Molecular* volume51,4976,0880,7080,7080,7080,70
Fibrillar* volume55,4125,0735,6750,6844,5752,95
Fiber* volume83,37340,24260,39224,91183,04242,50
The increase in fiber volume, time4,083,122,702,202,91
Only190,27441,39376,76356,30308,32376,16
The molecular volume + Fibrillar volume106,91101,15116,38131,39125,28133,66
*If the density of water 1000 kg/m3its volume is numerically equal to the mass.

Table 2 shows that when the swelling increases the molecular volume, fibrillar volume decreased slightly, but significantly increased fiber volume 2,20-4,08 times, where is concentrated the main amount of moisture.

You may also notice that the total amount of moisture in the molecular and fibrillar volumes are approximately the same and does not change depending on the materials, in which there is swelling, the change is from 101,15 for acetic acid to 133,66 g per 100 g of ACV mixture of calcium hydroxide and sodium sulphide, which is more than water only 26,75 g per 100 g D.S.

Thus, the principal amount of fluid at plumping concentrated in the interfibrillar space, so nemazee about toleriane and liming should be so, to fiber volume amount of fluid was minimal, this will ensure prompt delivery of materials to the surface of the fibrils and chemical impact of materials in fiber volume on the ingredients of the intercellular matrix.

Calculations show that the dermis can swelling additionally absorb moisture from 118,05 to 251,12 g per 100 g dia. (see table 3). The amount of absorbed liquid in any method of introduction (namazu or Okun) can be from 40,67 to 86,51% by weight watered dermis.

td align="left">
Table 3
Changing swelling flooded the dermis depending on the material used
IndexExample 2Example 3Example 4Example 5Example 6
Acetic acidSulfuric acidSodium sulfideCalcium hydroxideCalcium hydroxide + sodium sulfide
The number of additional absorbed moisture g / 100 g D.S.
251,12186,49166,03118,05185,89
The amount of absorbed moisture during the swelling, % by weight, water dermis
86,5164,2557,2040,6764,04
*If the density of water 1000 kg/m3its volume is numerically equal to the mass.

Therefore, if we carry out liming the anointing, the amount of the applied solution by weight of the dermis for complete absorption of the solution can be from 40,67 to 64,04% by weight of the dermis.

Moreover, when applying namazu will be absorbed and the materials dissolved in the applied liquid. The efficiency of introduction of the materials can be increased by pressing of the interfiber space fluid. The spin will increase not only the amount of absorbed liquid, but will also improve the speed of delivery of the materials in the thickness of the dermis due to the effect of Simachev the deposits and movement of the fluid, if you are using surfactants. For example, when mestrini number squeezed of moisture can be up to 10% by weight of the dermis. Then the amount of absorbed (when namesnik the executions of the processes that will be the number entered) moisture can increase the amount of moisture, which has pushed up. The results of calculations on the water content in the dermis are shown in table 4.

Table 4
Change the content of moisture in the dermis after pressing
IndexThe moisture content in the dermis after wringing, g / 100 g D.S.
Example 2Example 3Example 4Example 5Example 6
Acetic acidSulfuric acidSodium sulfideCalcium hydroxideCalcium hydroxide + sodium sulfide
The amount of moisture in the fiber volume274,94195,09159,61 117,74177,20
The total number of376,09311,46291,00243,02310,86
Limit441,39376,76356,30308,32376,16
Moisture deficit for the full swelling164,0399,4078,9430,9698,80
*If the density of water 1000 kg/m3its volume is numerically equal to the mass.

The calculation results show that when applied to solutions pressed on the leather, in quantities smaller than the above, the process namanga ashing can be carried out in partial swelling of the leather. The deficit can be from 30,96 to 98,80 g per 100 g D.S. when applying the 30% solution by weight watered dermis. Therefore, first, the materials penetrate into the dermis faster and after the process obessolivanie will also be held in Overdrive mode.

From the presented results, the research is there, you can see how is the changing interrelations of structures spaces using different materials and process of manufacture. You can see that the pickling and tanning lead to the redistribution of moisture in fibrillar and fiber spaces. And tanning reduces the amount of fibrillar space and increases the amount of fiber space. A simultaneous increase in the volume and weight of the dermis. The correlation coefficient between these parameters is 0.99. That is, the weight increase is largely due to the increase in volume, rather than by the addition of tanning agent.

Table 5
Changes interrelations of structures of the spaces in the pickling and tanning
ProcessProcessing stage sampleResize designs and interrelations of structures spaces*,
%g per 100 g ASV
LengthThicknessWeightMolecularFibrillar Fiber
Example 7 PicklingFlooding00051,4933,01107,94
Acetic acid2,03-4,243,251,4935,61114,69
Example 8 PicklingFlooding00051,4965,3461,61
Sulfuric acid0,525-8,19-4,6751,4964,4949,45
Example 9 Tanning salts of chromiumFlooding51,4933,01113,08
Pickling vinegarof 2.263,81-0,5851,4936,98107,40
1 hourof 2.21-4,660,1951,4936,88109,80
1 dayof 1.34-0,0262,0451,4935,33116,85
6 days0,394,072,8851,4933,67121.00 amendment
*If the density of water 1000 kg/m3its volume is numerically equal to the mass.

For namanga process of obessolivanija you want the application to the dermis obezbolivajuscih materials in smaller quantities, but when the total fluid flow, obviously, not exceeding 30% by weight of the dermis to perform ashing. Because obessolivanie fluid will be extracted from the dermis through fall is Agora, most likely, this process should be done by dipping the dermis in obezbolivaushee compositions containing both the material for obessolivanija and materials for bating with subsequent spin cycle. The pressing need for follow-up tanning. Pickling can be omitted. While our results showed that the compounds of chromium absorbed completely, wrung interfiber liquid are only traces of trivalent chromium.

The given examples show that using only two instrumental defined indicator - shrinkage specimens leather for welding and humidity during welding, it is possible to determine important for the implementation process of the leather and fur industries namesnik method criterion is the number of absorbed moisture. In other words, the amount applied to the intermediate fluid, which is completely absorbed by the dermis.

Therefore, the above results of the experiments allow us to conclude about the use of the invention in the leather and fur industries in the process of the leather and fur industries using nanotransporters namesname ways, and use in other sectors of the economy.

The method of determining the amount of coating used in the implementation of the attachment process of the leather and fur production namesname ways, characterized in that the amount of liquid that can absorb the leather is determined by the moisture content at the time of shrinkage of the samples when welding in percent, followed by calculating the difference between total moisture and the amount of the liquid between the molecules in the fibrils.



 

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1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of measuring gas humidity involves conversion of the measured quantity to a parametre of an electrical signal transmitted over a measurement channel and periodic correction of the graduated characteristic of the hygrometre. Gas, whose humidity is being measured, is isobarically cooled to temperature lower than the dew point, determined from previous measurement results. The obtained gas with precisely known humidity is used to correct the graduated characteristic of the hygrometre. After cooling the gas to temperature lower than the dew point and before feeding the gas onto the hygrometre sensor, temperature of the gas is raised to an initial value. Also, after isobaric cooling of the gas in order to measure humidity, cooling the gas continues until a second value of humidity is obtained at a precisely known temperature of the gas and correction of the graduated characteristic of the hygrometre is carried out based on the obtained two measurement values of humidity.

EFFECT: automation of correction of the graduated characteristic of the hygrometre during measurement and providing long-term stability of measurement errors.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas production.

SUBSTANCE: method of measurement of dispersed phase carry-over includes passing through filter-mount of particular volume of gas samples with following definition of overweight of filter-mount ensured by deposition of dispersed phase. Additionally this volume of gas sample is bleed through bleeder probe. Extracted moisture is collected in additional filter-mount, additional filter-mount is overlapped. Particular volume of gas sample is directed to filter-mount during particular period of time at steady gas flow through installation, which provides regulator implemented in the form of block with set of standardise critical jet. Installation implementing method contains bleeder probe, filter-mount, additional filter-mount for collecting of extracted moisture, regulator of steady flow of gas at pressure, temperature and velocity in system of installation, equal to pressure, temperature and velocity of gas stream, implemented in the form of block with set of standardised critical nozzles.

EFFECT: receiving of more exact values of entrainment of discontinuous phase in gas flow.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: in water-cooled generator, gas is extracted in N points from generator volume, and measurement of humidity in all points of extraction, according to invention, is carried out with single metre of moisture concentration serially, value of humidity in N extraction point of knowingly driest gas is subtracted from results of current measurements in N-1 point of sample extraction, and speed of differential data variation is used to identify emergency water leaks.

EFFECT: invention provides for detection of emergency mode in water-cooled generators related to water leaks, reduced time required for detection of emergency mode.

2 cl

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device for measurement of air humidity comprises capacitance sensor of humidity (2), resistive temperature sensor (14), reference stable capacitor (20), high-resistance precision resistor (11), relay (13), the first and second normally closed contacts of relay (6, 22), the first and second normally open contacts of relay (7, 23), low-resistance precision resistor (12), reference high-precision resistor (21), AC voltage generator (1), line of AC voltage supply (8), metres of level of output signal from AC voltage amplifiers in capacitance sensor of humidity and resistive sensor of temperature (3, 4), source of relay supply (5), line of relay control (9), registrator (10), signal lines (15, 16), amplifiers of AC voltage of capacitance humidity sensor and resistive temperature sensor (17, 18), functional unit (19).

EFFECT: higher accuracy of air humidity measurement.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics, tests.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to devices for testing of construction materials and may be used to detect moisture resistance of heat insulation materials of fibrous structure, in particular products of mineral wool. Device for moisture resistance testing of heat insulation fibrous material samples comprises untight chamber with detachable cover equipped with sources and controllers of water heating to boiling, inside of which there is a detachable meshy tray for installation of tested samples. Moreover, on detachable cover there is a standard instrument for detection of compressibility of fibrous heat insulation materials. Besides movable stem of standard instrument passes through detachable cover of untight chamber inside guide tube and rests on test sample via additionally introduced spatial frame, which eliminates distortions from effect of heat and moisture medium at sample in process of its moisture resistance testing, and on top and bottom of test sample, meshy gaskets are installed for even transfer of pressure to test sample.

EFFECT: development of device that has high efficiency in operation and improved authenticity of sample testing results.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: hygrometer includes cooling system, measuring chamber, temperature sensor, light source, photodetector, inlet and outlet manifolds, valves, pressure gauge, flowmeter and cooler. Cooling system includes flat groove recess parallel to the axis of the measuring chamber and the aperture thereover covered with shielding glass with light source above. According to the version 2, hygrometer comprises photodetector mounted together with light source. According to the version 3, hygrometer includes the second photodetector along the axis of the measuring chamber.

EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy of gas dew point and design simplification.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: analytical chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes using static "electronic nose", whose matrix is formed from 2 weight-sensitive piezo-sensors, whose electrodes are modified by even application of film of acetone solutions of polyethylene glycol PEG-2000 and polyvinylpyrrolidone, and subjected to drying. Modified weight-sensitive piezo-sensors are fixed in holders on cover and put in bode of static "electronic nose". Completeness of removal of free solvents from films is controlled by constancy of fluctuations of weight-sensitive piezo-sensors, then sample of stock cube, dry bouillon or soup base is taken, heated, crushed thoroughly and mixed, placed into weighing bottle with polyurethane membrane on cover. Sample is kept in weighing bottle during 10-15 minutes. After saturation of gas phase with water vapours through polyurethane membrane sample of equilibrium gas phase is taken with 3-5 cm3 syringe, which is quickly injected into body of static "electronic nose". Frequency of fluctuations of weight-sensitive piezo-sensors is fixed, total analytic signal is formed in form of kinetic "visual print" and is compared with standards. Area of figure S"в.а" is calculated and humidity of sample ω % is determined using calibrating diagram drawn in coordinates S"в.а"=f (ω, wt %).

EFFECT: high expressiveness, reliability, accuracy, objectivity and simplicity of determining.

3 dwg

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises grinding the dump specimen of the agent in the thermograph by heating that is accompanied by its drying, obtaining a temperature curve of the agent, and determining the concentration of water fractions from the temperature curve.

EFFECT: reduced time consumption and enhanced reliability.

1 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment engineering.

SUBSTANCE: condensation hygrometer contains a layer of oxidized porous silicon on mono-crystalline substrate, a system of opposite-pin electrodes and metallic contacts to it. Pores in oxidized porous silicon have conical shape, expanding towards surface, while electrodes, isolated by oxide, are made of poly-silicon and are embedded into body of mono-crystalline substrate for whole thickness of porous layer.

EFFECT: provision of possible operation at high temperatures, increased sensitivity during operation at high temperatures, increased resistance to effect of high temperatures and thermo-cycling.

1 dwg

FIELD: measurement engineering.

SUBSTANCE: moisture is extracted from moisture-containing organic material, for example, from timber. Device is used which has pressure-tight chambers for removing moisture, carriages for loading organic materials, moisture collectors and heat lines. Weight of removed moisture in relation to weight of organic material is calculated.

EFFECT: reduced time of procedure; increased precision of testing.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: electric insulating base, electric insulating substrate onto which moisture-sensitive coating is applied on the base of gelatin which has its external layer tanned, two plated electrodes which have contact surface to contact with moisture-sensitive coating on base of gelatin and measuring device connected to outputs of plated electrodes. Two clamping units are introduced into the device additionally. Any clamping unit intends for creating permanent pressure of corresponding plated electrode onto working surface of moisture-sensitive coating on base of gelatin. Layer of gelatin coating has uniform thickness. Contact surface of plated electrodes adjacent the moisture-sensitive gelatin-based coating is made to be oxidized and flat.

EFFECT: prolonged service life; higher stability of operation; increased moisture resistance.

5 cl, 1 dwg

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