Method for biofuel production from galega orientalis

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: in method, soil is prepared to grow Galega orientalis: acid soils are limed, peat and manure compost is added. Ploughing is carried out, seeds are treated before sowing with the aqueous solution of rizotorfin in amount of 40÷45 g - on a dry basis per 1 kg of seeds; the aqueous solution of boric acid in amount of 12÷20 g per 1 kg of seeds; the aqueous solution of ammonia molybdate in amount of 6÷8 g per 1 kg of seeds. The sowing rate is 25÷27 kg/ha. Vegetating plants are sprayed with the aqueous solution of boric acid in amount of 800÷1000 g per 1 ha of soil in the phase of 5÷7 leaves. In the beginning of growth and after the first hay crop, the plants are sprayed with liquid humic fertiliser from biohumus in amount of 0.10÷0.15 g per 1 ha of soil. At the 5th, 10th and 15th years of life the crops are treated with a disk harrow and are further sprayed with liquid humic fertiliser from biohumus in amount of 0.08÷0.10 g per 1 ha of soil. Green mass is cut in budding phase and is distributed into rolls by forage harvesters. Then the green mass is cured in rolls for 2÷3 days with drying to residual moisture of 60÷65%, the green mass is ground by forage harvesters until the fibre length makes 1÷3 cm. The ground green mass is dried in the drying drum at the temperature of 100÷110°C, granulated, granules are cured for 48÷54 hours until residual moisture makes 9÷12% and packed.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to produce ecologically clean biofuel.

4 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture and bioenergy to create annually renewable long emergencyplease herbaceous bioenergy source on the basis of Eastern Galega.

The technical result of the invention is to obtain sustainable biofuels with a calorific value of up to 19 MJ/kg of dry matter of biomass-based, annually renewable on perennial plantations herbaceous bioenergy source - Galega East with a neutral balance of carbon dioxide (combustion is allocated the same amount of carbon dioxide that was absorbed by the plants of Eastern Galega in the process of photosynthesis), while enrichment of the atmosphere with oxygen in the process of plant growth and development opportunities complexes, optionally including beekeeping, animal husbandry, enterprise, for the production of pharmaceutical, cosmetic products, herbal tea.

The technical result is achieved by first preparing the soil for growing Eastern Galega, special reagents are handled as soil, and seeds of plants, seeds can be sown at the rate of 25÷27 kg/ha green mass vynashivaetsya in the stage of budding, aged in rolls up to a residual moisture content of 60÷65%, is ground to a length of fiber 1÷3 cm, dried in sushilkumar at a temperature of 100÷110°C, granulated, granules vylivaetsya in the pellets within 48÷54 hours to achieve a residual moisture content of 9÷12% and packaged in bags made of Kraft paper.

The invention is explained in tabular and graphical materials.

Table 1. Some indicators of photosynthetic activity of Eastern Galega different years of life (2 cut).

Fund - photosynthetic potential

CPF - net photosynthesis productivity

The efficiency of the HEADLIGHTS is the percentage of solar energy

Table 2. Some indicators of photosynthetic activity of Eastern Galega depending on estimated doses of mineral fertilizers (average over 10 years).

Doses of fertilizers are designed to receive 50, 70 and 90 kg/ha of fodder units.

Table 3. The calorific value

Figure 1 - effect of vermicompost and compost on the yield of goat's Rue East 1st year of life (goat's Rue East, b - weeds).

Options experience: 1 - control (without fertilizers); 2 - vermicompost 2 t/ha; 3 - vermicompost 4 t/ha; 4 - vermicompost, 6 t/ha; 5 - compost 20 t/ha; 6 - compost 40 t/ha

Figure 2 - effect of vermicompost and compost on the number of plants in crops of Oriental goat's Rue (goat's Rue East, b - weeds).

Options experience: 1 - control (without fertilizers); 2 - vermicompost 2 t/ha; 3 - vermicompost 4 t/ha; 4 - vermicompost, 6 t/ha; 5 - compost 20 t/ha; 6 - compost - 40 t/ha

Figure 3 - effect of seed treatment with Gale and Eastern biologics germination and the number of nodules on the roots (a - the number of shoots, b is the number of nodules).

Options experience: 1 - control (without fertilizers); 2 - risotorphine, 3 - liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost (JSU); 4 - half-dose of restartin and burn.

Figure 4 - effect of seed treatment of Eastern Galega biological preparations on the number of nodules on the roots.

Options experience: 1 - control (without fertilizers); 2 - risotorphine, 3 - liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost (JSU); 4 - half-dose of restartin and burn.

The invention consists in the following.

Available reserves of natural energy sources such as oil and gas development which is economically advantageous in the long term, after a dozen years of operation, will be exhausted. Currently, worldwide there is a search for alternative energy sources. Bets on renewable energy sources. Booming bioenergy, which uses as the raw food: wheat, corn, rapeseed, sunflower. In the present method of obtaining sustainable biofuels as a renewable energy source alternative raw-food - used perennial high-protein grass - Galega orientalis Lam, renewable high-energy mass annually from 350 to 800 kg/ha for the first cut.

It is widely known that today the demand of bioenergy and the product is in power not provided all over the world. A key question is to what extent it is possible to produce bioenergy, without jeopardizing the food security of the population of the planet in General and Russia in particular.

Known methods of cultivation of Eastern Galega on the functioning of the arable land in crop rotation and the input fields on the arable suggest its use only green fodder and seeds, which determines the significant differences of the known technologies of pre-sowing seed treatment, sowing, fertilizer application from the relevant technologies of the proposed method.

At the present time due to economic reasons in Russia more than 15 million hectares of arable land out of crop rotation, abandoned and overgrown low-value wood and weeds.

The inventive method is aimed at the accumulation of solar energy in green mass of Eastern Galega growing twice already in the second year of plant life and three times - for the fifth year, as illustrated by table 1, the Ratio of the efficiency of the HEADLIGHTS (utilization of solar energy) plants of the sixth to sixteenth years of life close to 1.

Photosynthetic activity of Eastern Galega is optimal doses of mineral fertilizers (table 2).

Calorific value Galega orientalis Lam in the form of granules with a residual moisture content of 9-12% is approaching the pellets from wood the nail files, giving traditional fuels because of the relatively high content of ballast: nitrogen and a low ratio of carbon/hydrogen. But it is a real alternative to coal and natural gas. Unlike minerals biomass of Eastern Galega - annually renewable part of the biomass of the planet.

Cultivation technology of goat's Rue East on food and seeds using a presowing cultivation with simultaneous soil application of treflan and a member inoculation of goats with woad dyeing as cover crops (RU, patent 2017365, AV 79/02, 1994) helps to ensure a stable yields of Oriental goat's Rue and seed material, but not intended to increase the energy potential of the grass.

There is a method of simultaneous seeding of Oriental goat's Rue with white clover as a two-year cover crop (RU, patent 2055459, AV 79/00, 1996), which allows you to get a productive seeds guaranteed for subsequent crops and gives food, not enough biomass.

The most effective is the method according to patent No. 2248688 (EN, CL AV 79/02, 2003).

However, comparison of the properties of the combination of features of the known method and the inventive shows that

in the known method sowing of Eastern Galega conduct "before winter", with covering culture, and declare that in the spring and without sealing culture; due to seeding "before winter" there is damage to the spring shoots of goat's Rue frost, and their total loss;

in the known method preplant tillage includes cultivation with simultaneous soil application of organic fertilizers is not less than 30 t/ha and 0.45 number of estimated doses of mineral fertilizers; the introduction of herbicide roundup for 2÷3 weeks before fall plowing, which upsets the ecology of the agricultural landscape, especially in environmentally sensitive areas; and to declare mandatory pre-liming acid soils dolomite flour until a pH of 5.8÷6,0, as well as the land application of organic fertilizers in the form of vermicompost at a dose of 3÷5 t/ha; or processed liquid humic fertilizer, manure fertilizer in the amount of 20÷30 t/ha and the total mineral fertilizer in accordance with the original soil fertility. Also no herbicides are used as green manure culture due to the large area of leaves 60-80% inhibits the growth and development of weeds and the vermicompost and the preparation of it initially does not contain weed seeds, unlike tortonese compost;

in contrast to the known, in the present method presowing treatment of seeds is carried out by rizotorfina in complex with trace elements such as boric acid and of ammonium molybdate; in addition, in the present method the wire is raised annual foliar feeding with a solution of boric acid and liquid humic fertilizer, obtained from vermicompost, with the aim of increasing emergencyplease potential herbage;

in contrast to the known, in the present method for the use of perennial plantations, grass three times "rejuvenate" disc harrow with the obligatory subsequent spraying of liquid humic fertilizer derived from vermicompost;

in contrast to the known, in the present method the application of vermicompost and liquid humic fertilizer out of it with a pre-sowing treatment of seeds, soil, tortonese compost and green manure, as well as vegetative plants increases their potential, gives a powerful grass resistant to stressful situations (drought, excess moisture, frost and the like), increases the yield by 25÷30%;

- known method devoid of optimization, and the inventive method notes oscillation doses of drugs used in a narrow concentration range.

The proposed method allows you to create powerful landfill, biomass which can be used:

mainly, after appropriate processing, annually renewable bioenergy: the use of granules of Eastern Galega with calorific value of 18.9 MJ/kg ash content of 3.5% as fuel and the production of biogas by fermentation or liquid fuel by pyrolysis; Galega is a CO2-neutral fuel (select the with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during combustion does not exceed its consumption from the atmosphere during photosynthesis;

- in fodder production: obtaining low-cost high-protein (the major cost in the first year of life, then costs go on feeding grass and harvesting) and cheap feed: hay, haylage, green mass, grass meal for animal feed;

in agrolandscape agriculture: the formation of an abandoned arable land, combating soil erosion, conservation and improvement of soil fertility;

as a source of oxygen O2in the atmosphere, surpassing in extent allocation last several times of 1 hectare of Mature forest, which is one of the ways to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (according to the decisions of the Kyoto Protocol).

Get the herbage is powerful in its development, mainly due to the influence of the used vermicompost and liquid humic fertilizers derived from vermicompost. These fertilizers enriched with a unique community of microorganisms that create soil fertility, contain humic substances, valuable complex of nutrients and trace elements in a balanced combination, enzymes, vitamins, hormones, growth and development of plants, as well as other biologically active substances produced by the community of earthworms and microorganisms in the process of vermicomposting. These advantages of liquid humic fertilizer obtained from the "live" vermicompost (Mick is Biologicheskie and biochemically active) before humates from inert peat and brown coal provide the increased energy potential of the crops of Eastern Galega.

Vermicompost and liquid humic fertilizer from him a stimulating effect on the seeds of Eastern Galega, reduce the phenomenon of verdoemenis and simultaneously increase the energy of germination and field germination. They contribute to the development of a strong root system with actively flowing nitrogen fixation in the roots due to the rapid development of nodule bacteria on the roots of Eastern Galega, stimulates the respiration of plants and their photosynthetic activity, extend the period of photosynthetic activity sheet preparation. As a result of this increases the size of the leaf blades, increase the number of leaves on the stem, there is the emergence of a large number of additional stems from kidney regeneration, plants become higher and more powerful. In the harvest increases the content of dry matter and protein, which ultimately leads to increased energy potential of the plant Galega.

Before sowing the seeds of Eastern Galega treated with rizotorfina (1 kg per hectare seed rate) and trace elements (boric acid: 300÷500 grams and ammonium molybdate: 150÷200 grams per hectare seed rate), applied to the soil of organic fertilizer in the form of vermicompost at a dose of 3÷5 t/ha, Lee is about tortonese compost, processed liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost, from its incorporation under autumn ploughing at a dose of 50÷60 t/ha green manure or green manure in the amount of 20÷30 t/ha with the incorporation into the soil in late August-September plow or disk harrow and simultaneous spraying of liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost (for activation and optimization of biochemical and microbiological processes of decomposition of green manure and compost). In this case, the seeding Galega is made for the next year early spring and as a green manure crops are using the clover white (with a seeding rate of 20÷25 kg/ha) or annual lupine (90÷110 kg/ha) and mineral fertilizer in accordance with the original soil fertility. On acid soils make liming dolomite flour to bring the acidity up to pH: 5,8÷6,0. In addition, each year living plant Galega in phase 5÷7 sheet sprayed with a solution of boric acid at a dose of 800÷1000 g/ha, twice in the season (early regrowth and after the first cut) liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost at a dose of 10÷15 l/ha at a concentration of working solution of 0.005÷0.01%, and on the fifth, tenth, fifteenth years of life Galega crops "rejuvenate" disc harrow with a small angle of attack, with the obligatory subsequent spraying of liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost at a dose of 8÷10 l/ha when the concentration of the purpose of 0.005÷0,01%. The seeds of Eastern Galega sown in the amount of 25÷27 kg/ha, o culture is missing.

Seed treatment with boric acid and of ammonium molybdate and spraying of vegetating plants with a solution of boric acid at a dose of 800÷1000 g/ha, provided you make dolomite powder containing magnesium 30÷35% increase in the number of nodules on the roots, stimulates the activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in nodules and increase the total number of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, increase photosynthetic capacity, extend the period of photosynthetic activity of a leaf and increase productivity. Creation of favorable agricultural conditions by introducing organo-mineral complex fertilizers and spraying of vegetating plants salts of humic acids will contribute to the accumulation of solar energy into dry matter to 18.9 MJ/kg and increase the yield of green mass. This allows to obtain annually 5÷14 t/ha of dry matter Galega, which is equivalent to obtaining 4,5÷13 t/ha conventional fuel within 15÷20 years in strict compliance with technological requirements (industrial crops 27 years of life with a yield up to 800 kg/ha of green mass for 1st cut).

Known methods do not contain a comprehensive approach to the growing Eastern Galega given its emergencyplease on the potential.

A study of the level of technology found that how to create a renewable source of bioenergy with the help of Eastern Galega containing the transferred set of activities is not detected.

The method is as follows.

First is the preparation of the soil: acidic soil pre investmet using dolomite flour, to a pH of 5.8÷6,0. Fall under under-winter plowing make vermicompost in the dose of 3÷5 t/ha or erroneosly compost, processed liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost at a dose of 50÷60 t/ha In the absence of vermicompost and compost use green manure fertilizer: for the year before sowing of Eastern Galega in the spring in well-cut soil sow white clover at a dose of 20÷25 kg/ha or Lupin annual dose of 90÷110 kg/ha of green Manure fertilizer plowed into the soil in September during autumn plowing with simultaneous spraying of liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost (for activation and optimization of biochemical and microbiological processes of decomposition of green manure).

In the spring under cultivation contribute complex mineral fertilizer according to the soil fertility of the work area.

Before sowing the seeds of Eastern Galega treated with rizotorfina (800÷1000 g per hectare seed rate; 40÷45 g per 1 kg of seeds in terms of dry substance) and trace elements (boron is Aya acid: 300÷500 g ammonium molybdate: 150÷200 g per hectare seed rate; boric acid: 12÷20 g ammonium molybdate: 6÷8 g per 1 kg of seeds in terms of dry substance).

The rate of seeding of Eastern Galega - 25÷27 kg/ha sowing Time: no later than 15÷20 June in the Central zone of the Russian Federation.

Living plant Galega annually sprayed in phase 5÷7 sheet with a solution of boric acid at a dose of 800÷1000 g/ha, twice in the season (early regrowth and after the first cut) sprayed liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost at a dose of 10÷15 l/ha at a concentration of salts humates 0,005÷0,01%.

On the fifth, tenth and fifteenth years of life Galega crops "rejuvenate" disc harrow with a small angle of attack with the obligatory subsequent spraying of liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost at a dose of 8÷10 l/ha at a concentration of 0.005÷0,01%.

In the phase of budding green mass mow forage harvesters in rolls. Within 2÷3 days green mass is maintained in rolls with sun-up to a residual moisture content of 60÷65%. Then the green mass is crushed forage harvesters to the length of the fiber 1÷3 cm Length of the fiber is determined by the need to prevent winding of green mass on the shaft. The crushed mass is dried in a tumble dryer at a temperature of 100÷110°C and granulated in a granulator. The green mass transportation to the bunker of the drying drum and from the pellet mill to the warehouse is the tape t is cherami. In stock granules stored in cones with a height of 2÷3 m, in which they are incubated for 48÷54 hours to achieve a residual moisture content of 9÷12%. Then the granules are Packed in bags made of Kraft paper.

An example implementation of the method

Initially acidic soil investmet dolomite flour until a pH of 5.9. Under autumn plowing contribute 4 t/ha of vermicompost.

In spring in the period up to June 15, hold the seeds of Galega in properly prepared soil.

Before sowing the seeds Galega treated with rizotorfina (1 kg per hectare norm), boric acid (400 g per hectare norm) and of ammonium molybdate (200 g per hectare norm).

Immediately after treatment the seeds of Eastern Galega sown in fertile soil.

Every year on vegetative plants spend foliar feeding: in phase 5 of the sheet with a solution of boric acid (800 g/ha) and twice during the growing season (early regrowth and after the first cut) liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost with a salt concentration of humates of 0.005% at a dose of 10 l/ha

On the fifth, tenth and fifteenth years of life Galega crops "rejuvenate" disc harrow with a small angle of attack with the obligatory subsequent spraying of liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost at a dose of 10 l/ha at a concentration of salts of humates in the working solution of 0.005%.

In the phase of budding green mass mow forage harvesters,such as "don-68", in rolls, can withstand a lot of green in rolls for 2÷3 days with the sun to a residual moisture content of 60÷65% and grind it combines to the length of the fiber 1÷3 Then see a lot of green belt conveyor is transported to the receiving bin of the drying drum, for example mobile setup Pellet-500", dried at a temperature of 100÷110°C, granularit in the granulator the same setup and the conveyor belt is transported to the warehouse, where the granules are cool and kept for 48÷54 hours to achieve a residual moisture content of 9÷12%. The finished biofuel is packaged in a four -, five-layer bags from Kraft paper.

The production capacity of the plant to the finished product - 1 t/h; in terms of incoming raw materials - 6÷7 t/h.

With an area of 100 hectares receive 25÷30 tons of green mass per cut, which is 5÷6 tonnes of finished pellets. The number of harvests during the summer 2÷3.

Table 1
YearsPlant height, cmThe area of leaves, thousand m2/haThe Fund, million m2/haCPF, g m2/dBiological yield, t/ha
wet weightdry weight
1st71.521.41.171.7220.12.70.96
2nd123.939.92.133.8080.911.32.18
3rd137.851.92.244.51101.011.92.33
4th144.168.42.294.50103.111.82.57
5th157.676.42.814.60129.312.12.79
6th140.165.32.234.0089.29.81.60
7th140.963.42.534.07102.910.92.05
8th158.475.62.314.41101.910.12.15
9th161.279.92.374.34102.910.12.19
10th134.150.92.202.7360.17.91.51
11th127.651.92.23 2.7160.47.91.54
12th134.755.62.252.7561.97.91.56
13th144.163.42.473.5689.99.11.64
14th140.963.92.453.5887.79.21.62
15th120.653.72.303.4479.18.61.54
16th136.755.12.333.4480.28.91.55
Table 2
Options experienceThe area of leaves, thousand m2/haFund m2/haCPF g m2/dBiological yield, t/ha
wet weightdry weight
1. Control (without fertilizers)76.22.983.6355.710.72
2. P81K14082.93.293.4657.711.22
3. P126To17183.63.313.5163.311.54
4. P162K22490.63.363.4969.411.69
5. N30P81K14095.93.583.2571.911.59
6. N60P126K17194.63.473.2167.711.02
7. N90P162K22495.23.532.9564.110.20

Table 3
№ p/pFuel typeHeat of combustion, MJ/kg
1Diesel fuel42,7
2Oil41,1
3Natural gas34,8
4Coal woodof 31.4
5Coal 31,0
6Pellets from sawdust18,9
7Pellets from Eastern Galega15,0
8Wood10,5

The method of producing biofuel from Eastern Galega, which
in preparing the soil for growing Eastern Galega, including
liming acid soils;
making tortonese compost;
plowing;
in the treatment of seeds before sowing
aqueous solution of isotropin 40÷45 g (in terms of dry substance) per 1 kg of seeds;
aqueous solution of boric acid in the amount of 12÷20 g (in terms of dry substance) per 1 kg of seeds;
aqueous solution of ammonium molybdate in the amount of 6÷8 g (in terms of dry substance) per 1 kg of seeds;
in sowing seeds with a seeding rate of 25÷27 kg/ha;
in the feeding of growing plants in phase 5÷7 sheets by spraying an aqueous solution of boric acid in the amount of 800÷1000 g (in terms of dry substance) per 1 ha of soil;
in the feeding of plants in the early regrowth and after the first mowing spraying liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost in the amount of 0.10÷0.15 g (in terms of dry substances is) on 1 ha of soil;
in the treatment of crops with a disc harrow on the fifth, tenth and fifteenth years of life, followed by spraying liquid humic fertilizer from vermicompost in the amount of 0.08÷0.10 g (in terms of dry substance) per 1 ha of soil;
in the mowing of green mass in the phase of budding and distribution of it in rolls forage harvesters;
in the extract of green mass in rolls for 2÷3 days with the sun to a residual moisture content of 60÷65%;
in the grinding of green mass of forage harvesters to the length of the fiber 1÷3 cm;
in the drying of chopped green mass in the drying drum at a temperature of 100÷110°C;
in the granulating the dried green mass;
in the extract granules within 48÷54 h to achieve a residual moisture content of 9÷12%;
in the packaging of granules.



 

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3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns solidified biomass applied as fuel alternative to coal coke and as material for various purposes, and methods of biomass obtainment. Solidified biomass applicable as fuel alternative to coal coke and as carbon material for various purposes includes semicarbonised solid substance or pre-semicarbonised sulid substance with apparent density of 1.2-1.38, obtained by processing involving heated compression of biomass obtained by photosynthesis, in almost completely sealed space, resulting in thermal decomposition of hemicellulose comprising one of the main source biomass components, that is lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, and low-temperature reaction of cellulose and lignin with preservation of their frames, and obtainment of indicated pre-semicarbonised solid substance or semicarbonised solid substance with maximum compression strength of 60-200 MPa and calorific power of 18-23 MJ/kg. Carbonised solidified biomass is obtained by heating of indicated solidified biomass in open air. Solidified biomass can also be obtained out of mix of source biomass obtained by photosynthesis, and metal particles or carbonised solid substance including biomass as main component, or cinders of material including biomass regenerated to cinders as main material. Method of solidified biomass obtainment involves: reduction of source biomass obtained by photosynthesis; loading reduced source biomass into chamber; insertion of mobile pressure-generating device into empty part of chamber loaded with reduced source biomass, so that a pressure could be applied to the source biomass by the pressure-generating device; compression of reduced source biomass by application of 8-25 MPa pressure to material by mobile pressure-generating device positioned in the chamber, with material heating to 115-230°C, so that vapour and evaporated components obtained from source biomass by heating and pressing are collected inside the chamber by the pressure-generating device positioned in the chamber; thermal decomposition of hemicellulose comprising one of main source biomass components, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, and low temperature reaction between cellulose and lignin with preservation of their frames and obtainment of semicarbonised solid substance or pre-semisubstance solid substance; cooling of the semicarbonised solid substance or pre-semisubstance solid substance by maintaining pressure of compression process to obtain cooled solid substance; discharge and drying of the cooled solid substance. Method of obtaining carbonised solidified biomass out of indicated solidified biomass involves: heating of indicated solidified biomass in open air; carbonisation of the solidified biomass by heating temperature and air pressure maintenance for definite time period to obtain carbonised solidified biomass; cooling of the carbonised solidified biomass by definite pressure maintenance to obtain cooled carbonised solidified biomass; discharge and drying of the cooled carbonised solidified biomass.

EFFECT: obtaining fuel applicable as alternative to coal coke out of biomass, with high durability and calorific power.

14 cl, 10 ex, 5 dwg

FIELD: wood industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for production of fuel elements from composite based production waste. A required angle α between posts 3 and 4, and cycles 1 and 2 is set by moving a carriage against guides 26 of frame 18. Drive units 5 and 6, loading device 14 for sawdust 16 supply and liquid binder feeding device 17 are activated. Sawdust 16 are mixed with the liquid binder in intercycle space and the mixture thus obtained is packed by means of downward movement of the adjacent sides of cycles 1 and 2. When the device is running, pressure of the mixture being compressed is taken up by convergent belt sides of both cycles 1 and 2 and by flat friction bearings 9 10 and 1 fixed to posts 3 and 4. Simultaneously with the downward movement of the mixture, the mixture is cut by sharp edges of transverse walls 13 while cycle side 2 is gradually approaching walls 13 of cycle 1.

EFFECT: invention allows to simplify the equipment being used and to make it cheaper, to increase performance reliability and quality of the fuel cells being formed.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. Method includes pre-planting treatment of potato tubers by source of oxygen, represented by air. Treatment is carried out by bubbling method for 1-2 days.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase potato productivity under conditions of short vegetation period in piedmont conditions of Predbaikalie.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the sphere of agriculture. The composition to increase index of plant crop capacity contains glutathione, in particular, oxidised glutathione. The composition is designed to increase number of seeds and/or flowers of a plant, to increase number of side sprouts and/or shoots from a plant root. Method includes treatment of the plant with the composition.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase percentage ratio of crop weight to total mass of plant and provides for methodology to determine a control factor for a plant, which makes it possible to efficiently control germination, growth, blossoming.

15 cl, 47 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, namely, to wine-growing. Method includes preparation of soil for planting of hefts, making hefts out of ripened vine, laying hefts for long-term storage, planting of hefts, vegetation watering, additional fertilizing with macro- and microelements and protection of stock from agricultural pests and diseases. After removal of forecrops, stubble is peeled, annual and perennial weeds are suppressed, strips are tilled with pitch of 1.5 m at the depth of 0.25-0.35 m, wide comb is formed with height of 0.20…0.25 m above field surface level and width of 0.60-0.75 m. Flexible watering pipeline is laid along comb with droppers. Comb with flexible watering pipeline is covered with transparent film. In spring as the comb warms up for depth of 0.10 - 0.12 m to the temperature of +12 - +15°C, shortened hefts are planted with three buds with a pitch of 0.12 - 0.15 m in two rows with space between rows of 0.30 - 0.35 m. In summer as soil temperature is over 35°C, the firm is removed. Machine to form combs comprises frame, brackets and fingers for suspension at traction rods of tractor. Machine is equipped with the following components serially installed on frame with the possibility of dismantling - tiller, spherical disk working elements installed oppositely on stands and shaper of wide comb of trapezoidal shape.

EFFECT: group of inventions makes it possible to increase yield of standard hefts with limited quantity of hefts from promising varieties of grape and to reduce manual labour costs.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, namely, to wine-growing. Method includes preparation of soil for planting of hefts, making hefts out of ripened vine, laying hefts for long-term storage, planting of hefts, vegetation watering, additional fertilizing with macro- and microelements and protection of stock from agricultural pests and diseases. After removal of forecrops, stubble is peeled, annual and perennial weeds are suppressed, strips are tilled with pitch of 1.5 m at the depth of 0.25-0.35 m, wide comb is formed with height of 0.20…0.25 m above field surface level and width of 0.60-0.75 m. Flexible watering pipeline is laid along comb with droppers. Comb with flexible watering pipeline is covered with transparent film. In spring as the comb warms up for depth of 0.10 - 0.12 m to the temperature of +12 - +15°C, shortened hefts are planted with three buds with a pitch of 0.12 - 0.15 m in two rows with space between rows of 0.30 - 0.35 m. In summer as soil temperature is over 35°C, the firm is removed. Machine to form combs comprises frame, brackets and fingers for suspension at traction rods of tractor. Machine is equipped with the following components serially installed on frame with the possibility of dismantling - tiller, spherical disk working elements installed oppositely on stands and shaper of wide comb of trapezoidal shape.

EFFECT: group of inventions makes it possible to increase yield of standard hefts with limited quantity of hefts from promising varieties of grape and to reduce manual labour costs.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, namely to vine growing. Method includes preparation of soil for planting of hefts, making hefts out of ripened vine, laying hefts for long-term storage, planting of hefts, vegetation watering, additional fertilising with macro- and microelements and protection of stock from agricultural pests and diseases. Besides, in the last decade of August - the first decade of September chisel tillage is carried out for depth of 0.5 - 0.6 m without mixing of genetic horizons. In the last decade of October - the first decade of November trenches are arranged with a pitch of 3 m and triangular profile, of "semi-groove - semi-fill" type, for 2/3 of depth together with treatment during chisel tillage in "north-south" direction. In early spring the trenches are straightened and covered with light-permeable film, hefts with length of 0.2 - 0.3 m with 2 - 3 eyes are implanted. As the soil temperature is stable in the bottom part of the trench, hefts are planted to the trench bottom. A flexible watering pipeline is laid with droppers of trickle irrigation system in the bottom part of trench along planted hefts. The trench is covered with light-permeable film, and the first watering is carried out as 300-400 m3/ha. At the temperature of air above +25°C the film is removed, one hose is formed. In autumn the ripened vine is filled up with soil from the semi-fill, leaving one bud of vine above the day surface. In the spring of the second year, a flexible watering pipeline is laid along the vine, one hose is formed, in autumn the vine is cut, and seedlings are dug out with a machine for planting in a plantation.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase yield of standard hefts with limited quantity of hefts from promising brands and brand samples of grape.

7 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, namely to vine growing. Method includes preparation of soil for planting of hefts, making hefts out of ripened vine, laying hefts for long-term storage, planting of hefts, vegetation watering, additional fertilising with macro- and microelements and protection of stock from agricultural pests and diseases. Besides, in the last decade of August - the first decade of September chisel tillage is carried out for depth of 0.5 - 0.6 m without mixing of genetic horizons. In the last decade of October - the first decade of November trenches are arranged with a pitch of 3 m and triangular profile, of "semi-groove - semi-fill" type, for 2/3 of depth together with treatment during chisel tillage in "north-south" direction. In early spring the trenches are straightened and covered with light-permeable film, hefts with length of 0.2 - 0.3 m with 2 - 3 eyes are implanted. As the soil temperature is stable in the bottom part of the trench, hefts are planted to the trench bottom. A flexible watering pipeline is laid with droppers of trickle irrigation system in the bottom part of trench along planted hefts. The trench is covered with light-permeable film, and the first watering is carried out as 300-400 m3/ha. At the temperature of air above +25°C the film is removed, one hose is formed. In autumn the ripened vine is filled up with soil from the semi-fill, leaving one bud of vine above the day surface. In the spring of the second year, a flexible watering pipeline is laid along the vine, one hose is formed, in autumn the vine is cut, and seedlings are dug out with a machine for planting in a plantation.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase yield of standard hefts with limited quantity of hefts from promising brands and brand samples of grape.

7 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, namely to vine growing. Method includes preparation of soil for planting of hefts, making hefts out of ripened vine, laying hefts for long-term storage, planting of hefts, vegetation watering, additional fertilising with macro- and microelements and protection of stock from agricultural pests and diseases. Besides, in the last decade of August - in the first decade of September, upper layer is tilled for depth of 0.25 - 0.27 m. In autumn trenches of triangular profile are cut, of "semi-groove - semi-fill" type, along tillage zones. In autumn the trench is covered with light permeable film. In prevernal period the soil from trench berms is displaced to its bottom, and a bed is formed above the trench of trapezoid section. A flexible watering pipeline is laid onto the bed with droppers of trickle irrigation system. The bed with flexible watering pipeline is covered either with light permeable film or with black film. As soil temperature reaches +15…+18°C, shortened hefts with 2-3 buds are planted in the layer of 0.15 - 0.20 m with pitch of 0.12 - 0.15 m in two rows with space between rows of 0.30 - 0.35 m.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase yield of standard hefts with limited quantity of hefts from promising brands and brand samples of grape.

5 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, namely to vine growing. Method includes preparation of soil for planting of hefts, making hefts out of ripened vine, laying hefts for long-term storage, planting of hefts, vegetation watering, additional fertilising with macro- and microelements and protection of stock from agricultural pests and diseases. Besides, in the last decade of August - in the first decade of September, upper layer is tilled for depth of 0.25 - 0.27 m. In autumn trenches of triangular profile are cut, of "semi-groove - semi-fill" type, along tillage zones. In autumn the trench is covered with light permeable film. In prevernal period the soil from trench berms is displaced to its bottom, and a bed is formed above the trench of trapezoid section. A flexible watering pipeline is laid onto the bed with droppers of trickle irrigation system. The bed with flexible watering pipeline is covered either with light permeable film or with black film. As soil temperature reaches +15…+18°C, shortened hefts with 2-3 buds are planted in the layer of 0.15 - 0.20 m with pitch of 0.12 - 0.15 m in two rows with space between rows of 0.30 - 0.35 m.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase yield of standard hefts with limited quantity of hefts from promising brands and brand samples of grape.

5 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, namely to vine growing. Method includes hybridisation, treatment of plants with oxalic acid, coverage with polyethylene film, growing of seedlings. Besides, on bushes with a monoclinous flower or a flower of female type, grafting is carried out by copulation with sprouts from plants with functionally male type of flower. Week before blossoming grape bushes are treated with oxalic acid. Then bushes are covered with polyethylene film, such as light-reflecting duplicated foamed film with light permeability at the level of 30%. At the same time plants are exposed to chemical and thermal therapy during the whole period of vegetation.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase production and quality of hybrid seeds with specified properties, free of bacterial and virus diseases, to reduce time of variety breeding.

2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of selection and primary seed growing, in particular, to methods of planting stock reproduction. Reproduction factor of potato tubers is increased by stimulation of growth of blanched sprouts by cutting apical part and treatment with a solution of thiourea and sprouting of tubers in the darkness at the relative air humidity of 90-95%. Tubers are sprouted at the temperature of 14-16°C. At the moment of formation of 3-4 nodes at basic blanched sprouts of the primary order the apexes are alienated. As 3-5 side blanched sprouts of the secondary order and sprouts of callus origin form on basic blanched sprouts of the primary order, tubers are planted in soil.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to simplify technologies, to increase rootage, to reduce labour intensiveness with increasing coefficient of potato establishment.

1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. Method includes one-year soil preparation and sowing. In the first decade of May, hefts of licorice rhizomes are simultaneously linearly planted into prepared soil in a wide-row manner into harrows for depth of 0.12-0.16 m with a norm of 4-5 pcs per running metre, and girasol tubers with diametre of 2.5-6.5 cm are planted in amount of 6-8 pcs per running metre. Post-planting rolling is carried out. Perpendicularly to direction of hefts and tubers planting, dog-grass seeds are sown in a narrow-row manner with width of spaces between rows making 0.075-0.30 m for depth of 6-8 cm with norm of sowing equal to 16-22 kg of germinating seeds per ha, and soil is rolled with star-wheeled rollers. At the same time width of spaces between rows in plantations of licorice hefts and girasol tubers relates to width of spaces between rows in plantations of dog-grass as (37-18): 1.

EFFECT: method provides for faster introduction of secondary saline lands in rice bays in crop rotation at 5th or 6th year of mesohalophyte plants growth.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

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