Device for determining coordinates based on satellite radionavigation systems gps/glonass

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device includes a GPS/GLONASS receiver, an antenna, a user interface (keyboard, display, sound), a communication interface, nonvolatile memory, a microcontroller, consisting of a unit for calculating the coordinate vector from code measurements, a unit for calculating the increment of the coordinate vector from phase measurements, a filter unit based on a least-square method, a unit for calculating a specified coordinate vector from the filtration results, a unit for working with interfaces, where the microcontroller includes a unit for analysing stability of the phase solution, a unit for evaluating duration of measurements and geometrical factor of the constellation of satellites, as well as a correcting unit consisting of a counter for counting stable solutions and a decision unit for deciding on continuing measurements, interfaces for time marking external events and outputting the second mark.

EFFECT: highly accurate determination of coordinates of a receiver based on differential processing of phase measurements with complete elimination of phase ambiguity.

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The invention relates to the field of navigation and can be used to reference objects with centimeter accuracy for determining the angular orientation of the objects, and to synchronize measurement systems. The invention is based on the use of signals of satellite navigation systems (SNS) GPS and GLONASS.

A device coordinates, described in U.S. patent 2005/0162312 [1]. This device receives signals from satellite systems GPS/GLONASS, processes them, and produces a saving in memory. Final data processing with high-precision coordinate is performed on an external computer. The device consists of a GPS receiver, a communication interface (Bluetooth, USB, RS232), a microcontroller, flash memory, button on/off switch and two led indicators.

The disadvantages described in this patent, the device is of low accuracy, and the inability to identify (to differentiate from each other) in the device geographical point whose coordinates you want to define. The first is due to the principle of conducting and processing dimensions: offered during processing to use only code measurements and eliminate them in the ionospheric delay and error ephemeris based on external information sources. the processing phase measurements to eliminate the phase ambiguity, which allows to achieve higher order of accuracy in the description of the device is not present. The second disadvantage is due to the limited user interface.

U.S. patent 6484095 [2] describes a device coordinates, which consists of a GPS receiver, a communication interface (rs232), flash memory, a microcontroller, a user interface based on LEDs.

The disadvantages of this device are low positional accuracy, due to the fact that there are phase measurements to eliminate the phase ambiguity.

The closest to the technical nature of the proposed solution is a device prototype, described in U.S. patent 7439908 [3].

The device consists of the following components:

- GPS/GLONASS receiver, antenna;

- user interface (keyboard, display, sound);

communication interface (communication);

- flash memory

the microcontroller.

In the block diagram of the microcontroller is divided into functional blocks:

- calculation of the vector of coordinates on the code measurements;

- calculation of the increment of the vector of coordinates on the phase measurements;

- filtering (smoothing) based on the method of least squares using the data obtained from the first two units;

- calculation of autochangeover coordinates for filtering results;

- work with interfaces.

The coordinates of this device may be made in two modes:

on the basis of a single device, using the smoothing code measurements based on phase;

based on the two devices, using differential processing.

In the first mode, the achievable accuracy is at the level of the meter, in the second embodiment, the accuracy depends on the degree of ambiguity resolution. If the ambiguity is resolved in part on the basis of fractional numbers (obtained floating solution), then it is possible to decimeter accuracy of determination of coordinates. If ambiguities are eliminated fully on the basis of integers (received fixed solution), then it is possible to centimeter accuracy positioning. Implementation in practice one or the other option (partial or complete elimination of ambiguity) depends on a number of factors, in particular the geometry of the position of the satellites at the moment of observation and the time of observation.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the low accuracy of the coordinates in the General case. This is because the device does not analyze the possibility of obtaining a fixed solution, and in many cases will not be able to achieve a fundamentally possible centimeter-level precision.

For the ache of the present invention is improving the accuracy of determination of coordinates, achieved on the basis of the optimal choice of interval measurements on the current geographic location, and the exception of a possible breakdown of the solution.

The main problem in device coordinates with high accuracy based on GPS/GLONASS is the presence of the integer ambiguity in the phase measurement of the distances to the satellites. For successful disambiguation requires reliable measurements of GPS/GLONASS in the right quantity. This necessity is due to the fact that with the disruption of the measurements (the loss of signals from satellites) is the breakdown of the solution. Thus, lack of time, continuous measurements can cause the inability to disambiguate, the result will be impossible to determine coordinates with high precision.

A device coordinates based on satellite navigation systems GPS/GLONASS, which includes GPS/GLONASS receiver, antenna, microcontroller, an adjustment unit, a user interface (keyboard, display, sound), communication interface, non-volatile memory, interfaces temporary notches external events and issuing a second label. Data from the GPS/GLONASS receiver are fed to the input of the microcontroller where it is processing the multiple algorithmic blocks: code measurements is the determination of the vector of coordinates, on the phase - definition of the increment vector of coordinates. By filtering the received vector and its increments based on the method of least squares, the computation of adjusted coordinate vector.

Unlike the prototype of the filter results are also used for the stability analysis phase solution in the corresponding block. The phase stability of the solution is measured during the measurement interval, the number of stable solutions is counted by a counter. In case of breakdown measurements via the interfaces are given a special alarm. In this case, each epoch measurements are evaluating the geometric constellation of satellites, as well as the estimated duration of the measurements in the current geometric point. Estimates are obtained, and the value of the counter used by the block a decision on the extension of the measurements. If necessary, extend the measurements at the current point is the corresponding alarm to the user via the interfaces.

Structural diagram of the device shown in the drawing:

1. GPS/GLONASS antenna

2. GPS/GLONASS receiver

3. The calculation of the vector of coordinates on the code measurements

4. The calculation of the increment of the vector of coordinates on the phase measurements

5. Filtering based on the method of least squares

6. Calculating, key writing, the updated vector of coordinates on the filter results

7. Working with interfaces

8. Communication interface (communication)

9. Non-volatile memory (SD FLASH)

10. User interface

11. The microcontroller

12. Block stability analysis phase solution

13. The evaluation unit of the measuring time and the geometric factor constellations

14. Counter for sustainable solutions

15. A decision block for extension measurements

16. Interface time serifs external events

17. Interface issuing a second tag

18. Adjustment block

19. Keyboard

20. Display

21. Sound

This device allows to determine the optimal (for the current situation) the time of observation satellites in a specific geographical point. With this purpose, the composition of the microcontroller introduced:

- block stability analysis phase solution (12),

the evaluation unit of the measuring time and the geometric factor of the constellation of satellites (13),

- correction block (18), consisting of

counter sustainable solutions (14);

- block a decision on the extension of the measurements (15).

Block stability analysis phase solution (12) is used to detect failure of the phase measurements, resulting in a redefinition of the phase ambiguity. This unit is based on the evaluation of the double phase difference of two adjacent the epochs of measurements. When there is a disruption of at least one satellite double differences will be present anomalous spike in value relative to the previous step. In case of breakdown unit (12) transmits a corresponding signal to the counter (14), resulting in the counter is reset. In the absence of failures counter with each epoch measurements incremented.

The evaluation unit of the measuring time and the geometric factor of the constellation of satellites (13) is designed to generate estimates of the required number of measurements required for successful ambiguity resolution, taking into account the geometric assessment of the current constellation of satellites. When bad geometric assessment of the constellation duration is multiplied by the multiplying factor. Counter (14) is designed to count a stable phase solutions on this geometric point of the receiver location. The value generated by the counter is transferred to a decision block (15). The counter reset is performed on the signal from the block (12) or through the interface, as a result of user actions during the transition to a new defined geometric point.

Block a decision on the extension of the measurements (15) is designed for the analysis of available data to assess the possibility of removing the phase ambiguity. This block, if necessary, decides on the extension of the measurements is rather the point, in case of breakdown measurements, which is signaled to the user via the interface. The alarm can be made in the following ways:

through the user interface (display, audio);

- interface data exchange with PC).

Blocks (14) and (15) can be implemented in the following ways:

- based on custom applications running on-Board GPS receiver.

based on the hardware implementation and FPGA;

on the basis of additional microcontroller.

Blocks (12) and (13) can be implemented as hardware, and software.

Communication between the components of the device are as follows:

the antenna output is connected to the input of the receiver.

output data from the receiver connected to the inputs of the computing unit coordinate vector in the code measurements and computing unit increment of the vector of coordinates on the phase measurements, and also to the input of the evaluation unit of the measuring time and the geometric factor of the constellation of satellites;

the outputs of the computing unit coordinate vector in the code measurements and computing unit increment of the vector of coordinates on the phase measurement is connected to the input of the filtering unit based on the method of least squares;

the output of the filtering unit based on the method of least squares is connected to the input of the computing unit specified vector position the nut on the filter results, and also to the input of block stability analysis phase solutions;

the output of the computing unit specified coordinate vector according to the results of the filter is connected to the input interface;

output unit interface connected to the communication interface, user interface, flash memory, to the input of block counter for counting sustainable solutions, as well as to the interface of the temporary notches external events, the interface issuing a second label;

the output of block stability analysis phase solutions are connected to the inputs of the block interface and a counter for counting sustainable solutions;

the outputs of blocks estimate the duration of the measurements and the geometric factor of the constellation of satellites and a counter for counting sustainable solutions connected to the input of decision block on the extension of measurements;

the output of the decision block for extension measurement is connected to the input of the block interface.

To determine the coordinates are two devices that are implemented on the proposed scheme. One of the devices is placed on the point made at the beginning of the local coordinate system. The second unit sequentially moves the points which coordinates are to be determined. The beginning and end of the measurements at each tie point accompanied by a selection of the user the selection of the corresponding menu item device through the user interface. After the measurement data from the removable memory card or via the exchange interface data from both devices are transferred to a computing machine and processed on the basis of special software. The basis of the performance of the software is differential treatment phase measurements with full resolution of the phase ambiguity. As a result of processing are calculated coordinates with centimeter accuracy in the local coordinate system with its origin at the location of the antennas of the first device.

Also to improve the accuracy of determining the coordinates of dynamic objects in the schema of the invention are added:

interface time serifs external events (16);

interface issuing a second label (17).

There are two possible pokegema work under time synchronization:

- Issuing of the second label in the specified time range by setting the start and end of the synchronization interval or on an ongoing basis, with the possibility of interruption by the user. The conditions for issuing a second label can be specified either by the user via the device menu, and from external computers via a digital communication channel. Thus, it is possible centralized management issuance of second labels on multiple devices connected to a digital network.

Time - serif external with the of ity. Serif can be done in the background, i.e. in parallel with the issuance of the second label. Time external events can be stored on the memory card or to be issued to the user via the interfaces.

Using time synchronization allows high accuracy to bind dynamic movement of the object to the scale of the coordinates.

To determine the orientation angles you need to have two (or three) of devices connected to the computer through a communication interface (digital channel). Antenna devices are placed on the fixed base of the object, the angular orientation of which you want to define. The vector connecting the phase centers of the antennas uniquely specifies the orientation of the object, while two antennas allow us to determine the azimuth angle and the elevation angle of the object, and the third antenna allows to determine the roll angle. Processing, computation, and issuance of orientation angles is performed on a computing machine based on special software.

An example of a specific implementation. Consider a two-mode device coordinates. Devices with antennas were located on the roof of a two storey building, with open access to the arch of the sky, at points with known coordinates. In the local coordinate system, East-North-Up vector between antennas eliminate the STV was: [52.707; -15.042; -0.019]. These coordinates were obtained geodetic measuring instruments with an accuracy of 1 mm for 15 minutes the device was received signals of satellite systems GPS/GLONASS, while observing at the same time 8-10 satellites. After that, both devices were turned off, and the data from both memory cards have been transferred to the computing machine. Data were processed using special software and the result is a vector of coordinates: [52.716; -15.034; -0.009]. The variance is known and the resulting coordinates were: [-0.009; -0.008; -0.01].

The use of this invention allows high accuracy to determine the coordinates of arbitrary objects, for example, when geodetic reference when testing various measuring means during examination of the structures, allows the determination of the angular orientation of the objects, for example, to install directional satellite antenna, allows you to synchronize different measurement systems in single time.

Sources of information

1. U.S. patent 2005/0162312, G01S 5/14.

2. U.S. patent 6484095, G01C 21/00.

3. U.S. patent 7439908, NV 7/185 (prototype).

Device coordinates based on satellite navigation systems GPS/GLONASS, which includes GPS/GLONASS receiver, an antenna, a user interface (keyboard, display, sound), the comma is tatiany interface, non-volatile memory, a microcontroller, comprising computing unit coordinate vector for code measurements, the computing unit increment of the vector of coordinates on the phase measurement, the filtration unit based on the method of least squares, the unit for computing the adjusted vector of coordinates on the results of the filtering unit interface with the antenna connected to the receiver input, the output data from the receiver connected to the inputs of the computing unit coordinate vector in the code measurements and computing unit increment of the vector of coordinates on the phase measurement, the outputs of the computing unit coordinate vector in the code measurements and computing unit increment of the vector of coordinates on the phase measurement is connected to the input unit filtering based on the method of least squares, the output of the filtering unit based on the method of least squares is connected to the input of the computing unit specified coordinate vector according to the results of filtering the output of the computing unit specified coordinate vector according to the results of the filter is connected to the input interface, the output unit interface connected to the communication interface, the user interface and the flash memory, characterized in that the microcontroller entered the block stability analysis of the phase decision unit assessment of the duration of the measurements and the geometric factor of the constellation of satellites, and also introduced an adjustment unit consisting of a counter for counting sustainable solutions and decision block on the extension of the measurements, interfaces temporary notches external events and issuing a second label, and the output data from the receiver is connected to the input of the evaluation unit of the measuring time and the geometric factor of the constellation of satellites, the output of the filtering unit based on the method of least squares connected to the input of block stability analysis phase solution, the output of block stability analysis phase solutions are connected to the inputs of the block interface and a counter for counting sustainable solutions, the outputs of blocks estimate the duration of the measurements and the geometric factor of the constellation of satellites and the counter for counting sustainable solutions connected to the input of decision block on the extension of the measurements, the output of decision block on the extension of the measurements is connected to the input interface, the output unit interface connected to the input of block counter for counting sustainable solutions, as well as to the interface of the temporary notches external events, the interface issuing a second label.



 

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