Damper

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: damper consists of cylinder 1 and of rod 2 with piston 3 installed in cylinder. Throttle 12 is installed in piston 3 and communicates above-piston 4 and sub-piston 5 cavities between them. The damper is equipped with safety valves of compression strokes 13 and rebound stroke 14 set in piston 3. Compensation chamber 15 is located in a lower part of cylinder 1. Inside upper ring 17 there is made groove 20 communicated with over-piston cavity 4 through back valve 8. Inside lower ring 18 there is made groove 21 communicated with sub-piston cavity 5 through back valve 9. Inside middle ring 19 there are made upper 22 and lower 23 grooves. Upper groove 22 of middle ring 19 is communicated with over-piston cavity 4 through orifices 6 in the middle part of cylinder 1 and is connected with groove 21 of lower ring 18 by means of left hydraulic valve 24. Lower groove 23 of middle ring 19 is communicated with sub-piston cavity 20 of upper ring 17 by means of right hydraulic valve 25.

EFFECT: simplified design and reduced dimensions and weight of damper at simultaneous raise of its vibro-protecting properties and reliability of operation.

3 dwg

 

The proposed absorber relates to a device for damping oscillations vibroisolating objects and is intended for use mainly in the suspensions of vehicles together with elastic bearing elements.

Known Monotube gas-filled shock absorber, containing the cylinder, the piston, made in the piston of the throttle opening and the installed relief valves moves the compression and rebound, the hydraulic cylinder chamber filled with working fluid and divided by the piston on nadporshnevaya and podporchennuyu cavity, the compensation chamber, a floating piston that separates the compensation chamber and the hydraulic cylinder chamber [Rimpel Th. The chassis of the vehicle. Shock absorbers, tires, and wheels. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1986, p.34, RIS].

The disadvantage of this shock absorber is that it allows you to implement only the damping characteristic, defined by the area of the throttle hole, the area of the piston and rod, the viscosity of the working fluid as well as the parameters of the discharge valve moves the compression and rebound. This method of damping is not possible to achieve acceptable levels of vibration of the vehicle when driving on different roads.

Closest to the proposed technical solution is the absorber containing reservoir, on th is th in the reservoir cylinder, mounted in the cylinder rod with a fixed piston, made in the middle part of the cylinder holes, alternately blocked by the piston, two valve, designed for transmission of fluid from newportnews and podpornoy cavities of the cylinder to the reservoir, a throttling element made in the form of a liner with a calibrated orifice, two hydraulic channel and the brake device made in the form of a cylindrical capsule with two plungers, which divide the cavity into three parts - upper, middle and lower, a spring installed between the plungers, and emphasis, and the first fluid channel connects nadporshnevaya the cylinder chamber with the upper cavity of the cylindrical capsule and the second fluid channel connects podporchennuyu the cylinder chamber with the lower cylindrical cavity of the capsule, with the emphasis made in the form of a sleeve and fixed in the middle part of the cylindrical capsule, the plungers are located on different sides of the fence, the ends of the springs attached to the ends of the plungers, a reservoir connected with the middle cavity of the cylindrical capsule tube, and a throttling element is installed in the tube [RF patent 2247881, CL F16F 9/48, bull. No. 7, 2005].

The disadvantage of this shock absorber is the complexity and large size of its design, which increases the mass of the absorber. In addition, compression or stretching the tion of the shock absorber from its end position to the middle position (position of static equilibrium) requires the application of considerable force, which leads to blocking of the suspension under small perturbations. Also in this absorber, there is no restriction of the maximum forces of compression and rebound. All this leads to a decrease in the smoothness of the vehicle. The absence of the absorber compensator changes the volume of the liquid due to the effect of temperature and leakage of the working environment reduces efficiency and reliability, and also increases the axial dimensions of the absorber due to the presence of the piston with double-sided stem.

In this regard, the most important task is the creation of a new damping system of automatic regulation of the amplitude, direction and speed fluctuations, providing a smooth increase and limitation of hydraulic resistance on one half turns of the compression and rebound (from the point of change of direction of deformation of the shock absorber to the position of static equilibrium) and a sharp decrease in the other half moves the compression and rebound (from the position of static equilibrium to the point of change of direction of deformation of the shock absorber).

The technical result of the claimed invention is to simplify the design and reduce the size and weight of the shock absorber while increasing its vibration protection properties and reliability. The application of this shock absorber will reduce vibration transportnogo the tools and operating costs, the decrease in the total energy losses caused by fluctuations, the increase in average speed and performance when driving in virtually any types of roads.

This technical problem is solved in that the absorber containing cylinder mounted in the cylinder, the piston dividing the cylinder on nadporshnevaya and podporchennuyu cavity made in the middle part of the cylinder holes, alternately blocked by the piston, two non-return valve installed on the upper and lower ends of the cylinder and designed to pass liquid from newportnews and podpornoy cavities of the cylinder, two hydraulic channel and the choke, the choke is installed in the piston and reports nadporshnevaya and podporchennuyu cavity between itself and the shock absorber is equipped with a safety valve moves the compression and rebound installed in the piston, a compensating chamber, placed in the lower part of the cylinder, the upper and lower clamps fixed on the upper and lower ends of the cylinder opposite the check valves, and an average ferrule fixed on the middle part of the cylinder opposite the holes, and inside the upper casing is made a groove communicated through the check valve with newportnews a cavity within the bottom of the cage is made a groove communicated through the check valve with podpornoy a cavity within the middle of the cage made the top of the Yaya and lower grooves, while the upper groove of the secondary cage communicated with newportnews cavity through the holes in the middle part of the cylinder and connected to the groove bottom of the cage through the left hydraulic channel, and the bottom groove of the secondary cage communicated with podpornoy cavity through the holes in the middle part of the cylinder and connected with the upper groove clip right through the hydraulic channel.

Due to the fact that the shock absorber is equipped with top, bottom and middle clamps attached to the cylinder, and inside the upper casing is made a groove communicated through the check valve with newportnews a cavity within the bottom of the cage is made a groove communicated through the check valve with podpornoy a cavity within the middle of the cage is made of upper and lower grooves, while the upper groove communicated with newportnews cavity through the holes in the middle part of the cylinder and connected to the groove bottom of the cage through the left hydraulic channel, and the bottom groove of the secondary cage communicated with podpornoy cavity through the holes in the middle part of the cylinder and connected with the upper groove clip right through the hydraulic channel, is provided to simplify the design and reduce the size and weight of the shock absorber while increasing reliability. When this is achieved sharp is adenia resistance of the shock absorber when it is compressed or stretched from the position of static equilibrium.

Due to the fact that the shock absorber is equipped with a safety valve moves the compression and rebound set together with the orifice in the piston, provides a smooth increase and limitation of hydraulic resistance depending on the velocity of the compression or elongation of the shock absorber from its extreme positions to the position of static equilibrium.

The result is a smooth increase and limit resistance on one half turns of the compression and rebound (from the point of change of direction of deformation of the shock absorber to the position of static equilibrium) and due to a sharp decrease of the resistance of the other half moves the compression and rebound (from the position of static equilibrium to the point of change of direction of deformation of the shock absorber) is the self-regulation of the force of resistance of the absorber amplitude, direction and speed, which increases the smoothness of the vehicle when driving on almost any road types.

Due to the fact that the shock absorber is equipped with a compensation chamber, placed in the lower part of the cylinder, improved the reliability of the damper when the temperature of the liquid and the leaks of the working environment, but also reduces the axial dimension of the damper due to the possibility of application of the piston with one rod. the moreover, due to the gas pressure in the compensation chamber, eliminates the possibility of foaming of the liquid in flowing through the inductor, which increases the stability of the damping characteristics at high frequencies.

1 shows a General view of the shock absorber; figure 2 is a diagram of the location of the damper in the position of static equilibrium together with the elastic bearing element vibration protection system; figure 3 shows waveforms of the vibrations of the object and the base when the kinematic perturbation, and also a graph of the resistance of the shock absorber.

The shock absorber includes a cylinder 1, a fixed shaft 2 with a piston 3, which divides the cylinder 1 on nadporshnevaya 4 and podporchennuyu 5 cavity filled with fluid (figure 1). In the middle part of the cylinder 1 with holes 6 and 7 are alternately blocked by the piston 3. On the upper and lower ends of the cylinder 1 at its outer grooves has two check valves 8 and 9 in the form of elastic rings, overlapping radial holes 10 and 11 in the cylinder 1. The piston 3 has a throttle 12 and safety valve stroke compression ratio 13 and stroke end 14 reporting nadporshnevaya 4 and podporchennuyu 5 cavity between them. In the lower part of the cylinder 1 is placed pneumatic compensation chamber 15, which is separated from the hydraulic podpornoy cavity 5 of the cylinder 1 by a floating piston 16.

the outside of the cylinder 1 at its upper and lower ends opposite the check valves 8 and 9 fixed to the upper 17 and lower 18 of the shroud, and on the middle part of the cylinder 1 opposite the holes 6 and 7 fixed average ferrule 19. Inside the upper casing 17 is made a groove 20 provided through the check valve 8 with newportnews cavity 4. Inside the lower casing 18 is made a groove 21 provided through the check valve 9 with podpornoy cavity 5. Inside the middle of the clip 19 is made of the top 22 and bottom 23 of the groove. The upper groove 22 of the secondary holder 19 is in communication with newportnews cavity 4 through the opening 6 in the middle part of the cylinder 1 and is connected with the groove 21 of the lower casing through the bypass tube 24 of the left hydraulic channel. The lower groove 23 of the secondary holder 19 is in communication with podpornoy cavity 5 through the openings 7 in the middle part of the cylinder 1 and is connected with the groove 20 of the upper casing 17 through the bypass tube 25 of the right hydraulic channel.

The shock absorber is connected with the object of vibroprotection 26 and a base 27, between which the elastic supporting member 28 (figure 2).

In the position of static equilibrium, the piston 3 is located in the middle part of the cylinder 1 between the radial holes 6 and 7. The relevant provisions of object 26 and base 27 is defined by points a, b, C, d and e (figure 3).

The shock absorber works as follows.

On the site and...b object 26 and base 27 closer to each other (x-y<0 and x/-y/<0). When the piston 3 moves the t middle part of the cylinder 1 down as the rod 2 is provided in the cylinder 1. The pressure in podpornoy cavity 5 increases, and in newportnews cavity 4 decreases, which leads to the displacement of the floating piston 16 down and increase the gas pressure in the compensation chamber 15. Under the action of pressure difference on the piston 3, the fluid from podpornoy cavity 5, pressing the check valve 9, enters nadporshnevaya the cavity 4 through the holes 11 of the cylinder 1, the groove 21 of the lower casing 18, the loop tube 24, the upper groove 22 of the secondary cage 19 and the holes 6 of the cylinder 1. Since most of the fluid freely extruded through a check valve 9, the throttle 12 is almost off of work and resistance force of the shock absorber is close to zero.

At site b...with the object 26 and base 27 are removed from each other (x-y<0 and x/-y/>0). When the piston 3 to move up to the middle part of the cylinder 1 and the rod 2 extends from the cylinder 1. The pressure in newportnews cavity 4 increases, and in podpornoy cavity 5 is reduced, which leads to the displacement of the floating piston 16 upward and reduce the gas pressure in the compensation chamber 15. Since the check valve 9 is closed, the liquid from newportnews cavity 4 is extruded by the piston 3 in podporchennuyu cavity 5 through the orifice 12, providing increased resistance of the shock absorber on the course of the retreat, which increases gradually from the point of change on the management of deformation of the shock absorber until static equilibrium, when the piston 3 will take a middle position in the cylinder 1 between the holes 6 and 7. At high speed stretching of the suspension in this area triggered the safety valve stroke end 14 through which fluid from newportnews cavity 4 flows into podporchennuyu cavity 5, which limits the strength of the shock absorber at the course end. After passage of the piston 3 holes 7 will balance the pressures in the cavities 4 and 5 through the check valve 8 and the loop tube 25.

At site c...d object 26 and base 27 continue to be deleted from each other (x-y>0 and x/-y/>0). When the piston 3 moves from the middle part of the cylinder 1 upward, and the piston rod 2 extends from the cylinder 1. The pressure in newportnews cavity 4 increases, and in podpornoy cavity 5 is reduced, which leads to the displacement of the floating piston 16 upward and reduce the gas pressure in the compensation chamber 15. Fluid from newportnews cavity 4, pressing the check valve 8 comes in podporchennuyu cavity 5 through the openings 10 of the cylinder 1, the groove 20 of the upper casing 17, the loop tube 25, the lower groove 23 of the secondary cage 19 and the holes 7 of the cylinder 1. Since most of the fluid freely extruded through a check valve 8, the throttle 12 is almost off of work and resistance force of the shock absorber is close to zero.

At site d...e the object 26 and base 27 bring the SJ to each other (x-> 0 and x/- /<0). When the piston 3 moves down to the middle part of the cylinder 1 and the rod 2 is provided in the cylinder 1. The pressure in podpornoy cavity 5 increases, and in newportnews cavity 4 decreases, which leads to the displacement of the floating piston 16 down and increase the gas pressure in the compensation chamber 15. Since the check valve 8 is closed, the liquid from podpornoy cavity 5 is extruded in nadporshnevaya the cavity 4 through the orifice 12, which provides increased shock resistance, which increases gradually from the point of change of direction of deformation of the shock absorber until static equilibrium, when the piston 3 will take a middle position in the cylinder 1 between the holes 6 and 7. At high speed compression of the suspension in this area triggered the safety valve stroke compression ratio 13 through which the liquid from podpornoy cavity 5 flows into nadporshnevaya cavity 4, which limits the force of the shock absorber during compression. After passage of the piston 3 holes 6 will balance the pressures in the cavities 4 and 5 through the check valve 9 and the loop tube 24.

Upon further movement of the object 26 and base 27 describes the sequence of operation of the shock absorber is repeated, which provides regulation of inelastic resistance on the amplitude, direction and speed fluctuations.

Offer is aemy the shock absorber has a simple, compact and robust design that enhance the smoothness of the vehicle due to the gradual increase and limit resistance on one half turns of the compression and rebound (from the point of change of direction of deformation of the shock absorber to the position of static equilibrium) and due to a sharp decrease of the resistance of the other half moves the compression and rebound (from the position of static equilibrium to the point of change of direction of deformation of the shock absorber). The application of this shock absorber will reduce vertical vibrations of the vehicle, reduce operating costs and General loss of energy, increased average speed and performance when driving in virtually any types of roads.

Existing technologies engineering and applied therein allow you to organize industrial production and equipment vehicles these absorbers.

The absorber containing cylinder mounted in the cylinder, the piston dividing the cylinder on nadporshnevaya and podporchennuyu cavity made in the middle part of the cylinder holes, alternately blocked by the piston, two non-return valve installed on the upper and lower ends of the cylinder and designed to pass liquid from newportnews and podpornoy cavities of the cylinder, two water the practical channel and choke, characterized in that a throttle is installed in the piston and reports nadporshnevaya and podporchennuyu cavity between itself and the shock absorber is equipped with a safety valve moves the compression and rebound installed in the piston, a compensating chamber, placed in the lower part of the cylinder, the upper and lower clamps fixed on the upper and lower ends of the cylinder opposite the check valves, and an average ferrule fixed on the middle part of the cylinder opposite the holes, and inside the upper casing is made a groove communicated through the check valve with newportnews a cavity within the bottom of the cage is made a groove communicated through the check valve with podpornoy a cavity within the middle clip made of upper and lower grooves, while the upper groove of the secondary cage communicated with newportnews cavity through the holes in the middle part of the cylinder and connected to the groove bottom of the cage through the left hydraulic channel, and the bottom groove of the secondary cage communicated with podpornoy cavity through the holes in the middle part of the cylinder and connected with the upper groove clip right through the hydraulic channel.



 

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