Aircraft with improved central fairing

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft 10 comprises fuselage 12, two wings 14, 16 whereto engine nacelles are attached, each being secured by central fairing 18, 20 to fuselage on its both sides. Said central fairing comprises two opposed surfaces jointed to wing upper and lower surfaces arranged along fuselage. One of said surfaces has local deformation of shape geometry to create aero dynamical lateral disturbances of airflow from central fairing to wing to control airflow over wing surface.

EFFECT: perfected aircraft design.

14 cl, 21 dwg

 

The present invention relates to an apparatus and relates in particular to the Central fairing, which provides the connection of the fuselage, each wing of the aircraft.

Aircraft industry is constantly conducted research aimed at improving the flight characteristics of the aircraft that provide flight performance in different modes (flight at cruising speed, maximum cruise speed, at the stage of beginning to reduce, according to the scheme of landing etc).

In addition, due to various reasons, affecting, for example, to increase the flight range of the aircraft or of transported cargo, may need replacement in the operation of aircraft engines for engines of large size.

This leads to deterioration of the aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft after the installation of the new engines.

In this regard, the aircraft designers strive to provide better characteristics of the aircraft with new engines, without affecting the bearing surface of the wing last.

With this aim, the present invention is directed to an aircraft containing:

- fuselage;

- two wings, which are attached to the engine nacelle, each of which laterally through the Central fairing is attached to the fuselage, one on each of its sides, while the Central fairing (for each wing contains two spaced opposite each other surface, which provide the connection, respectively, with the top surface and the bottom surface of the considered wing and which have longitudinally along the fuselage, location

characterized in that at least one of the two surfaces contains at least one local deformation of the geometry of the shape, which is made for the formation of aerodynamic lateral disturbances of the air flow from the Central fairing to the wing, to regulate the flow of air over the wing.

Giving in some places, at least one of these surfaces corresponding to the geometry of the form shown, therefore, in compliance with the Central fairing able to exert a beneficial effect on the flow around the wing airflow, creating pressure waves that move in the direction of the free edge of the considered wing.

These pressure waves allow for the removal to convert the area of the pressure on the bearing surface of the wing.

It should be noted that the choice of the local deformations of the geometry of the forms produced in relation to the surfaces of the fairing, you can reduce the aerodynamic drag of the aircraft without significant changes in weight and cost to produce.

Pressure waves generated by one or more zones with izmenen the th shape geometry of the considered surface, can be, depending on the nature of one or more deformations of the geometry of the shape, waves to reduce tension or compression waves, or a combination of two waves.

Local or local deformation of the shape's geometry can be longitudinal, along the fuselage, the location.

It should be noted that if the achieved level of technology, at the Central fairing does it have special formations, and, as a rule, the surface forming the shell fairing, have a very small and uniform, even almost zero, the total longitudinal curvature.

The invention, on the contrary, it is envisaged to give at least one surface of the fairing, in one or more areas of the surface under study, a greater curvature than in the case, if you use the attained level of technology.

This curvature is formed mainly in the lengthwise along the fuselage, the direction (main curvature), as well as in the secondary, transverse, direction, corresponding to the height of the fuselage (secondary curvature).

According to distinctive feature, this at least one local deformation of the geometry of the shape is reflected in a reduction of the local radius of bending at least one zone of the surface under study.

Conversely, if the invention is not riminals, the local radius of the bend (still along the surface) has a very high value, even to infinity, while the total longitudinal curvature of the surface is very small, even practically zero.

According to distinctive feature, the location and width of this at least one local deformation geometry forms depend, in particular, from the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft.

Thus, to provide the necessary impact on the movement of the air bearing surface of the wing, it is preferable to consider these characteristics to conform at the local level are considered or consider the surface of the fairing.

According to distinctive feature to this model features include an aerodynamic characteristics, which is caused by the design of the fuselage, wings, engine nacelles, and the speed of the aircraft.

According to distinctive feature, the local deformation of the geometry of the shape is expressed as occurring in a certain place convexity, which allows the flow wave to reduce tension.

According to distinctive feature, the bulge takes the form of exaltation.

According to distinctive feature, the local deformation of the shape's geometry is expressed in voznikayushie is in a certain place concavity, which allows the flow wave compression.

According to distinctive characteristic curve takes the form of depression.

According to distinctive feature, a depression is formed in two parts below the slope surface, which are connected to the base of the depression in the area of the fracture profile of the slope.

According to distinctive feature of at least one of the two surfaces contains several consecutive local deformations of the geometry of the shape, disposable along the fuselage, which are local alternation of convexity and concavity.

The serial arrangement of multiple convexity and concavity provides precise control over the flow of the air bearing surface of the wing is most efficient to adapt to the characteristics of the bearing surface of the wing and factory requirements.

According to distinctive feature, this at least one local deformation of the geometry of the shape is on the surface, which is attached to the upper surface of the wing.

Change the top fairing is held, in particular, with regard to the adjustment of the supersonic area of the upper surface of the wing.

According to distinctive feature, this at least one local deformation of the geometry of the shape is performed on n the surface, which is attached to the lower surface of the wing.

Change the lower fairing is held, in particular, with regard to the adjustment of the pressure gradients provided on the lower surface of the wing.

According to distinctive feature, the Central fairing contains a combination of a large number of structural elements, each of which has a surface area; each of which are located opposite each other surfaces of the Central fairing connected to each wing, formed by a set of surface patches have next to each other constructive elements.

Other distinctive features and advantages apparent from the following description, with reference to the drawings, in which:

- figure 1 schematically depicts the General view of the aircraft according to the present invention;

- figure 2 - schematic view of the Central fairing of the aircraft;

- figure 3 is a schematic, partial view, which shows the connection of a compound of structural elements of the fairing;

- figa, 4B and 4C are a top view and represent three possible variants of the geometry of the intersection of the fuselage with the wing of the aircraft, represented in figure 1;

- figa and 5B depict the distribution of areas of pressure on the bearing surface of the wing in case that is relevant to the military, the present invention is not implemented and enforced;

- figa and 6b schematically depict partial views (respectively, from above and in perspective) boundary of contact of the fuselage with the bearing surface of the wing on the aircraft type a without special geometric formations;

- figv and 6D schematically depict partial views (respectively, from above and in perspective of border contact, presented at Figo and 6b, with geometric shaping according to the invention, depicted in figa;

- figa and 7b schematically depict partial views (respectively, from above and in perspective) boundary of contact of the fuselage with the bearing surface of the wing on the aircraft type A380 without special geometric formations;

- figv and 7G schematically depict partial views (respectively, from above and in perspective) boundary of contact of the fuselage with the bearing surface of the wing, presented at Figo and 7b, with geometric shaping according to the invention, represented on figb;

- figd schematically depicts a partial top view profile composite structural elements fairing;

- figa and 8b schematically depict partial views (respectively, from above and in perspective) boundary of contact of the fuselage with the bearing surface of the wing on the aircraft type A320 without special g is americasa morphogenesis;

- figv and 8D schematically depict partial views (respectively, from above and in perspective) boundary of contact of the fuselage with the bearing surface of the wing, presented at Figo and 8b, with geometric shaping according to the invention, depicted in FIGU.

As shown in figure 1 and indicated by a single numeral 10, an aircraft according to the invention, includes a fuselage 12, a wing which includes two outer wing 14, 16, each of which is fastened to the side of the fuselage, on one other hand, in place of the pair of the fuselage to the wing.

Engine nacelle mounted to the wings 14, 16, while, as, for example, depicted in figure 1, each wing has one nacelle 18.

The contact surface of the fuselage with the bearing surface of the wing contains structural mechanical contact surface (not shown), which covered the aerodynamic surface contact provided by the Central fairing 20.

The Central fairing 20 is a combination of a large number of structural elements forming plates and panels, the edges of which are flush with each other, while they are attached by rivets or bolts to the underlying structural mechanical contact surface and give the whole structure a form of cocoon (figure 2).

Central obtecta is, depicted in figure 1 and 2, contains two parts 22, 24, which are connected, respectively, with wings 14, 16. The left side 22 and right side 24 is equipped with the corresponding openings 26 and 28 for mounting each of the two wings 14, 16.

Each part of the Central fairing connected with one wing contains two spaced opposite each other surfaces, including the top 30 for the parts 22 and 32 for part 24, and the bottom 34 for part 22 and 36 for part 24, which are attached, respectively, to upper and lower surfaces of the considered wing.

As shown in figure 2, each of the composite structural element of the Central fairing has a surface area that forms part of the surface of the fairing. In particular, each located opposite each other of the upper and lower surfaces of each portion 22, 24 of the Central fairing is formed by a combination of surface areas of the above-mentioned structural elements; however, these parts of the surface, lying next to each other and form a smooth aerodynamic surface contact surface.

Thus, as shown in figure 2, the upper surface 30 contains adjacent densely to each other constructive elements 30A, 30b, 30c, while the bottom surface 34 contains adjacent densely to each other constructive elements 34a, 34b, 34c, 34d.

Figure 3 partially shows consisting of the upper surface 30 of the structural element 40 (the panel), which is installed on the fuselage 12 in connection with the wing 40. He is also mounting supports 42, 44 having the shape of the area, which are firmly attached to the fuselage and is ready to accept another constructive element of the Central fairing. The mounting supports are also visible in figure 2.

The upper surface of each of the Central fairing, namely the surface which is in contact with the top surface of the wing, and the lower surface of the latter, i.e. the surface which is in contact with the lower surface of the wing, on some aircraft has, as a rule, if made to use the prior art, a very small, almost zero, and even the basic curvature.

The invention is envisaged to give form to one or another of these surfaces, giving in certain places one or more zones of the surface under study one or more deformations of the geometry of the form, which would have, for example, longitudinally along the fuselage, the location.

One local or local deformation of the geometry of the shape of the surface or surfaces are used to form the aerodynamic lateral disturbances of the air flow, which are capable of moving from the Central fairing is towards the end of the wing, to control the flow around the wing by the air flow.

The use of additional side surround elements on each hub fairing regardless, is added to the corresponding structural elements of the existing structural elements of the Central fairing or is to replace one or more of the last relevant structural elements, allows you to control the movement of the air bearing surface of the wing, as well as to control interference, which may be formed, for example, in the case of replacement engines (engines of large dimensions, motors with high rates of dilution, increasing the flight distance and (or) useful load transported by aircraft).

Changing the geometric shape of the Central fairing at the junction of the fuselage with the wing in accordance with the invention allows to adjust the air pressure on the bearing surface of the wing, in particular to improve the scope of the pressure that develops on the upper and / or lower surfaces of the wing in the direction of the Central fairing by forming upper and (or) lower part).

Thus, the change in the local geometry form one or two have opposite surfaces of each portion 22, 24 of the center of Lenogo fairing, which are attached, respectively, to upper and lower surfaces of the wing, allows, in particular, to improve the movement of air over the wing in the case of strong interference between the wing, the nacelle (or nacelle and the fuselage.

The invention allows, in particular, to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft in different flight modes (flight at cruising speed, flying at maximum cruise speed, at the stage of beginning to reduce the flight for landing), as well as to increase the stability of the aircraft at higher values of the number M

It should be noted that the elements that form have opposite upper and lower surfaces of each portion 22, 24 of the fairing may be made of a material that can deform in flight drive mechanisms to ensure the effective application of the invention in different flight modes.

Thus, the deformation is carried out by moving the surface or part of this surface.

Thus, local or local deformation of the geometry of the forms that are performed on the surface of the fairing, can be a dynamic and driven (in real time) in accordance with various flight modes and the desired result.

Each local deformation geometry fo what we are distinguished by their form, which in the following will be recorded in more detail, as well as its location on the surface, along the fuselage (for example, relative to the ribs of attack) and its scope.

The location and magnitude of geometric shapes, which are formed in a specific location on the surface, depend, in particular, from the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft.

Such features include, in particular, the speed of the aircraft and the characteristics associated with the design of the fuselage, wing and engine.

When considering the top surface profile of the Central fairing attached to the upper surface of the wing, we can distinguish three types of geometric shapes, which figa, 4B and 4C is shown as a solid line.

It should be noted that in these drawings, the front part of the aircraft is located on the left side of the drawing, and the rear - right.

Local geometric features, which are introduced into one or other of the two opposite each other surfaces of the Central fairing, expressed in the decrease of the radius of the local bending of the surface under study.

Depicted on figa, 4B, 4C shape conforms to the curves of the considered deformation of the geometry of the shape, and the secondary transverse curves are perpendicular to plosko and drawings (relative to the height of the fuselage) and have weaker width, than the width of the main curves.

The local geometric shape shown in figa, turns into a local convexity, for example, exaltation, which basically is longitudinal and extends across the fuselage (the main curvature), and less pronounced form extending in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the drawing (secondary curvature).

This local morphology on the surface can lead to the formation of lateral disturbances of the air flow that moves from the Central fairing to the wing end and takes the form of waves détente movement.

On figa dashed line also marked the surface profile of the Central fairing (top view) if there is no invention.

As shown in figb, another possible geometric shape takes the form of local concavity, which takes the form of, for example, hollow, elongated generally in the longitudinal direction of the fuselage (the main curvature), and as a secondary option in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the drawing (secondary curvature).

Such a local deformation of the shape's geometry is able to form a lateral disturbance of the air flow that moves from the Central fairing to the wing end and take the form of compression waves motion, causing clubyour.

In this drawing by a dotted line also marked the surface profile of the Central fairing (top view) if there is no invention.

In particular, the cavity is formed by two inclined surface sections, which are joined at the base of the trench in the area of the fracture profile of the slope.

In addition, it should be noted that this geometry is similar to the inclined plane, and the local concavity may contain or not contain a fracture at the base.

Indeed, the base of the depression may not contain areas with a profile change of the slope and the shape of a shell.

The solution that is preferred to have a pronounced fracture profile slope matching, for example, with the connection of two panels, which form the structural elements of the fairing, or install a small radius at the connection between the two zones having different slopes, which is determined by the aerodynamics, for example, in the case of a single structural panel comprising two zones with different slopes, is determined by the factor of simplicity of the production process.

On FIGU depicts several consecutive local deformations of the geometry of the shapes that are elongated along the fuselage and represent local alternation of convexity and concavity. D. the formations are not so much width in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the drawing.

In particular, the geometric shape depicted in FIGU, consists of alternating first convexity, concavity and the second concavity.

Such changes local geometric shapes the surface of the Central fairing able to form the lateral disturbance of the air flow type of waves to reduce tension or waves isentropic compression.

It should be noted that, as a rule, the proposed deformation of the geometry of the shape depicted in figa, 4B, 4C, have strong local curvature and, in particular, a strong decrease of the local radius of curvature (a view of a longitudinal section of fairing) compared with a large radius of curvature, typically used (in the case of the achieved level of technology) located opposite each other, the side surfaces of the fairing.

In addition, depending on the aim pursued is possible to consider any other combination of convexity and concavity, including: a single bulge, followed by concavity, or, rather, the two concavity, which are located around the bumps ...

On figa and 5B shows the distribution of areas of pressure, limited isobare, on the upper surface of the wing, respectively, if the invention is not carried out or Khujand is realized.

It should be noted that the zone of low pressure is painted in a dark color, and the zone of high pressure in a light color.

Thus, if the invention is not performed, as shown in figa, front engine nacelle 41 observed area 43, forming a network of frequent Isobar corresponding to the strong pressure gradient.

This area is the cluster of phenomena decompression and compression with large values, which creates an unfavorable situation, because it is made of shock drag.

On figb specific shaping of the upper side fairing (parts 22 and 24) through the production of relevant deformations of the geometry of the shape of the type represented on figv to create consistently waves détente 45, the compression wave 46 and waves détente 47 in the air flow on the wing.

These pressure waves (vibrations of the compression and release of pressure) are distributed on the sides relative to the longitudinal direction of the fuselage, from the fairing to the edge of the wing inside the zones supersonic speed, existing on the upper surface of the wing. These pressure waves interact with the flow around the wing flow of air in the first place, a short distance from the fairing, with the first wave attenuation of the stress is t 45 and the compression wave of 46 help to increase the local pressure in the zone 49A up to the formation of a weak shock, and the second wave of détente 47 reduces the pressure gradient in the zone b.

Phenomenon, emerging in the areas 49A and b, spread outwards and thus allow to control the process flow wing, converting away from the fairing pressure gradient on a bearing surface of the wing, in particular in the area 43.

It should be noted that depending on the type of deformation of the geometry of the shape, number, location and scope it is possible to generate the appropriate pressure wave that will affect the bearing surface of the wing at a given distance from the fairing, adjusting the scope of the pressure (conversion line pressure) appropriately depending on the goal.

In particular, the transformation of the area of the pressure zone 43 in front of the engine nacelle is expressed in the extension of the line pressure in this area in order to reduce its pressure gradient, as well as in the spatial redistribution of these pressure lines.

Thus, two small mesh 48A and b line pressure is less frequent than previously, appear in this area and represent the intersection of two small incremental increases in pressure in places where previously there was a strong pressure gradient.

In this regard, the reduced wave drag lette inogo apparatus.

Thus, substantially reduces the disturbance of the air flow resulting from the interaction of the nacelle (in the case of replacement engines) with the surface of the Central fairing, which if not carried out the invention, affects the behavior of the wing in its supersonic part.

It should be noted that the distribution of line pressure flow past the bearing surface of the wing if there is no invention, but also for production and service requirements affect the choice of the local geometric shape of the fairing among the different types presented on figa, 4B, 4C.

On figa and 6b shows the aircraft type a-500/600, which were not carried out any special formations of the surface profile of the fairing (top view).

On figb (perspective view) presents a contact surface of the fuselage with the wing, which is not observed no obvious curvature.

It should be noted that with such a surface contact in case of replacement of the engine of the aircraft re-compression by the shock that occurs on the upper surface of the wing, are recognized as serious and lead to the formation of a drag.

On figv and 6g depicts adding local convexity 50, which is similar to those shown in figa, is poverhnosti Central fairing on the left side of the drawing, namely, on the edge of the ribs of attack.

This local convexity takes the form of exaltation, which, as shown in the drawings, elongated along the fuselage and also has a lateral extension (scale) towards the end of the wing (pigv), and the vertical extension in the direction of the top of the fuselage (Figg).

Elevation 50 depicted in FIGU and 6g, is formed near the edge of the attack, pulled in the direction of flow (relative to the fuselage longitudinal direction) and ends near the connection of the fixed part of the wing with flaps (right side figv).

It should be noted that the maximum width of the exaltation of the 25-35% of the chord to the docking connector of the wing and is a size adjustable depending on the flow over a wing of the air flow.

It should be noted that the chord connecting the connector of the wing shown in figa and denoted by the reference "C".

The increase in elevation towards the end of the wings (wingspan) is, for example, 600 mm, with the understanding that this value is adjusted depending on the flow over a wing of the air flow.

This local deformation of the geometry of the surface shape of the Central fairing was, for example, due to the additional and properly manufactured structural elements (panels, similar to depicted the figure 3 and allows you to adjust the air pressure on the bearing surface of the wing, forming waves to reduce tension, which move in the direction of the end of the wing.

This interaction leads to the preferred change the layout area of the pressure and control over the latter.

On figa and 7b depict the Central fairing of the aircraft type A380 without giving a special shape of its surface in contact with the top surface of the wing.

It should be noted that when considering the top surface, it has a very weak, even zero, the main curvature.

As it is shown on figv and 7G, the surface of the Central fairing was modified by additional installation of pressure-regulation system on the bearing surface of the wing of a special type, which is similar to figb.

Many structural elements (shown in figure 3 panel) were installed on an existing top surface of the Central fairing shown on figa for education in the profile of this surface local concavity 52.

It should be noted that structural elements, exterior wall which contains the slope or the area of the slope, and even the concavity in General, are able to represent the structural elements forming the upper surface (or lower surface of each side of the fairing, as, for example, the panel izobrazheniya 3.

Concavity 52 presents, in particular, depression fracture profile slope between the two parts of the surface, and the slope of the terrain surface located on the side edges of the attack forms, for example, an angle of 0°, while the slope of the land surface located on the side edges of the wrapping forms, for example, the angle is 5°.

The depression made as a direct result of the fracture profile of the slope, which is a few degrees has a longitudinal, along the fuselage, position, and extends from an edge of attack at a distance equal to 20% and 35% of the chord to the docking connector of the wing.

It should be noted that this quantity, and magnitude of inclination of the two surfaces forming the cavity are controlled depending on the local velocity of the wing the air flow.

On Figg (type fairing made in longitudinal section) shows three structural panels 52a, 52b, 52c along the fuselage next to each other in a fixed position and designed to give the upper surface of the Central fairing desired profile (trough 52 with the profile change of the slope). Without this structure, the cavity is formed at the boundary between two adjacent panels 52a and 52b.

As shown in figa and 8b, the Central fairing of the aircraft type A320 does not contain osoblahapomorzowiczki surface, connected with the top surface of the wing.

It should also be noted that this surface is very small, even zero, and uniform curvature.

The pressure regulation system of the air bearing surface of the wing according to the invention, provides for rotation on the upper surface of the Central fairing local convexity and concavity, for example, as shown in figv, serial location of the first elevation 54, depression 56 and the second elevation 58.

The first elevation 54 is formed near the edge of the attack, and the second elevation 58 ends, if you follow the direction of traffic flow (according to the longitudinal direction, stretches along the fuselage, near the junction of the fixed part of the wing with flaps.

In particular, the maximum width of the first elevation 54, starting from an edge of attack is 5-10% of the chord to the docking connector of the wing, while the maximum width of the second elevation 58 ranges from 20% to 30% of the chord to the docking connector of the wing.

These two exaltation 54 and 58 are separated by a depression 56, not having in this example, the fracture profile of the slope. Depression is located at a distance equal to 10% and 20% of the chord to the docking connector, wing, fin attack.

It should be noted that the value of the lateral magnification (scale) elevations towards the end of the cu is La is for example, 100 mm for the first exaltation 54 and 400 mm for the second elevation 58.

In addition, the values related to the location of elevations and depressions, as well as their increase towards the end of the wing, are controlled depending on the flow past a wing in the air stream and, in particular, the local velocity of flow past the air flow and a separate factory and service requirements.

The invention allows, without questioning the concept of the wing, to influence the flow past moving at supersonic speed flow, producing in some places one or more local deformations of the geometric shape of the standard or the standard of the surfaces of each of the Central fairing in contact, respectively, with upper and lower surfaces of the considered wing.

1. The aircraft (10), containing:
- fuselage (12);
- two wings (14, 16)which are mounted engine nacelle, each of which laterally through the Central fairing is attached to the fuselage with one and the other sides; the Central fairing (18, 20) contains (for each wing), two located opposite each other surfaces, which are connected respectively with the top surface and the bottom surface of the considered wing and have longitudinal, along the fuselage, location, location is audica fact, that at least one of the two surfaces contains at least one local deformation of the shape's geometry(50, 52, 54, 56, 58), which is made for the formation of aerodynamic lateral disturbances of the air flow from the Central fairing to the wing, to regulate the flow of air over the wing.

2. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the at least one local deformation of the geometry of the form contains the basic curvature, which is located in the longitudinal, along the fuselage, the direction and the secondary curvature, which is stretched in the transverse direction corresponding to the height of the fuselage.

3. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the at least one local deformation of the geometry of the shape is reflected in a reduction of the local radius of bending at least one zone of the surface under study.

4. Aerial apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the at least one local deformation of the geometry of the shape is the location and extent of which depend in particular on the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft.

5. The aircraft according to claim 4, wherein the aerodynamic characteristics include aerodynamic characteristics, which is caused by the design of the fuselage, wings, engine nacelles, and the speed of maternova apparatus.

6. Aerial apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the local deformation of the geometry of the shape takes the form of local convexity (50).

7. The aircraft according to claim 6, characterized in that the bulge takes the form of exaltation.

8. Aerial apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the local deformation of the geometry of the shape takes the form of local concavity (52).

9. Aircraft of claim 8, wherein the concavity takes the form of depression.

10. The aircraft according to claim 9, characterized in that the cavity formed by the two plots below the slope surface, which are connected to the base of the depression in the area of the fracture profile of the slope.

11. Aerial apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that at least one of the two surfaces contains several consecutive local deformations of the geometry of the form (54, 56, 58 along the fuselage, which are local alternation of convexity and concavity.

12. Aerial apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the at least one local deformation of the geometry of the completed form on the surface, which is attached to the upper surface of the wing.

13. Aerial apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the at least one local deformation the geometry of the completed form on the surface, which is attached to the lower surface of the wing.

14. Aerial apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the Central fairing contains an aggregate of many structural elements, each of which has a surface area; each of which are located opposite each other surfaces of the Central fairing connected to each wing, formed by a set of surface patches adjacent to each other constructive elements.



 

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FIELD: physics; geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques of simulating physical processes and natural phenomena. The invention enables small-scale simulation of already occurred and possible disasters when meteorites which destroy the Earth's atmosphere fall. The method involves putting an object model into a reservoir filled with water. A vessel with flexible walls and tapered spout is filled to its brim with coloured water and the opening is closed. The vessel is dropped into water with the spout down. The vessel is directed by the spout towards the object model. The opening is opened and the walls of the vessel are pressed. A circular vortex then forms in the water, which is visible owing to the coloured water in the vessel. This vortex simulates the transformed aerodynamic trail from the meteorite. The effect of the circular vortex on the object mode (including on aeroplane models placed in the water in the reservoir) is captured on video.

EFFECT: possibility of clear evaluation of damage from disasters caused by meteorites, and determination of possible means of protection, including for aviation, possibility of meeting meteorites of which is higher than for objects on Earth.

1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pipes.

SUBSTANCE: plain contains fuselage, wing, horizontal and vertical empennage, the power plant, systems and equipment. The fuselage has changing geometry, generated by radial arc, which in the upper, lower and side part smoothly pass into the wing segment, generating together integral construction. The segment of the brad is made as the circle, and its diameter coincides with diameter of the narrow-bodied airplane, the profile of the middle part is made as ellipse with bigger horizontal axis and with relation of the height and the breadth of ellipse 1:3, integrally included to the wing construction. The fuselage tail section, where is fixed the horizontal and vertical empennage, is generated as integral construction with round profile and plain deposit, smoothly pass into ellipse.

EFFECT: it is exceeded the aerodynamic quality.

7 dwg

FIELD: engines and pipes.

SUBSTANCE: flying object includes fuselage, wing with centre-section, empennage, energetic plant with fuel reservoir and airborne systems. The fuselage and the wing are made of different changeable modules of similar function. The hull of each module is made of powered set and outer sheets. Every module has similar mooring fitting.

EFFECT: it is exceeded the functional possibilities of the object.

5 dwg

Propeller blade // 2278058

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: leading and trailing edges of propeller blade are formed by intersection of two parabolas or three parabolas contacting the circumference at acute angle on leading and trailing edges engageable with semi-circumference on leading and trailing edges. Provision is made for stabilizing plane in form of segment at initial value on fin tip smoothly decreasing from zero to 1/3 of length from origin of blade. Leading and trailing edges are rounded-off in shape.

EFFECT: increased lifting force.

3 cl, 3 dwg

The invention relates to aircraft equipment, in particular equipment of aircraft for the transportation of cargo, and equipment of passenger cabins of aircraft, and can be used for the transportation of cargo in vehicles for placing personal belongings of the passengers inside the plane, as well as to separate the classes in the passenger cabin

The invention relates to aeronautical engineering

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed system comprises a device secured to aircraft tail part to periodically rotating about the axis located at, approximately, right angle to flight direction. Said device is arranged on wing upper surface 4 and comprises stationary element 6 and first 7, 9 and second 8, 10 wing elements pivoted behind said stationary element 6 and can be spaced apart along flight direction. Method is distinguished by using aforesaid device that prevents swirling of airflow nearby outer wing in swinging about axis of rotation.

EFFECT: reduced turbulence in aircraft wake.

5 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft wing tip comprises generator of vortex with direction of rotation originating at wing and casing. Vortex generator represents nacelle with inlet and outlet swirlers. Casing represents a thin-wall structure with constant-radius inner surface extending along wing end chord with unclosed cross section that forms lengthwise cutout. Swirler is furnished with diffuser. Said casing lengthwise cutout is made so that cutout top edge forms central angle on casing axis, while its bottom edge forms that on casing axis. Inlet device can have confuser deflected from wing chords lane downward, while casing tail end is inclined upward.

EFFECT: higher aerodynamics and ring load bearing properties.

10 cl, 7 dwg

Aircraft wing tip // 2385265

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft wing tip comprises channel with inlet and outlet holes. Inlet hole represents an air intake arranged on lower front surface and communicated with conical channel with end cross section with diametre of 0.05 to 0.2 of the length of chord of wing tip section and is located at the distance of 0 to 0.2 of chord length from rear edge along flow direction. Channel axis is located on 0 to 0.2 of chord length above the plane of chords. Channel midsection accommodates disk-like rotary flap with its axis perpendicular to channel axis. Flap can be rotated by airflow.

EFFECT: higher lift and reduced drag.

3 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device to control vortex street comprises control device (8) mounted on clamping element (11) of elongated element (5) and on control surface (4) so that its base (12) comes in contact with front edge (6) of its aforesaid control surface. Said control device (8) features triangular shape in the plane perpendicular to its lengthwise axis and having two adjacent sides forming lateral surfaces interconnected by rounded edge. Aircraft incorporates vortex street control device.

EFFECT: reduced drag.

6 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mechanics; aircraft construction.

SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to aeromechanics, mainly to friction reduction method for axisymmetric body and related devices. Toroidal vortex with controlled parametres is generated in a boundary layer of axisymmetric body by periodic air flow blowing/suction through the circular slot available in axisymmetic body wall. The related device includes periodic vibrations source coupled with flow running over axisymmetric flow. The above mentioned circular slot in the wall of axisymmetric body is made so that it is directed to the longitudinal axis x at a negative angle. The longitudinal axis x is directed along generatix of axisymmetric body, wherethrough air is blown/drawn off at controlled amplitude and frequency by means of periodic vibrations source, for example dynamic loud-speaker.

EFFECT: reduced effect of superficial friction component in axisymmetric body by controlling vortex by frequency and intensity.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aviation. The method of varying the lift of a body in flowing medium consists in affecting the flow by one or several flexible tape-like spaced elements extending from the body surface flown over by the said medium. The device is also proposed incorporating one or several flexible tape-like spaced elements extending from the body surface flown over by the flowing medium.

EFFECT: reduction of drag.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft (10) has fuselage (12) connected with wings, air intake (46), nose section (52) of fuselage of varying cross section and vortex generation control unit (72) located on leading-edge wing extension whose shape makes it possible to make symmetrical break of vortices on said extension and medium and large angles of attack; it is engageable with tail sections (44 and 38) spaced apart so that leading edge (36) of vertical fin (38) gets beyond trailing edges of each wing for maintenance of stability in transversal direction. Ratio of area of leading edge extension and height of vortex generation control unit is equal to 2.35 m and tolerance range changes from +100% to -50% of this magnitude.

EFFECT: improved aerodynamic properties at large angles of attack.

8 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: aerodynamics; designing of flying vehicles, organization of aircraft motion in water.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in forming regular structures for finding the conditions when axis of natural vortices is directed not in way of flow but at any angle required by conditions of flow. Infinite sequence of artificial vortices is similar to roller bearing located between body and medium. Proposed method provides for creating the lifting force for flying vehicle on base of proposed model of flowing around solid bodies by continuous media. Proposed method consists in forming the determined vortices on upper surface of wing which are directed to overwing flap where they are broken. Vortices rolling over upper surface of wing without sliding increase in size. Their destruction within overwing flap results in increase of pressure, thus creating lifting force for aircraft.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

8 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: aeronautical engineering; rocketry and space engineering; technology of control of flow around flying vehicle.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in delivery of gas to incoming flow in front of nose section of flying vehicle. Density of this gas is lesser than density of medium; gas is fed to points of aerodynamic drag of flying vehicle where porous coat is formed; pores of this coat are open to surface; scale of these pores is lesser than that of vortex generation. Gas is delivered at periodicity of generation of turbulent vortices to turbulence generation zone at phase shifted by 45-135 degrees. In realization of this method coat may be formed at points where shock wave is formed. It is good practice to feed gas to porous coat from reservoir containing sorbent separating gas till gas desorption temperature has been attained. Gas is mainly fed to upper edge of wing. It is good practice to make coats from catalytically active heat-accumulating material and to realize endothermic process during passage of gas through it. Front surfaces of wings and nose sections of flying vehicles may be covered with coats of low electron emission energy from the following series: barium oxide, titanium carbide, zinc oxide, copper oxide rare-earth metal oxide and n-semiconductors.

EFFECT: possibility of changing aerodynamic properties in turbulence generation zone.

16 cl

Engine // 2270785

FIELD: devices for creation of aero- or hydrodynamic forces for transport facilities with the aid of rotating members.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine has housing and two cones with surfaces rotating in opposite directions. Rotating surfaces are provided with cells in form of tooth spaces and teeth. Teeth on surface of front cone are bent in way of flow around the cell and teeth on surface of rear cone are bent towards incoming flow which is circular in shape and is caused by rotation of surfaces of cones. Surface of each tooth space has form of question-mark in section. As a result, reduced pressure is built-up in cells of rotating surface of front cone and increased pressure is built-up in cells of rotating surface of rear cone, thus creating the thrust along axis of rotation of cones.

EFFECT: extended field of application of thrust creating devices for various vehicles running in air and water media.

6 dwg

FIELD: aircraft.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises vortex pipe with a scroll for supplying and accelerating air and cold and hot end sections. The cold end section of the vortex pipe is provided with a ring plate. The diameter of the inner opening in the plate should be chosen to allow it to be fit on the vortex pipe with interference for increasing the area of the face of the cold section. The vortex pipe can be mounted in the guiding member which defines the inclination of the vector of the propulsion to the horizon. The hot section of the vortex pipe should be provided with a valve.

EFFECT: improved design.

3 cl, 2 dwg

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