Method of controlling crosswise profile and distance between track rails, and track-tester car

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to railway transport. Proposed method comprises measuring rail profile, track gauge and distance to rails with the help of beams of two laser senders arranged on track-tester car platform above the rails. Measured data is entered into onboard computer memory together with data on run time to determine departure from preset values. Laser senders are secured to turn around. Turn of laser senders is synchronised. Proposed track-tester car comprises two laser senders secured on car platform above the rails and connected via controller to computer. Said senders encased in protective enclosures arranged to turn relative the axis perpendicular to lengthwise axis of senders and are connected with, at least, one drive, e.g. hydraulic cylinder with rod.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurements.

11 cl, 10 dwg

 

Group of inventions relates to railway transport.

The known method and device for measuring the distance between the rails at the request of the Russian Federation for invention №2003131043. The device contains two laser sensor. The method consists in scanning the rails and comparing the results of measuring the distance between them with valid values.

The known method and device for contactless measurement of the transverse profile and the distance between the rails way by RF patent for the invention №2255873 (the prototype of the method and of the device).

This method for the contactless measurement of the transverse profile or distance between the rails path includes measurement using the scanning beams of the two laser sensors located on the mobile platform above the rails, profile rail and the distance and spring these values in a computer database, depending on the distance travelled and the determination of the deviation from the setpoint. The device contains two laser sensor, mounted on rails on the platform, and the computer to which they are connected. The system contains a sensor momentum wheel platform, performing the measurement function of the traversed path.

The disadvantage of this system is its limited functionality when the diagnosis of railway tracks, as it does not define a longitudinal, the transverse slope of the plot of the path.

The task of the invention is the extension of system functionality and improving the accuracy of the positioning platform potenzmitteln car

These tasks are achieved due to the fact that in the control method of the profile rail and the distance between the rails of the railway track, including the measurement using two laser beams of the sensors located on the mobile platform car potenzmittel above the rails, the distance to the rails and spring information in the memory unit on-Board computer at the same time making information about the traversed distance and the determination of the deviation from the setpoint, and laser sensors attached with the possibility of the district of rotation. The rotation of the laser sensors are synchronized. When turning the laser sensors measure the angular position of their optical axes and write to the memory block of the onboard computer. Additionally, periodically measure and record in a block of memory on-Board computer the location of the car potenzmittel defined using global remote positioning such as GLONASS, and compare with the calculated value obtained by the measurement results of the traversed path. Information can be transferred over the air to a stationary server maintenance.

Solving these problems dosign is in the car-potenzmittel, containing two laser sensor mounted on the platform of the car over the rails and connected through the controller to the computer, wherein the laser sensors mounted in protective housings, which are mounted with a possibility of rotation about the axis perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the sensor and connected to at least one actuator, e.g. a hydraulic cylinder having a piston rod. Wagon-potenzmittel equipped with a mechanism that synchronizes rotation of laser sensors. Laser sensors are equipped with sensors, angular position, the United electrical connections to the controller. Wagon-potenzmittel may contain a receiver system global remote positioning such as GLONASS. Wagon-potenzmittel may include receiving and transmitting device, connected to the onboard computer. Wagon-potenzmittel may contain at least one accelerometer, connected through the controller to the onboard computer. Wagon-potenzmittel may contain magnetometer connected through the controller to the onboard computer.

Over the last few years a lot of popularity in the world won global positioning system (determine the precise location) GLONASS, GPS, GALILEO and COMPASS. This is a very promising market. The global market for global services is positionierung in 2003 amounted to $500 million, and according to Ovum, in 2005, its volume will reach $9.75 billion (376 million subscribers). Some of the basic functioning of global positioning systems and their use in the world and is dedicated to this article. The first global positioning system GPS (Global Positioning System) was developed exclusively for military purposes. Global GPS navigation system designed to transmit navigation signals, which may be taken at the same time in all regions of the world. The initiator of the GPS system is the U.S. Department of Defense. Its development began in 1973, when the U.S. Department of Defense ceased to hold radio navigation system consisting of ground-based navigation systems, Loran-C and Omega, and satellite Transit system. The project of creating a satellite network to determine the coordinates in real time at any point of the globe was named NAVSTAR GPS (NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System is a navigation system for determining the time and distance). Used the abbreviation GPS appeared later, when the system began to be used not only for military but also for civilian purposes. The first regular orbital grouping system was deployed from June 1989 to March 1994 On the orbit were withdrawn 24 navigation satellites Block II. Finally the GPS system was commissioned in 1995, this is currently it is operated and maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense. Part of the GPS system consists of 3 main segments: space, ground and user. The space segment consists of 28 Autonomous satellites evenly distributed in orbits with altitude 20350 km (for full system of 24 satellites). Each satellite emits 2 frequencies special navigation signal which identifies 2 types of code. One of them only a few users, including, of course, the military and U.S. Federal agencies. In addition to these 2 signals the satellite emits and third, informing the user about additional parameters (the state of the satellite, its health, and others). The parameters of the orbits of the satellites periodically monitored by a network of ground tracking stations (5 stations located in tropical latitudes), with which (at least 1-2 times per day): calculated ballistic characteristics, register deviation between satellites and the calculated trajectory, determined by your own time, hours onboard satellites, monitors the health of navigation equipment, etc. for the detection of equipment failures satellites using ground stations usually takes several hours. The third segment of the GPS system is a GPS-receivers, manufactured and as independent devices (portable or stationary), and as a Board on which I connect to PC, onboard computers and other devices. Key features of the GPS system (if the receiver of the GPS signal):

- determining the location of a mobile subscriber;

- determination of the shortest and most convenient route to your destination;

- determining the return route;

- define speed (maximum, minimum, average);

- the definition of travel time (elapsed and how much you will need more) and other

Basic operation of the GPS system

Theory ranging based on calculating the distance the signal propagation from the satellite to the receiver on the time delay. If you know the propagation time of the radio signal, then passed them the way easily computed simply by multiplying the propagation time of the signal at the speed of light.

Each satellite of the GPS system continuously generates radio waves 2 frequencies (L1=1575.42 MHz and L2=1227.60 MHz). The navigation signal is photomanipulating PRN pseudo-random-code (Pseudo Random Number code). PRN code is 2 types. The first C/a-code (Coarse Acquisition code is rough code) used in civil receivers. It provides only a rough estimate of location, and therefore is called "rough" code. C/a-code is transmitted on the L1 frequency using phase manipulation pseudo-random sequence of length 1023 characters. Protection from asiakaspalaute through code Gould. The repetition period of C/a code is 1 MS. Another code - R (precision code is the exact code) provides a more accurate calculation of coordinates, but the access is restricted. Basically, the P-code is available to the military and (sometimes) Federal services (for example, for solving problems of geodesy and cartography). This code is transmitted on the L2 frequency with the use of extra-long pseudo-random sequence with a repetition period of 267 days. This code is available in principle and civilians. But the algorithm processing is much more complex, and therefore the equipment is more expensive. In turn, the frequency of the L1 signal is modulated as C/a and P-code. The GPS signal may be present and the so-called Y-code, which is the encrypted version of the P-code (military time system encryption may vary).

In addition to the navigation signals, the satellite continuously transmits various kinds of service information. The user GPS receiver is informed about the state of the satellite and its parameters: system time; ephemeris (accurate data about the orbit of the satellite); the predicted time delay of the signal propagation in the ionosphere (because the speed of light changes when passing through different layers of the atmosphere), the health of the satellite (in the so-called "almanac" contains updated every 1...5 min status information and the orbits of all satellites).

The basis of determining coordinate is inat the GPS receiver is calculating the distance from it to several satellites, the location of which is known (these data are taken from the GPS satellite almanac"). In surveying the method of calculating the position of the object by measuring its distance from the points with the given coordinates is called "triangulation with measured lengths".

If you know the distance to one satellite, the coordinates of the receiver cannot be determined (it can be in any point of the sphere, the radius of the circumscribed around the satellite). Let the known distance of the receiver from the second satellite. In this case, the coordinate determination is also not possible - the object is on the circle that is the intersection of two spheres. The distance to a third satellite reduces the uncertainty in the coordinates of the two points. This is enough to uniquely determine the coordinates is the fact that of the two possible locations of the receiver, only one is on the Earth's surface (or close to it), and the second, false, turns out to be either deep inside the Earth, or very high above its surface. Thus, for three-dimensional navigation theoretically enough to know the distance from the receiver to 3 satellites.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings, figure 1...10, where:

- figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of implementation of the method,

- figure 2 shows a top view,

- figure 3 shows the development of the C Ah,

- figure 4 shows a section a-a,

- figure 5 is a diagram of the measurement with accelerometer,

- figure 6 shows a section A-A,

- figure 7 shows the electric diagram of the device with two accelerometers,

on Fig the electrical circuit of the device with the magnetometer and the receiving-transmitting device,

- figure 9 shows a measurement of the wear rail,

- figure 10 shows a diagram of the onboard computer.

The device (1...10) contains placed on the rails 1 car-potenzmittel 2, which contains the platform 3. Wagon-potenzmittel 2 contains a system of measurement and control and mechanical parts common to all cars. Platform 3 includes a pair of wheels 4. Wagon-potenzmittel 2 can be combined with a locomotive or private traction drive 5. Under the platform 3 between the two wheel pairs 4 symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis of the car-potenzmittel 2 is equipped with two laser sensor 6, each of them placed above the rails 1. Laser sensors 6 are installed in protective housings 7 and protected from the optical part of the armored glass 8 to prevent damage from impact with foreign objects and precipitation. Protective housing 7 with the axis 9, is made perpendicular to the longitudinal (optical) axis of the laser sensors 6. Protective housing 7 mounted on axes 9 which can be rotated with respect to them and attached to the brackets 10 under the platform 3. To ensure rotation of laser sensors 6 with protective housings 7 to the protective casing 7 is attached to the actuator 11, for example, hydraulic cylinders 12 with the rod 13. Other variants of execution of the actuators 11, including a common actuator 11.

On the platform 4 has an onboard computer 14 to which electrical connections 15 (wired or wireless) connected to the controller 16.

To the controller 16 electrical connections 15 attached laser sensors 6. To the onboard computer 14 may be attached electrical connections 15 receiver system global remote positioning 17, for example, GLONASS or GPS with antenna 18 connected to its input. Can be set to any other device positioning system (Galileo or Compass). In a system of globally remote includes positioning satellites 19 connected to channel 20 with the antenna 18 and the next receiver of global positioning system 17.

To the onboard computer 14 can also be attached side receiving and transmitting device 21 and antenna 22. Scanning laser sensors 6 rails 1 carried out with a laser beam 23 (figure 2 and 3). The system of measurement and control may also include a remote control device 24 (Fig 1) with a stationary receiving and transmitting device 2, having the antenna 26. A stationary receiving and transmitting device 25 is connected to a remote server 27.

Also on the platform 3 may be installed, at least one accelerometer 28, it is preferable to install two accelerometer 28 (figure 5 and 6) and magnetometer 29 (Fig).

The actuator 11 is equipped with a synchronization tool 30, which is connected to the onboard computer 14. The synchronization tool can be performed by various means, such as mechanical, as shown in figure 4, or electric or hydro-mechanical. For example, figure 4 shows the synchronization tool 30, is made in the form of two joint rods 31 that are installed symmetrically with respect to a single actuator 11 and connected with the rod 13. Both laser sensor 6 is equipped with sensors angular position 31 (Fig.9), dened, for example, on the axis 9 and the United electrical connections 15 with the controller 16. This allows you to use the values of these angles in the calculation of the profile rail, wear and more accurate determination of the distance between the rails. In addition, information about the angles of inclination of the longitudinal (optical) axis of the laser sensors 6 can be used to implement and control the synchronization of the rotation of the laser electric sensors by means of the synchronization. Figure 9 shows a diagram of scanning the internal working surface and the rail 1 by a laser beam 23. The onboard computer 14 (figure 10) contains a processor 33, memory block 34, the monitor 35 and the control device 36, for example, a keyboard or pointing device, type "mouse".

When driving car potenzmittel 2 with the platform 3, the rails 1 (1) laser sensors 6 periodically, say 1 meter, scan the inner surface of the rails 1 by moving the laser beam 23 in the transverse direction, rotating laser sensors 6 actuators 11, and determine the distance to them and the internal profile of the working surface of the rail 1 to determine its wear (Fig). These data are transmitted through communication lines 15 first controller 16 to convert, and then in the onboard computer 14. As the on-Board computer 14 is advisable to apply your personal computer such as "Pentium", commercially produced many Russian and foreign companies. Measured and calculated information is written to the memory block. Programs provides operating system like WINDOWS 98, 2000, -Me, -CHR. The program that calculates the distance between the rails 1 are based on simple geometric shapes, such as triangles, so composing algorithm for calculation of the measured parameters is not straightforward and in more detail in the description is not given.

As the distance between the laser sensor 6 strictly fixed, calculated distance is between the rails 1. This information is stored in the memory unit 34 of the onboard computer 14, for example on the hard disk, with reference to the distance traveled (or to geographic coordinates car potenzmittel 2). The distance traveled by the platform 3, with a precision of 1...2 m is determined by known methods, for example, markers on travel objects (poles, buildings, etc) and additionally periodically monitored by the global remote positioning GLONASS or GPS to prevent failures and significant errors known methods. Receiver remote global positioning 17 receives the signal with at least three satellites 19 and determines the position of the platform 3 with an accuracy of 1...2 m, These data are transmitted to the controller 16 and then to the computer 14 for calculations and binding measured path settings to the geographical coordinates of the current position of a car potenzmittel 2.

Next is the comparison of the calculated distance L0 between the rails 1 with the maximum permissible minimum and maximum value. With a significant deviation of the signal, for example, sound, or light, or text on the monitor screen 36. At the same time the accelerometers 28 (figure 5 and 6) measures the inclination of the longitudinal tilt of the platform 3 in the longitudinal direction (angle φ.1) and nicked CNY tilt platform 3 (the angle φ2). These values are also compared with the maximum allowable, and if they go beyond the norm, there is an audible or visual signal to the operator. With the magnetometer 29 (Fig) through the controller 16, the information is transmitted to the onboard computer 14. Information received as a result of scanning by the laser beam 23 and the inner surface of the rail 1 determines its actual cross profile - "f" (figure 9) and compare it with theoretical profile "T", entered in advance in the memory unit on the basis of the drawing of the rail 1. When the discrepancy of results exceeding specified, served the alarm.

Optionally, you can pass information from the onboard computer 14 during the entire time the motion of the car potenzmittel 2 on the remote server 27 via radio 20 (figure 1). These data are used for the prevention of railway track

The application of the invention allowed:

1. To extend the functionality of the system by additional measurements of rail wear on their upper and inner side in contact with the wheel pairs, and angles of inclination of the platform car potenzmittel in the longitudinal and transverse directions.

2. To improve the accuracy of measurement of all parameters for synchronization of rotation of laser sensors to provide scanning of the internal surfaces of the two rails in a strictly PR is Fig pixels.

3. More precisely, to tie all the information to the path travelled through more accurate measurement of the location of the platform car potenzmitel. The application along with the known periodic control location using the remote global positioning, such as GLONASS or GPS.

5. To fully automate the measurement process and display the results of measurements and calculations (information) on-Board computer and, if necessary, transfer them to a given server in real time.

1. The control method of the profile rail and the distance between the rails of the railway track, including the measurement using two laser beams of the sensors located on the mobile platform car potenzmittel above the rails, the distance to the rails and entering data into a block of memory on-Board computer at the same time making information about the distance travelled and the determination of the deviation from the setpoint, and laser sensors attached with the possibility of the district of rotation and placed in protective housings, and the rotation of the laser sensors are synchronized.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when you turn the laser sensors measure the angular position of their optical axes and write to the memory block of the onboard computer.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized those who, further periodically measure and record in a block of memory on-Board computer the location of the car potenzmittel defined using global remote positioning such as GLONASS, compared with a calculated value obtained by the measurement results of the traversed path.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that information is transmitted over the air to a stationary server maintenance.

5. Wagon-potenzmittel containing two laser sensor mounted on the platform of the car over the rails and connected through the controller to the computer, wherein the laser sensors mounted in protective housings, which are mounted to rotate about an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the sensor, and is connected, at least one actuator, e.g. a hydraulic cylinder having a rod.

6. Wagon-potenzmittel according to claim 5, characterized in that the actuators are equipped with means to synchronize rotation of laser sensors, the United electrical communication with the onboard computer.

7. Wagon-potenzmittel according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that the laser sensors are equipped with sensors, angular position, the United electrical connections to the controller.

8. Wagon-potenzmittel according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that it comprises a receiver systems is a global remote positioning for example GLONASS.

9. Wagon-potenzmittel according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that it contains a receiving and transmitting device, connected to the onboard computer.

10. Wagon-potenzmittel according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that it contains at least one accelerometer, connected through the controller to the computer.

11. Wagon-potenzmittel according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that it contains a magnetometer connected through the controller to the onboard computer.



 

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