Resonator on modes of whispering gallery with vertical radiation output

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: resonator has circular section and is made in the form of a revolution solid. The revolution solid comprises an active area, facing layers and a part of a substrate. A generatrix of the side surface of the revolution solid is inclined relative to the normal line of a heterostructures.

EFFECT: possibility to output radiation, which is wideband by wave length, in vertical direction.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to a resonator semiconductor lasers with luciopercae surface-based heterostructures.

The creation of vertically emitting lasers with good quality output beam, formed on one semiconductor wafer (substrate) in a single technological process, is one of the most urgent tasks of semiconductor optoelectronics. At the present time for this purpose a vertically emitting lasers based on Brekhovskikh mirrors (so-called VCSEL lasers are vertical cavity surface emitting laser) [1]. In such lasers, instead of the waveguide layers on both sides of the active region (as in the standard heterolasers) grown breggovskie mirrors that hold the vertically extending fashion within the active region [1]. This mode is partially extends through the upper contact, creating a laser with a sufficiently wide (Gaussian) beam. Unfortunately, first, the manufacturing Brekhovskikh mirrors are thin enough (expensive) procedure. Secondly, the current in such lasers flows through these mirrors, which degrades the injection of carriers and reduces the efficiency. This is especially important for long-wavelength interband and intraband cascade lasers (and particularly for terahertz cascade lasers), for which the approach is based on similar Brekhovskikh mirrors do not apply. In tre is given, by increasing the area of the laser in the plane of the semiconductor wafer arise high fashion, deteriorating the quality of the output beam.

To create on a single semiconductor wafer multiple systems lasers possible approach based on the use of circular resonators on the whispering gallery modes. This circular resonator has the form of a cylinder, the base of which is a circle. The manufacture of these resonators is very simple and cheap compared to VCSEL lasers. However, in the circular resonators on the whispering gallery modes of the laser field is concentrated inside the resonator and do not come out. A known design of a semiconductor laser with a resonator on the whispering gallery modes of non-circular shape (in the form of a cylinder whose base is non-circular). The use of such a resonator allows to control the shape of the radiation pattern in the plane of the laser structure. The yield of radiation is horizontal in the plane of the heterostructure (see patent US 6333944, H01S 3/081, 3/083, publ. 25.12.2001). Horizontal output radiation of the laser does not allow you to merge into one output beam of radiation from the aggregate of such lasers fabricated on the same substrate.

In the quantum cascade laser described in patent US 6836499, H01S 5/00, 5/10, 5/34, publ. 28.12.2004, the output radiation also occurs in the horizontal p is Ascoli, this design allows you to control the radiation pattern using a special horn that is located in a horizontal plane. This analogue has the same shortcomings as the previous one.

The closest analogue to the present invention is the design of the resonator on the whispering gallery modes, providing vertical output radiation of the laser (US 5343490, H01S 5/00, 5/10, 5/18, publ. 30.09.1994, "Whispering Mode Micro-Resonator" ("Microresonator on whispering mod")). This patent describes a device that represents a circular resonator, in which the reflection from the outer surface of the semiconductor cylinder arise electromagnetic fashion type of whispering gallery. This device can operate in two modes below the threshold (i.e. as led), and above the threshold (as a laser). The yield of electromagnetic radiation is predominantly in the plane made of a semiconductor structure of a circular resonator. For the implementation of the vertical output radiation perpendicular to the plane of the structure or at some angle to the upper surface of the resonator are plotted risks or deepening (by chemical etching or by mechanical means), located periodically so that the distance between them was priblizitel is but equal to the length of wave generation in the sample. Thus, the output radiation is selective (narrow-band) wavelength, as it provides effective radiation only those waves whose wavelength is in the sample coincides with the distance between the incurred risks. In this patent it is reported that this resonator can be made vertical narrowband output radiation also with gratings deposited on the bottom or top surface.

The disadvantage of the resonator of the prototype is that it allows the output of a narrowband signal of electromagnetic waves with a predetermined wavelength. There are many articles and patents describing such selective output device radiation from the resonator on the whispering gallery modes.

The problem solved by this invention is the development of a resonator of the laser on the whispering gallery modes, providing the output of the broadband wavelength radiation in the vertical direction.

This technical result is ensured by the fact that the resonator as the resonator prototype semiconductor heterolasers on the whispering gallery modes with a vertical output is in either a horizontal sectional shape of a circle, i.e. made with a circular cross-section.

New developed in the resonator is that the resonator is made in the form of bodies of the rotation, which includes the active region, covering layers and a portion of the substrate, thus forming a side surface of the body of rotation is tilted relative to the normal of the heterostructure.

The main difference from the prototype proposed by the authors of the device resonator on the whispering gallery modes with the special shape of the forming cavity - is that in the proposed device has no scratches or structures applied to the boundaries of the resonator, and therefore, there is no separate scale wavelengths. As a consequence, the authors suggest the design of the resonator with a vertical output radiation is broadband wavelength radiation: any fashion whispering gallery at any frequency radiation will effectively moves up (or down, in the substrate, depending on the inclination of the side forming a resonator). An additional advantage in this case is the lack of a need to produce a periodic modulation patterns that can be very difficult (expensive) thing for short-wavelength lasers.

The invention is represented by the following drawings:

figure 1 shows the scheme of the laser resonator on the whispering gallery modes with a vertical output radiation in the substrate due to the inclined shape of the wall of the resonator in the form of a body of rotation;

figure 2 shows photographs are manufactured is th semiconductor laser on the basis of heterostructures with the radiation in the vertical plane, carried out by an inclined side surface of the laser (on the left is a photograph of the section of the above-mentioned laser, on the right his appearance at the top).

1 schematically shows an example of the shape of the generatrix of the proposed resonator of the semiconductor heterostructure. The resonator is made in the form of a body of rotation formed by the side surfaces of the active zone 1, covering layer 2 and part of the substrate 3 heterostructures. The inclination of the generatrix 4 body rotation relative to the normal 5 heterostructures provides output radiation from the resonator substrate 3 patterns. In the General case, the cross section of such a resonator vertical plane has the shape of a cross section of the body of rotation, in particular, for example, paraboloid, cone, or sphere, and may have a more complex form. The presence on the side of the laser sections, inclined relative to the normal 5 heterostructures, will cause wave laser radiation when reflected from the side surface will gradually flow in the vertical direction (see figure 1). The use of various forms of cross-sections of the resonator leads to different spatial intensity distribution in the output beam of laser radiation. Since the proposed design, there are no selective elements, it is broadband in gliniany radiation and, thus, it allows to solve the problem.

The resonator in the form of the inclined side surface can be manufactured, for example, by chemical etching of semiconductor heterostructures.

Figure 2 shows a micrograph made by the authors of semiconductor injection heterolasers on the basis of Nanoheterostructures/InAsSbP heterostructures with the radiation in the vertical direction due to the inclined side surface of the resonator in the form of a body of rotation: left - cleaved laser (side view); right - type laser diode (top view). The authors also made a similar resonators on the whispering gallery modes with non-selective vertical output radiation due to the inclined generatrix for heterolasers with optical pumping on the basis of heterostructures CdHgTe. This is the most simple examples of non-selective vertical output radiation from the resonator semiconductor heterolasers based on whispering gallery modes. Forming a resonator can be modulated by the slope, she (forming) can be multi-staged, for example, for a more narrow beam exiting the laser beam, etc.

Thus, the authors have demonstrated the lasers on the whispering gallery modes with a system of vertical output radiation (figure 2). The effect Vert is unique output laser radiation is what in the vertical direction (perpendicular to the plane of the heterostructure) the intensity of the emergent radiation was several times greater than in other directions.

Designed resonator can be used to create on a single semiconductor wafer in one process cycle multiple systems lasers with good quality extending in the vertical direction of the beam.

1. Iga, Kenichi (2000), "Surface-emitting laser - Its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 6 (6): 1201-1215; Soda et al., Haruhisa (1979), "GaInAsP/InP Surface Emitting Injection Lasers", Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 18 (12): 2329-2330; Koyama et al., Fumio (1988), "Room temperature cw operation of GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser", Trans. IEICE, E71(11): 1089-1090.

The resonator of the semiconductor heterolasers on the whispering gallery modes with circular cross-section and a vertical output radiation, wherein the resonator is made in the form of a body of rotation, which includes an active region, covering layers and a portion of the substrate, thus forming a side surface of the body of rotation is tilted relative to the normal of the heterostructure.



 

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