High-voltage semiconducting switching device

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: high-voltage semiconducting switching device consists of selected by leakage current series connected unpackaged semiconducting elements that are centred and isolated by side surface with the help of fluoroplastic rings, housing, clamping system and current-carrying electrodes. The housing is made of isolating material with high mechanical and electrical strength. At both housing ends there are rigidly fixed metal flanges that are included in clamping system with threaded holes. At bolting of switching device cover to housing flanges with the help of clamping system elements located inside the cover there created is necessary compressive force of semiconducting devices and its transmission through the housing to semiconducting devices. Note that at the same time there performed is pressurisation of inner volume of switching unit housing by O-rings located between flanges and current-carrying electrodes.

EFFECT: increase of specific switching power of high-voltage semiconducting switching device current at simultaneous improvement of its switching characteristics.

5 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the structural elements of the high voltage semiconductor switches (MIC) current based on the powerful diodes, diacs, thyristors and other power electronics devices. The invention can be used in powerful systems pulsed power supply (SIP) for various purposes (electrotechnological installations, experimental physical complexes and the like)where you want the switch to mega - and requiring gigawatts of capacity in submillisecond range monopulse operation.

Today VPK current largely determine the techno-economic characteristics of the SIP. This is due, on the one hand, the growing number of MIC current in the composition of the SIP (their number can reach tens and hundreds in one system pulse power), and on the other hand, the fact that the main characteristics of the military-industrial complex: unit switched power, size, reliability and cost, largely determine the feasibility of SIP with the required parameters. In this regard, the development of compact, reliable, relatively cheap to manufacture and convenient to operate high-voltage semiconductor switch current is extremely urgent and important task.

A characteristic value of the operating voltage of the modern m & as are tens of kV, and current - hundreds of kA. This MIC isone Assembly of series-connected semiconductor devices (PP) tablet design. Electrical and thermal contacts between paragraphs within the Assembly, and between PP and the external current-carrying electrodes are provided with compressive efforts, which are created tightening Assembly clip system. Operating voltage and switching current military-industrial complex are determined by the number of series-connected semiconductor devices with a given blocking voltage and the active area. Techno-economic performance MIC depend on the chosen design of the switch, and the parameters and characteristics used PP.

Traditionally, the semiconductor devices in high-voltage switches current SIP use thyristors. Known technical solution, the MIC on the basis of the thyristors designed for a working voltage of 24 kV, the pulse current 140 kA with a pulse duration (tp) 50 µs [High Power Semiconductors, SHORT FORM CATALOGUE 2008, ABB, No. 5SYA2018-01]. The height of the switch 60 cm, useful volume, including clamping system, is 1.2×104cm3. Structurally, the switch consists of series-connected tablet thyristors that are compressed with each other by using a clamp system, which includes: steel and plastic bearings, disc springs, hinge mechanism for aligning the compression force of the contact surfaces of the thyristors, compatmode the s electrodes. Anodic and cathodic parts of the switch are isolated from each other using plastic bearings and tightening bolts of the clamping device. The semiconductor element (PE) each tablet thyristor is enclosed in a separate sealed cermet body.

The main factor limiting the switching capability of the thyristor, is the mechanism of its activation. When applying to the control electrode of the thyristor trigger pulse current in the area of the control electrode is formed sufficiently narrow plasma channel, which slightly expands, but the speed of this process is small (0.1 to 0.005 mm/μs). Such localization of the inclusion process makes it almost impossible to create a conductive channel of a large area that does not allow you to switch with thyristors pulse current amplitude tens and hundreds of kA in submillisecond range of durations.

Currently in Russia for the first time in the world developed a promising military power on the basis of the reversal included diacs (WFD) (see, for example, U.S. Pat. EN 2107988, "high-Voltage switch, IPC6H03K 3/53, publ. 27.03.1998). WFD - two-electrode semiconductor devices tablet design, by its capabilities commutation pulse currents submillisecond duration far beyond the thyristors, p is because used for switching instead of the additional control electrode is fundamentally different way - by means of the control plasma layer. WFD switches with short-term change in the polarity of the applied voltage that provides a uniform and rapid activation of the device across the silicon structure. In the allowable slew rate dial-up current for the WFD is not less than 30 kA/μs, which is more than an order of magnitude greater than the values of di/dt, valid for high-power thyristors. Easy run consistently included the WFD common start-up current and high values of allowable slew rate current predetermine the advantages of MIC current diacs compared with the thyristor option.

With the aim of obtaining high values of providing power per unit volume (specific switched power) modern military power are performed on planar IR (see, for example, Chumakov G.D., Galakhov I.V., et al. "Switching of High-Power Current Pulses up to 250 kA and Submillisecond Duration using New Silicon Devices-Reverse Switched Dinistors" / 10th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference, Albuguergue, NM, USA, 1995, pp.1103-1108, and B.E. Fridman and other "Capacitor cell capacitive energy accumulator switch-based reversal-include diacs". Instruments and experimental techniques, 2008, No. 6, p.51-57).

The closest technical solution, selected as a prototype, is military power is based on the powerful WFD, designed for a voltage of 25 kV and the pulse current up to 180 kA at p=450 µs [I.e Bertier, V.G. Bezuglov, I.V. et al. “On the possible use of semiconductor RSD-based switch for flashlamps drive circuits in a Nd-glass laser amplifier of LMJ facility” in Proc. XIIth IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, USA, June 1999]. VPK current prototype contains an Assembly of 15 series-connected planar WFD tablet design with a diameter of PP 76 mm All of the WFD are enclosed in a common ceramic case. Clamping system provides the necessary force for tightening all of the WFD in the Assembly and consists of Belleville springs and tightening of the studs, as shown in figure 5 in the above article. Useful volume switch prototype is 6.5×103cm3.

The disadvantages of this switch are:

- low specific switching capacity, due to the considerable dimensions of military power;

- poor performance in terms of maintainability, namely the impossibility of replacement equipment during operation of the switch part of its semiconductor devices in connection with nerazborite corps military-industrial complex.

The objective of the invention is to increase the specific dial-up capacity and improving operational characteristics of MIC current.

The technical result of the invention is significant (not less than 1.5-2.0 times) increase in the proportion providing power MIC power while improving its operational characteristics is estik.

This technical result in the developed design of high-voltage semiconductor switch current is due to the fact that he, as well as MIC current prototype contains an Assembly of series-connected planar semiconductor devices tablet design, the body, the clamping system and the current-carrying electrodes.

New developed design of a high voltage semiconductor switch current is the fact that the switch is made from selected leakage current of semiconductor devices, which are centered and isolated on a lateral surface with a dielectric rings and placed in a sealed housing made of insulating material with high mechanical and electrical strength, thus clamping system made in the form of rigidly fixed at both ends of the metallic casing flange with threaded holes and thereby providing bolt clamp closures of switch required the effort of compression of semiconductor devices.

In the first the particular case of the implementation of the developed design of high-voltage semiconductor switch current appropriate body to perform from insulating material such as fiberglass, fiberglass reinforced, and for sealing the internal volume of the body uplo the additional rings of crasneanscki rubber locating between the metal flanges and the current-carrying electrodes.

The second particular case of the implementation of the developed design of high-voltage semiconductor switch current suitable as semiconductor devices use power diodes.

In the third special case implementation suitable as semiconductor devices use power thyristors.

In the fourth the particular case of implementation of the developed designs are suitable as semiconductor devices to use reversal-included diacs.

Additional technical result of the invention is also an improvement overall and cost characteristics developed powerful high-voltage semiconductor switch current.

The case of the proposed switch in addition to protection inside the semiconductor devices from the effects of the environment that is used in MIC current prototype performs additional functions:

insulation system providing reliable operation VPK voltage during application of high voltage between the anode and cathode of the switch (25 kV and above);

- tightening host system pressure switch that receives a compressing force up to 100 kN) for all semiconductor Assembly required for reliable switching of currents in the hundreds of kA.

The drawing shows the design of the development is spent MIC current.

In the proposed switch of a cylindrical body 1 made of insulating material with high mechanical and electrical strength, the height of the housing 1 is determined based on the desired operating voltage of the switch. Inside the housing 1 is high voltage Assembly of series-connected semiconductor devices 2. The housing 1 of the switch, on the one hand, protects the high-voltage Assembly from the external environment, on the other hand, provides the necessary air insulation distances and distances on the surface of the hull between the cathode and anode of the switch. In addition, through the housing 1, a part of the clamping system switch is transmitting compressive force to the semiconductor devices 2. On both ends of the housing 1 by the pins 3 is rigidly fixed to a metal flange 4 having threaded holes for fastening the covers 5 switch, also included in the clamping system. In the lower and upper lids 5 switch are system supports a gimbal type 7, 8, designed to provide uniform distribution of the compression force of the working surface of PP 2. These efforts are passed through the current-carrying electrodes 9.

In the top cover 5 of the switch are other elements of the system pressure, namely Belleville springs 10, the screw-bearing 11, the control washer (12) and two nuts 13. Data e the cops system clamp pre-assembled to the top cover 5, during this procedure, a calibration spring 10 by a specified compression effort. Fixing this effort is nuts 13. Assembly of the cover 5 with the flange 4 system pressure is alternately and evenly tightening the mounting bolts until the control washer 12 ceases to be compressed. In this case, the normalized compression force is transmitted to the working surfaces of the semiconductor devices 2 through the housing 1, the bottom cover 5, the pivot bearing 7, 8 and the current-carrying electrodes 9. Short paragraphs 2 are connected to each other through the copper disks 14, located between the anode of one semiconductor device 2 and the cathode of the neighboring device 2. Centering semiconductor devices 2, copper disks 14 and the current-carrying electrodes 9 a by using a dielectric, such as Teflon, rings 15, which, in addition, provide additional protection against breakdown on the surface of PP 2. The switch is sealed in the Assembly process using the sealing rings 16 of crasneanscki rubber located between the current-carrying electrodes 9 and the flanges 4 of the housing 1.

The proposed construction of a high voltage semiconductor switch current is designed for the application of power semiconductor devices of various type (diodes, thyristors, WFD)having a planar tablet design is the Ktsia with the diameter of the semiconductor elements to 100 mm

In particular, with the help of the developed MIC current (see the drawing) on the basis of the 15 series open-frame of the WFD with the diameter of the elements 76 mm and the permissible operating voltage of 2 kV is possible to switch the pulse currents up to 400 kA with a duration of 500 μs and a charging voltage of 25 kV, which is more than twice the allowable value of the amplitude of the switched current prototype MIC. This useful volume switch by eliminating a separate system pressure is not more than 4×103cm3that is 3 times less in comparison with foreign analogues and 1.5 times less compared to the prototype. Reducing the useful volume switch provides increased 1.5-2 times the unit providing power for the same technical characteristics PP.

The bolted connection of the lid 5 and the flange 4 of the housing 1 allows the operation process to quickly disassemble the switch to identify and replace the defective part of the semiconductor switch, which improves maintainability MIC and in view of reducing the overall dimensions of its performance as a whole.

Thus, the design MIC allows you to increase specific public switched power and to improve the operational characteristics of the switch, i.e. allows to solve the problem.

Similar to the design of the switch can also be used in the manufacture of MIC for voltages up to 100 kV and pulse currents up to 1000 kA with high technical and economic characteristics.

1. High-voltage solid-state switch current, consisting of series-connected planar semiconductor devices tablet design, housing, clamp and current-carrying electrodes, wherein the switch is made from selected leakage current unpackaged semiconductor devices, which are centered and isolated on a lateral surface with a dielectric rings and placed in a sealed housing made of insulating material with high mechanical and electrical strength, thus clamping system made in the form of rigidly fixed at both ends of the metallic casing flange with threaded holes and thereby providing bolt clamp closures of switch required the effort of compression of semiconductor devices and its transmission through the body at the above-mentioned semiconductor devices.

2. High-voltage semiconductor switch current according to claim 1, characterized in that the casing is made of insulating material such as fiberglass, fiberglass reinforced, for sealing the inner volume of which is about the o-rings are made of silicon rubber is located between the metal flanges and the current-carrying electrodes.

3. High-voltage semiconductor switch current according to claim 1, characterized in that, as the semiconductor devices used in power diodes.

4. High-voltage semiconductor switch current according to claim 1, characterized in that, as the semiconductor devices used in power thyristors.

5. High-voltage semiconductor switch current according to claim 1, characterized in that, as the semiconductor devices used reversal-included diacs.



 

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