Internal combustion engine (versions)

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: internal combustion engine (ICE) comprises cylinders (1, 11), pistons (2, 10), an output shaft (12), systems of cooling, lubrication, supply, ignition, pistons (2, 10). The pistons (2, 10) are connected in pairs, via rods (3, 9) with a frame (5). The frame (5) is arranged with upper (6) and lower (7) geared racks. Longitudinal axes of upper (6) and lower (7) racks are displaced relative to each other and relative to the axis of pistons (2, 10). There are wheels (15, 16) are installed at the output shaft (12). Geared racks (6,7) engage with geared sectors (17, 18) of wheels (15, 16). If one piston (10) is in the upper dead point, then the other one (2) - in the lower one. Conversion of reciprocal motion of pistons (2, 10) into rotary motion of the output shaft (12) takes place as a result of displacement of the frame (5) with geared racks (6, 7). Also an ICE is represented in the invention, where the geared racks (6, 7) and geared sectors (17, 18) of the wheels (15, 16) are magnetised. Also one of the geared pair elements may be magnetised.

EFFECT: reduced friction between geared sectors of wheels and geared racks.

2 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to the automotive industry, and in particular to internal combustion engines.

Internal combustion engines (ice), as a rule, have a crank mechanism that serves to convert the rectilinear reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion of the crankshaft. The purpose of unloading the cylinder wall against lateral forces caused by the inclination of the connecting rod during the rotation of the crank, used to set the crosshead. In a further feature of the crosshead abolished by increasing the height of the piston and improving the lubrication of the crank mechanism [1].

Known internal combustion engine VCR (Variable Compression Ratio), developed by the French firm of MCE-5 Development for concern "Peugeot-Citroen, in which the pistons are connected with the rod through the toothed sector. Supporting the toothed roller provides strictly reciprocating motion of the piston. Due to this, there are no lateral forces characteristic of the conventional internal combustion engine. Significantly reduces friction and wear in the cylinder group [2]. However, this is achieved through a very complex kinematics of the crank mechanism, in this engine, the piston is connected with a crank mechanism through a gear sector, moreover, strictly reciprocating motion of the piston is provided by additional anchor uncatego roller.

The crankshaft of the internal combustion engine has a high cost, complex shape, big weight, requires expensive forging and pressing equipment for its manufacturing, precision machining, finishing crankshaft journals.

Firm "GF Otomotiv" developing a new technology for manufacturing hollow crankshaft casting method of the expensive alloy "Sibodur", followed by hardening the surface of the running rollers. However, this method of manufacture is complicated, time-consuming and requires expensive equipment [3].

Known internal combustion engine, in which the mechanism for converting the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational movement of the shaft is made in the form of a gear transmission alternate gearing comprising gears and wheels, having an oval shape, the surface of which, corresponding to the major axis, is made gear with less curvature, alternately interacting with the gear, and the surface corresponding to the small axes, made smooth and with greater curvature, but not more than the curvature of the gear teeth, and in the working cycle correspond to the phase change in the direction of movement of the pistons. In parallel gear set Cam alternately interacting with stops, pistons paired oppositely located cylindrotheca are connected by tie-rods, and the connection of the piston with the wheel gear made from the working area on the console stem with a flange for fastening tie-rods and guide frame elastically movable slider with installed perpendicular axis, the ends of which are in the ears of the wheel gear, and the slide is mounted for movement in the phase change in the direction of movement of the pistons in the direction of deflection of the toothed wheel surface by at least the height of the tooth and with the ability to optimally installed during unidirectional movement of the pistons [4].

Elastically movable slider works in very difficult conditions, the drive shaft rotates at a speed of 5000-6000 rpm, so the reliability and durability of the engine questioned, fuzzy operation of this mechanism may lead to breakage of the teeth, in addition, the elastically-movable slider creates an additional radial load on the piston and, accordingly, on the walls of the cylinder.

The disadvantages of this engine is complex contour wheels, made of sections of different curvature, and the presence and work of the elastically-movable slider.

The closest technical solution is the inverter movement, containing four cylinders arranged in pairs. Pistons mutually opposite cylinders are connected to each other n the movable rod. The Converter includes first and second pair still connected parallel gear racks being in mesh with the respective segmental gears mounted stationary on the output shaft. In each segment the gear teeth is less than half of its pitch circle. The segmental gear that interacts with the respective racks, are moved relative to each other at a certain angle, mostly 90° [5]. The disadvantages of this engine is a big load on the toothed sector of the wheel from the frame with racks. The specified motor is selected as a prototype.

The technical result of the claimed invention is to improve durability and reliability of the engine by reducing friction between the gear sectors wheels and racks.

In the first embodiment of the invention the technical result is achieved in that the internal combustion engine, containing cylinders with removable heads, pistons with piston rings, gas distribution mechanism, cooling system, lubrication system, power supply system, ignition system, pairs United pistons through rod frame with racks so that when one piston is at top dead center, the other piston is at the bottom of murthwaite, and the conversion of the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion of the output shaft occurs due to the movement of the frame with racks, which engages with the toothed sectors of the wheels installed on the output shaft, includes a frame made with upper and lower racks, the longitudinal axis of the upper and lower rails are displaced relative to each other and relative to the axis of the piston, and the output shaft is set to the second wheel with a toothed sector.

In the second embodiment of the invention the technical result is achieved in that the internal combustion engine, containing cylinders with removable heads, pistons with piston rings that are pairwise connected through the frame with racks so that when one piston is at top dead center, the other piston is at the bottom dead point, and the conversion of the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion of the output shaft occurs due to the movement of the rack which is engaged with the sector gear wheel mounted on the output shaft, contains a toothed rack mounted on the frame and gear sector wheels, mounted on the output shaft, having a magnetization or magnetization has one element of a gear pair.

Cityrentals the first internal combustion engine works as follows (see Fig, 9).

The piston in the first cylinder moves from the bottom dead point to the upper dead point, both valves are closed. The pressure in the cylinder and the temperature of the mixture increased. At the end of the compression stroke of the working mixture in the first cylinder is ignited, there is a rapid combustion of the combustible mixture. The pressure and temperature in the cylinder is increased. The gas pressure is transmitted to the piston, the piston moves to the bottom dead point, moving the frame with racks in the upper and the toothed rack is engaged with the sector gear wheel mounted on the output shaft, causing the wheel, the output shaft and the flywheel to rotate. The piston in the second cylinder moves from the bottom dead center to top dead center, the intake valve is closed, the exhaust valve is open. Exhaust gases from the second cylinder come into the exhaust manifold and then through the muffler to the atmosphere. On the output shaft of the second wheel, a toothed sector which during the rotation is engaged with the lower gear rack, moving the frame and the piston in the third cylinder from the bottom dead point to the upper dead point, both valves are closed at the end of the compression stroke of the working mixture in the second cylinder is ignited, there is a rapid combustion of the combustible mixture, the pressure and temperature in the cylinder increases, the pressure of the gases is transferred to the piston, Arsene moves to the lower dead point, moving the frame, the upper toothed rack engages with a second toothed sector wheel mounted on the output shaft, causing the wheel, the output shaft and the flywheel to rotate. The piston in the fourth cylinder is moved from the bottom dead center to top dead center, the intake valve is closed, the exhaust valve is open. Exhaust gases from the fourth cylinder come into the exhaust manifold and then through the muffler to the atmosphere.

The output shaft rotates, introduces the first sector of the wheel in engagement with the upper rail, moving the frame and the piston in the second cylinder from the bottom dead point to the upper dead point, both valves are closed. The pressure in the second cylinder and the temperature of the mixture increased. At the end of compression stroke fuel mixture is ignited, there is a rapid combustion of the combustible mixture. The pressure and temperature in the cylinder increases, the pressure of the gases is transferred to the piston, the piston moves to the bottom dead point, moving the frame with racks, the lower toothed rack is engaged with the sector gear wheel mounted on the output shaft, causing the wheel, the output shaft and the flywheel to rotate. At the same time the piston in the first cylinder moves from the bottom dead center to top dead center, the intake valve is closed, the exhaust valve is open. Exhaust gases from the first Zilin the RA comes into the exhaust manifold and then through the muffler to the atmosphere. Mounted on the output shaft of the second gear sector wheel, rotating, is engaged with the upper gear rack, moving the frame with the gear sectors and the piston in the fourth cylinder from the bottom dead point to the upper dead point, both valves are closed at the end of the compression stroke of the working mixture in the fourth cylinder is ignited, there is a rapid combustion of the combustible mixture, the pressure and temperature in the cylinder is increased. The gas pressure is transmitted to the piston, the piston moves to the bottom dead point, moving the frame with racks, the lower toothed rack engages with a second toothed sector wheel mounted on the output shaft, causing the wheel, the output shaft and the flywheel to rotate. At the same time the piston in the third cylinder moves from the bottom dead center to top dead center, the intake valve is closed, the exhaust valve is open. Exhaust gases from the third cylinder come into the exhaust manifold and then through the muffler to the atmosphere.

Next, the processes occurring in the cylinders, are repeated in the above sequence.

The location of pairwise connected pistons in a four cylinder engine may be the same or be out of phase.

An example of alternating cycles in a four-cylinder four-cycle internal combustion engine is given in table 1

Table 1
Cylinder numberThe bars in the cylinders
1234
FirstStrokeReleaseInletCompression
SecondReleaseInletCompressionStroke
ThirdCompressionStrokeReleaseInlet
FourthInletCompressionStrokeRelease

Figure 1 shows a section of a piston when the right piston is at top dead center. Figure 2 shows a cut rack and pinion, in which the longitudinal axis of the upper and lower rails coincide with the axis of the pistons. Figure 3 shows a cut rack and pinion in which the longitudinal axis of the upper and lower rails are displaced relative to each other and relative to the axis of the pistons. Figure 4 shows a portion of a rack and pinion offset rails when the left piston starts working stroke. Figure 5 shows a portion of a rack and pinion offset rails, right when the piston starts working stroke. Figure 6 shows a section of a piston when the left piston is at top dead center. 7 shows a section of a piston when the left piston is at top dead center, and the dotted lines when it is at the bottom dead point. On Fig shows a cut-cylinder internal combustion engine, in which the longitudinal axis of the upper and lower rails coincide with each other and with the axis of the pistons. Figure 9 shows a cut-cylinder internal combustion engine, in which the longitudinal axis of the upper and lower rails are displaced relative to each other and relative to the axis of the pistons.

Four-stroke internal combustion engine includes: a cylinder 1, 11, 19, 31, removable head (detachable head not shown), pistons 2, 10, 20, 30 with piston rings connected through rod 3, 9, 21, 29 and the bearings 4, 8, 22, 28 with part 5 and 23 with the racks, respectively, 6, 7, 24, 25, and in between the racks 6, 7, and 24, 25 is the output shaft 12, on which the wheels are 13 and 26 with gear sectors 14 and 27.

Four-stroke internal combustion engine works is as follows.

The piston 2 in the cylinder 1 moves from the bottom dead point to the upper dead point, both valves are closed. The pressure in the cylinder and the temperature of the mixture increased. At the end of compression stroke fuel mixture in the cylinder 1 is ignited, there is a rapid combustion of the combustible mixture. The pressure and temperature in the cylinder 1 is increased. The gas pressure is transmitted to the piston 2, the piston 2 moves to the lower dead point, moving the frame 5 with the racks 6 and 7, the toothed rack 6 is engaged with the sector gear 14 of the wheel 13, mounted on the output shaft 12, causing the wheel 13, the output shaft 12 and the flywheel 32 to rotate. The piston 10 in the cylinder 11 moves from the bottom dead center to top dead center, the intake valve is closed, the exhaust valve is open. Exhaust gases from the cylinder 11 comes into the exhaust manifold and then through the muffler to the atmosphere. On the output shaft 12 mounted wheel 26, the toothed sector 27 which when the rotation is engaged with a toothed rack 25, moving the frame 23 and the piston 20 in the cylinder 19 from the lower dead point to the upper dead point, both valves are closed at the end of compression stroke fuel mixture in the cylinder 19 is ignited, there is a rapid combustion of the combustible mixture, the pressure and temperature in the cylinder 19 is increased, the gas pressure is transmitted to the piston 20, the piston 20 moves to the bottom measures the howling point, moving the frame 23, the toothed rack 24 is engaged with the sector gear 27 of the wheel 26 mounted on the output shaft 12, causing the wheel 26, the output shaft 12 and the flywheel 32 to rotate. The piston 30 in the cylinder 31 moves from the bottom dead center to top dead center, the intake valve is closed, the exhaust valve is open. Exhaust gases from the cylinder 31 come into the exhaust manifold and then through the muffler to the atmosphere.

The output shaft 12 rotates, enters the sector 14 of the wheel 13 in engagement with the rack 6, the moving frame 5 and the piston 10 from the bottom dead point to the upper dead point, both valves are closed. The pressure in the cylinder 11 and the temperature of the mixture increased. At the end of compression stroke fuel mixture is ignited, there is a rapid combustion of the combustible mixture. The pressure and temperature in the cylinder 11 is increased, the gas pressure is transmitted to the piston 10, the piston 10 moves to the lower dead point, moving the frame 5 with the racks 6 and 7, the toothed rack 7 is engaged with the sector gear 14 of the wheel 13, mounted on the output shaft 12, causing the wheel 13, the output shaft 12 and the flywheel 32 to rotate. Simultaneously, the piston 2 in the cylinder 1 moves from the bottom dead center to top dead center, the intake valve is closed, the exhaust valve is open. Exhaust gases from the cylinder 1 goes into the exhaust manifold and then through lechitel into the atmosphere. Mounted on the output shaft 12 of the toothed sector 27 wheel 26 rotates, engages with the rack 24, moving the frame 23 with a toothed sector 24, 25 and the piston 30 in the cylinder 31 from the lower dead point to the upper dead point, both valves are closed at the end of compression stroke fuel mixture in the cylinder 31 is ignited, there is a rapid combustion of the combustible mixture, the pressure and temperature in the cylinder 31 is increased. The gas pressure is transmitted to the piston 30, the piston 30 moves to the lower dead point, moving the frame 23 with the racks 24 and 25, the toothed rack 25 is engaged with the sector gear 27 of the wheel 26 mounted on the output shaft 12, causing the wheel 26, the output shaft 12 and the flywheel 32 to rotate. Simultaneously, the piston 20 in the cylinder 19 moves from the bottom dead center to top dead center, the intake valve is closed, the exhaust valve is open. Exhaust gases from the cylinder 19 are received in the exhaust manifold and then through the muffler to the atmosphere. Next, the processes occurring in the cylinders, are repeated in the above sequence.

γ - the angle of rotation of the output shaft 10 per piston stroke is expressed by the relation:

,

where S is the piston stroke; ρ - step mechanical; z - number of teeth of the wheel.

Rack and pinion gears can be straight and oblique teeth, to have herringbone, roller ball is the first) engagement.

The advantage of this internal combustion engine is that pairwise United pistons provide strictly the reciprocating motion of the pistons without any additional devices.

Due to this, there are no lateral forces characteristic of the conventional internal combustion engine with a crank mechanism. Significantly reduces friction and wear in the cylinder group. Simplified design, reduced weight of the piston. Converting the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion of the output shaft occurs due to the movement of the frame with racks that when moving engages with the sector gear wheel mounted on the output shaft, causing it to rotate.

Frame design with racks and output shaft with wheels having a gear sector, a lot easier and more crank mechanism.

In this internal combustion engine no crank mechanism, there is no piston pins, connecting rods, crankshaft. Crankshafts have a high cost of manufacture, complex shape, big weight. The rotational speed of a crankshaft reaches 6000 or more revolutions per minute. There are large centrifugal forces acting on the crankpin, cheeks and lower the head of rods. This what forces act on the main bearings, causing accelerated wear. In addition, the maximum torque at the crank mechanism occurs when the piston is at the middle point of the stroke of the piston, decreasing when approaching the upper and lower dead points.

In this internal combustion engine torque of the output shaft remains virtually unchanged throughout the entire path of the stroke of the piston.

Frame design with racks and output shaft with wheels having a gear sector, more compact, much easier and more crank mechanism.

Thus, the proposed internal combustion engine in comparison with a traditional internal combustion engine has less weight, more compact and technologically advanced, less time-consuming. Reduces friction and wear in the cylinder group, there is no centrifugal force acting on the crankpin, cheeks, lower the head of rods and main bearings. Resulting in increased efficiency of the internal combustion engine, reduces fuel consumption, reduces the cost of production.

When the moving frame and the toothed rack is engaged with the sector gear wheel mounted on the output shaft when the engagement occurs the friction and wear of the gear pair. Lubrication reduces friction losses and thereby minisheet wear.

To start the internal combustion engine is applied to the starter motor, which spins the crankshaft of the engine, and consumed a large inrush current from the battery, discharging it.

According to the second variant embodiment of the invention to reduce friction in the gear pair, and also to improve the conditions for starting the internal combustion engine, the internal combustion engine toothed rack mounted on the frame, and a toothed sector mounted on the output shaft, possess magnetization.

When entering engages the rack with the sector gear wheel, unidirectional magnetization, for example when working stroke of the piston, the teeth of the rack and the teeth of the sector wheel repel, obtained magnetic air gap, which plays the role of additional lubrication, resulting in lower friction losses and thereby reduces the wear of the teeth of wheel and rail.

When the magnetization of the rack frame and gear sector wheel mounted on the output shaft of the engine, switched off the clutch and the ignition output shaft of the engine occupies a certain position, for example before entering engages the rack frame with the sector gear wheel, unidirectional magnetization, or by the attraction of the rack frame to the toothed sector to the ECA, when multidirectional magnetization (or, for example, a particular sector of the wheel, when applying an additional pulse to the coil mounted on the frame, not shown). For a favorable launch conditions of the internal combustion engine is necessary that the piston in one cylinder (or, for example, two cylinders) were in a position slightly before the top dead point. At this point occurs the fuel injection into the cylinder (s) and the first outbreak will turn the output shaft, it will compress the air in the adjacent cylinder. If at some point the fuel is injected into it, flash is much more powerful, and the motor starts to rotate. This saves energy rechargeable batteries. The opportunity to use the battery of smaller capacity with less weight and cheaper.

The magnetization can have individually only gear sector wheel mounted on the output shaft, or the rack frame, and a pair of sector gears and the teeth of the rails framework.

The teeth of the rails framework and the sector (sector) gears mounted on the output shaft, can be made of stainless steel, for example 40 HN or 30 KHMA, or magnetized alloy steel, and hard magnetic specialized materials such as sintered magnets.

Sources of information

1. Design basics. Piolo. "Engineering", 1988

2. Behind the wheel of the No. 1, 2006, category "news, research, invention".

3. Behind the wheel of the No. 7, 2007, the heading "news, research, invention".

4. Patent RU 2178825 C1, publ. 27.01.2002.

5. Patent RU 2308603 C2, publ. 20.10.2007.

1. The internal combustion engine, containing cylinders with removable heads, pistons with piston rings, gas distribution mechanism, cooling system, lubrication system, power supply system, ignition system, pairs United pistons through rod frame with racks, and if one piston is at top dead center, the other piston at the bottom dead point, and the conversion of the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion of the output shaft occurs due to the movement of the frame with racks, which engages with the toothed sectors of the wheels installed on the output shaft, characterized in that the frame made with upper and lower racks, the longitudinal axis of the upper and lower rails are displaced relative to each other and relative to the axis of the piston, and on the output shaft of the second wheel with a toothed sector.

2. The internal combustion engine, containing cylinders with removable heads, pistons with piston rings, in which the piston is aparna connected through the frame with racks, moreover, if one piston is at top dead center, the other piston is at the bottom dead point, and the conversion of the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion of the output shaft occurs due to the movement of the rack which is engaged with the sector gear wheel mounted on the output shaft, characterized in that the toothed rack mounted on the frame, and a toothed sector of wheels mounted on the output shaft, possess magnetization or magnetization has one element of a gear pair.



 

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13 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: cylinders are located in circumferential direction, connecting-rod-and-piston group is brought into movement with drive sinusoidal disc with two projections and two cavities. Complete operating cycle of internal combustion engine is performed during one disc turn. Drive disc rotates with gas-distributing disc the projections of which control the valves. Connecting-rods are connected in pairs to double-arm lever on the ends of which there fixed are rollers adjacent to drive disc; at that, lever is fixed on the axis of the base by means of eccentric bushing to adjust the gap in roller-disc junction.

EFFECT: reducing metal consumption and labour input during manufacture of engine.

Power unit // 2412364

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: as motion force there is used force of gravitation actuating massive piston. For conversion of progressive motion into rotation one there is used an infinite flexible gear connected with a special lock (latch) upon reaching an upped dead point. Force from the piston is transferred to a power take-off shaft with minimal losses for friction.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and service life of unit.

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: internal combustion engine (ICE) comprises cylinder-piston group, head with combustion chamber, mechanism of gas distribution, systems of mixture formation, fuel supply, lubrication and cooling, stems and longitudinal shaft, arranged as multi-cam. Axis of longitudinal shaft is parallel to ends of cylinders and is located in plane passing through axes of cylinders. One middle cam (8) and two functional cams (5) are arranged symmetrically to axis of each cylinder. Middle cam (8) has a longitudinal groove. Each of functional cams (5) is connected to piston and has radial ledge displaced by 90° from longitudinal groove towards the side opposite to rotation of shaft. Stem is made of two parts. One part of stem serves as master one (2), and the other one - as slave one (3). Master (2) and slave parts of stem are rigidly coupled with each other. Axes of master (2) and slave (3) parts are parallel and are arranged at the distance equal to shaft arm. Head for press fit onto piston finger (1) is arranged on upper end of master part (2). A slider (9) is mounted on lower end of master part (2). Longitudinal axis of master part (2) passes through centre of transverse axis of middle cam (8). Side surface of master part (3) is continuously pressed to shaft surface. On side surface of master part (3) there is a rectangular ledge arranged with the possibility to interact with longitudinal groove at the middle cam (8). Interaction takes place when micropush is created, and in process of suction. Lower end of slave part (3) may interact with set of plate springs.

EFFECT: development of ICE design with improved conversion of pressure in combustion chamber to torque, suitable for modernisation.

1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: internal combustion engine consists of fixed cylinders 1 located in the form of V with pistons 2 and piston-rods 3, distribution shaft 4 with cams 5, piston unloading mechanism under action of lateral forces in cylinder-and-piston group, made in the form of straight shaft 6 with freewheel clutch installed on it on one of the ends of outer cage 8 to which there rigidly attached is gear wheel kinematically connected to piston-rod 3 the contact surface of which is made in the form of gear rack, and to the other end of outer cage 8 there attached is conical tooth gear connected through conical pair to the similar conical gear wheel of outer cage of freewheel clutch of the other pair of V-located cylinders. Distribution shaft 4 is kinematically connected to intermediate shaft on which there installed is freewheel clutch the outer cage of which is also made in the form of gear wheel and is engaged with gear wheel 9. Straight shaft 6 is rigidly attached to inner cage 18 of freewheel clutches.

EFFECT: reducing mechanical losses by reducing the actions of lateral loads in cylinder-and-piston group and improving operating characteristics.

2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: engine consists of crank shaft with radius of crank equal to quarter of piston stroke, of mounted of crank shaft eccentric with eccentricity equal to quarter of piston stroke and of slide put on eccentric and resting on side surfaces of carter. The slide is coupled with the piston by means of a rod. To pass dead points the mechanism is equipped with holders in form of spring-loaded rollers facilitating rotation of the crank shaft only in one direction, and rotation of eccentric - into an opposite one. For example, a stop is installed on the eccentric in form of an involute tooth or a cylinder pin, while response recesses are made on the carter.

EFFECT: raised efficiency and resource of engine due to reduced friction of pistons against walls of cylinder.

3 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: rhombic crank-planetary piston gear comprises case with cylinder (1), stem (2), planetary connecting rods (4) and crankshafts (5). Stem (2) is fixed to piston (14) and is connected via hinge unit with planetary connecting rods (4). Planetary connecting rods (4) are joined to crankshafts (5). Centre-to-centre distances of planetary connecting rods (4) are equal to radii of crankshafts (5). Output shaft is arranged with the possibility to transfer rotation from the right crankshaft (5) by three gears (7), and from the left crankshaft (5) - by two gears (8) with preservation of gear ratio. Hinge unit comprises central hinge (3) and hinge finger (11) fixed on it. Planetary connecting rods (4) have synchronising supports (10). Synchronising supports (10) arranged on the line passing via centres of planetary connecting rods (5) rotation at the distance equal to radius of crankshafts (5) from centres of planetary connecting rods (4) rotation. Seats of supports (10) are arranged in case, on line passing through centres of crankshafts (5) rotation at the distance equal to two radii of crankshafts (5). Line of seat supports location is perpendicular to axis of stem motion (2). Planetary connecting rods (4) may be joined to crankshafts (5) via mount seats. Hinge unit may additionally comprise spherical bearings (12). Crankshafts (5) may be arranged as coaxial and mutually rotating.

EFFECT: increased reliability of gear and simplified technology of manufacturing.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rodless rotation drives and can be used in internal combustion engines. Proposed converter comprises two crankshafts, two rods with their tail heads coupled with pistons and center heads coupled with centre crankshaft crank axle, hypocyclic mechanism and planetary mechanism of back stroke. Planetary mechanism comprises stationary crown gear with inner gearing, movable pinion frame with three journals and three planet pinions with outer gearing fitted on said journals. Note here that one of said planets pinions consists of two rims with gear ration of 2/3 or multiple of 12/18 and is coupled with aforesaid rod.

EFFECT: invention allows using proposed mechanism in both one-cylinder and multi-cylinder engines with cylinders arranged at whatever angle.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed ICE comprises housing and two cylinders: one cylinder making combustion chamber and another one representing compression-expansion chamber. Said cylinders accommodate pistons are articulated with two coupled shaped racks coupled with planetary train that converts reciprocation of shaped toothed rack into rotation of drive gear wheels and visa versa. In compliance with proposed invention, said rack engages with drive gear wheel furnished with overrunning device during work stroke, while in back stroke, rack transmits motion to the other drive gear wheel that has no overrunning device.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: two-stroke diesel engine comprises: frame, two-cylinder block 1, covers 4, 5, straight shaft 21, pistons 22, cylinders, fuel system, lubrication system, air preparation and starting systems, and control mechanisms. Said straight shaft 21 supports fly wheel 33 and auxiliary mechanism drive gears 36, 37. Every cylinder is provided with two lines of intake openings 11 arranged at cylinder center between which through bores are made. Pistons 22 moves in opposite directions. Each piston divides cylinder inner chamber into two combustion chambers 23, 24. Piston comprises cylindrical hollow casing 25 with both faces stopped by covers 28. Said casing 25 has two lengthwise through aligned slots 27. Mechanisms to convert reciprocation of pistons 22 into rotation of shaft 21 are arranged inside pistons 22. Said mechanism comprises frame 29 and gear wheel 31. Said frame 29 is bolted to piston covers 29 and furnished with two racks 30. Said racks 30 interact with gear wheel 31. Said gear wheel 31 in fitted inside frame 29 and on square-section straight shaft 21. Fear wheel 31 is held inside frame 29 by two disks screwed to frame side surfaces. Shaft 21 passes through cylinder bores, piston lengthwise slots and gear wheels 31.

EFFECT: increased effective stroke of pistons, better balance, ease of manufacture and reduced weight.

13 dwg

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