Method of generating gas for blowing aircraft surfaces, and steam generator
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to aircraft engineering. Steam generator comprises water tank 5, electrically-driven valves 4, 10, check valves 3, throttle 9, jacket 6, tank 2 and safety valve 1. Water flows from tank 5 via opened electrically-driven valve 4, check valve 3 and throttle 9 into jacket 6 to convert into steam. The latter flows via check valve 3 to tank 2 and, via safety valve 1, to jets on aircraft wing 7. Method of generating steam for blowing aircraft wing surface consists in using steam generator.
EFFECT: increased lifting capacity of aircraft.
2 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to aircraft and allows to increase the lifting force of the bearing surfaces of aircraft.
There is a method of increasing the lift coefficient Cyand through him, and the lifting power of Y, which consists in blowing boundary layer . When the blowing gas, such as flaps, the deflection angle of the latter is increased (as compared with the deflection angle without blowing boundary layer), and Cyincreases in 1,5-2 times. From this it follows that, other things being equal parameters, by increasing Cyyou can zoom in as many times the payload capacity of the aircraft. Gas for blowing boundary layer comes from an auxiliary source, in particular from the compressor of the engine, which reduces the traction motor or auxiliary turbojet engine (turbojet), when increasing the mass of the structure and increases the fuel consumption for the flight of aircraft (LA). Therefore, the above methods of obtaining gas for cooling the surfaces LA are their disadvantages.
It is known that at large angles of deflection of the flap on its upper surface begins to stall the flow, and the increase in lift coefficient Cyslows down. An effective way of dealing with the disruption of the flow on the flap is a control boundary layer (oops), which consists in prinuditelno.obychnaya speed of the air particles in the boundary layer by blowing, when a jet of gas tapped from the engine, through a narrow slit is blown onto the upper surface of the flap. Thus the factor Cyincreases due to the increase of the deflection angle of the flap, and disruption of the flow is delayed at large angles of deflection of the flap. But again the disadvantage here is the selection of the gas from the engine (air intake nozzle and the like), which reduces traction engine.
Closest to the proposed method of obtaining gas for cooling the surfaces LA is a combination of several methods, namely : fence gas from the combustion chamber of the engine; the production of gas additional gas generator; the intake of gas from the jet nozzle. The disadvantage of these methods is the reduction of engine thrust and increasing the mass of the aircraft structure. It is known that the engine thrust P is determined by the formula:
wheresecond, the mass of air entering the engine;
Gin- air mass;
g - free fall acceleration;
ρ4, ρnis the gas pressure, respectively, in the nozzle of the engine and the atmospheric pressure around LA;
C4- speed gas flow in the nozzle of the engine;
V - speed (flight) LA;
F4- the cross-sectional area of the engine nozzle;
second, the weight g is for, coming out of the engine;
G - the weight of the resulting gases.
The formula shows that if gets gas from the intake and decreases GBif the gas is drawn from the combustion chamber or nozzle and decreases. And in all cases the engine thrust P will decrease. And the reduction of engine thrust increases the length of the run is and runway (runway) is not enough]. The length of the runway, LRBis determined by the formula :
where G is the gravity of the airplane;
ρ - air density;
Cwater.the lift coefficient at take off from the runway;
S is the wing area;
X - force drag LA;
f is the average acceleration during the motion of the aircraft from the runway.
The symbol "cf" means the average value.
From this formula it is seen that the smaller the value of engine thrust P, the greater the length of the run.
On the other hand, at the time of separation of the aircraft from the runway (or ground) lift force Y must be equal to the force of gravity of the airplane G. gravity of the aircraft is determined by the gravity of its construction, fuel and cargo. The force of gravity design and fuel at full load cannot be changed. But the value of the cargo (payload) will depend on the magnitude of the lifting force Y: the more lifting power when off, the bigger the load the load of the aircraft. The most difficult moment for the aircraft, determining its capacity, is the moment of separation of the plane when the lift force must balance the whole gravity of the aircraft. In the following moments of the flight after take off, the lifting force may be less than in isolation, as produced fuel and gravity of the aircraft is reduced.
Hence it follows that the maximum capacity of the aircraft is determined by the maximum possible lifting force YRefat the time of separation of the plane, which is determined by the formula :
Here GRef.the force of gravity of the aircraft at the time of separation;
Cy Ref. the lift coefficient at the time of separation;
ρ is the density of the surrounding air;
VRef.- the speed of the aircraft at the time of separation;
S is the wing area.
From the formula (3) shows that more than Cy Ref.the higher the magnitude of the lifting force, the higher the carrying capacity of the aircraft. Therefore, to increase Cthe OTPuse a variety of ways, in particular flaps, say no to the maximum angle at which the lift coefficient becomes equal to the maximum value of Cy maxIf further increase the deflection angle of the flap, there will be a disruption of the flow, and increase Cy(more Cy max) will not. However, as mentioned you the e, if you blow on the upper surface of the flap from the additional gas source (to make sduw boundary layer), the disruption of the air flow is delayed at large angles of deflection of the flap, and, consequently, increases the lift coefficient Cyto values greater than Cy max(Cy Ref.get more Cy max). In the formula (3) on the magnitude of the lifting force is affected by the speed of the aircraft at the time of separation VRef.: the larger it is, the more YRef.. In turn, from mechanics we know that
where V0- the initial speed of the aircraft (it is zero);
jcf.- the average acceleration of movement of the aircraft during the takeoff;
tthe Republic of Belarus.the time of the run.
It turns out that VRef.=jcf.·tthe Republic of Belarus.
Here X - force drag;
F - friction force of the landing gear on the runway;
m is the mass of the aircraft.
From the formula (5) shows that the smaller the engine thrust P of the plane, the less the average acceleration of jcf.the takeoff. Consequently, for the same time of start of tthe Republic of Belarus.take-off speed VRef.will be less than when the engine thrust is not reduced due to gas extraction from him on air cooling surfaces of the wing, which reduces the lifting force through BP is me t the Republic of Belarus., i.e. to provide a lifting force from the gas engine airflow equal to the lifting force of the gas, you want to increase the time of start of tthe Republic of Belarus.to achieve a velocity VRef.And this is possible by increasing the length of the run (increasing the length of the runway)that affects the takeoff and landing characteristics of the aircraft. Therefore, it is desirable not to reduce the traction engine aircraft sampling gas from him, but at the same time to provide a rinsing surfaces of the wing gas for increasing the ratio of Cyand through it - the lifting force of the plane.
An object of the invention is to develop a method of obtaining gas for cooling the surfaces of the aircraft to increase its lifting force on the rise, and thereby increase the carrying capacity.
The technical result of the invention is achieved in that in the method of obtaining gas for cooling the surfaces of the aircraft used thermal energy propulsion, ensuring the transformation of water into steam, which blows required surface plane. Some of the exterior surface of aircraft engines (LA) are heated to several hundred degrees Celsius, and the heat energy from them is entrained by the air flow in the space, i.e. is not used. In the this energy, the authors propose to use for the formation of water vapor.
On the external surface of engine LA, where the highest temperature water, which is in contact with the surface turns into steam, and piping the steam is delivered to the desired surface LA and blown on it, for example on the upper surface of the flaps.
The inventive method is implemented in the steam generator, which contains a water tank (tank filled before each flight) and a shirt on the engine. Tank piping associated with shirts, and shirt - surface blowout. Water from the tank enters the shirt, where, falling on the surface with a high temperature, evaporated, and the resulting steam is supplied to the surfaces of the blower, widowati at them through the crack.
New features with significant differences according to the method are:
1. The use of thermal energy of the propulsion system for the gas.
2. Using water for gas.
3. The use of steam as a gas for cooling the surfaces of the aircraft. The essential distinguishing characteristics of the device are:
- the presence of a water tank;
- the presence of shirts on the outer surface of the engines of the aircraft.
Using new features in conjunction with the known, and new connections between them to ensure the achievement of the technical result of the invention, namely an increased capacity in LA without the modify its landing characteristics.
The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows the diagram of the proposed method of obtaining gas for cooling the surfaces LA and block diagram of the steam generator.
In the proposed method uses a thermal energy source, in particular the LA engine, which in the area of combustion chambers obligada jacket 6 from the outside. In shirt receives water from the tank 5. In the jacket water, in contact with the outer surface of the engine, turns into steam and pipeline comes to blowing surfaces LA, for example a sock and a flap of the wing 7.
The steam generator includes a water tank 5, the solenoid 4, the switch B, the check valves 3, shirt 6 on the outer side of the engine in the area of combustion chambers (the most heated surface of the cylinder, the tank 2, the valve 1, wing 7, the inductor 9, the valve 10 with its non-return valve.
The steam generator operates as follows. Water in adequate quantities is poured into the tank 5. This is done before each departure AIRCRAFT. Water is cheap and abundant on Earth substance. From the tank 5 through the pipeline water comes to the solenoid 4, which, when the switch B is closed When the pilot switch "B" closes the electrical circuit of the solenoid 4, the latter opens and the water through the reverse clap the n-3 and the throttle 9 is fed into the jacket 6, form-fitting case of combustion chambers of the engine LA (and elsewhere in the engine, where the high surface temperature). Since the surface of the engine block under the jacket 6 has a high temperature (several hundred degrees), the water evaporates quickly and with the pipe, through the second check valve 3 is supplied to the tank 2 small containers and then flows to the safety valve 1, which opens when a certain pressure pCL. Until the vapor pressure in the tank 2 is below this pressure, the valve is closed. A certain level of pressure ρCLnecessary to accumulate sufficient energy to the volume of vapor in the tank 2 for the acceleration of the boundary layer in the place of blowing steam. As soon as the steam pressure will be greater than ρCLpressure relief valve opens and steam through a pipeline that goes to the planes of the wing 7 and is blown through cracks in the appropriate places, for example in the area of the toe of the wing and on the upper surface of the flap (as shown in the drawing).
In the formation of steam in the jacket 6 creates pressure injection of water. So that water is constantly acted in a shirt with an open valve 4, is created podavlivaya tank 5 water pressure ρbfor example from a compressor (as shown in the drawing). As the tank 5 is closed tightly, then RA is progress podavlyayushego air will not consequently, the thrust of the engine due to air sampling will not decrease.
Pressure ρbthere should be more pressure ρCLas for back pressure steam check valve 3, standing in the line after the valve 4 will not open and will not pass through water. Choke 9 provides a flow of the desired amount of water through a pipeline from the tank 5 to the jacket 6 to prevent excessive formation of steam. To enable the steam generator is in operation, it is expedient, according to the authors, at the end of the first stage of the run, when the movement of the aircraft takes place on three pillars (front wheel has not yet raised) (if different scheme chassis on the plane, then on the first section of the roll front wheel omitted). The first stage of the run ends at a speed approximately equal to 0.5 VRef.i.e. if, for example, the take-off speed VRef.equal to 250 km/h, lifting the nose wheel is at a speed of ~120 km/h. At the time of separation of the nose wheel and turns on the steam generator. Due to the inertia of the system airflow surfaces of the wing will begin with some delay, but at speed, a lower speed of separation. This time of inclusion in the operation of the steam generator reduces the amount of water poured into the tank 5, which does not significantly increase the weight of the steam generator. But at the same time part of the way on the 2nd stage of the run, with R botusa system blower surfaces ferry allows you to increase the lift of the aircraft, i.e. its capacity. Flaps (if they are blown) on the first segment of the run (up to raise the nose wheel) are available at a small angle (landing position), or not available, to reduce drag, which reduces the distance of the set speed before lifting the nose wheel.
At the time of lifting the nose wheel flaps? t be produced to the highest possible angle (given the fact that stall will not be enabled by the system of boundary layer, oops). This angle, when the system works oops, there will be more than without the oops that provides greater lift coefficient Cy, and hence the lift force, i.e. the carrying capacity. Choke 9 passes through a mass of water equal to the desired mass of steam at WHU. For example, the SU-15 was required 5 kg of gas per second . As the take-off is, for example, MIG-23 of about 20, it is necessary to have on Board LA the mass of water, sufficient for vaporization of at least half that time, ie 10 seconds. For example, if you want a 1 second 10 kg of steam (twice for the SU-15), then within 10 seconds will be spent 100 kg of water. Take unaccounted water consumption for transients, etc. in 2 times more, i.e, 200 kg of water.
How much will increase the weight of the plane in the line is the use of the proposed COC?
The design of the proposed system oops roughly estimated at 100 kg (light alloys will give less weight). The weight of the water turns increase the takeoff weight of the aircraft at 300 kg. it Turns out that the big increase in the weight of the aircraft when installing this system on the aircraft is not expected, since all the elements of the system, the lungs, and the water is consumed during takeoff. The increase in weight of the aircraft when installing it proposed system COC will largely be determined by the weight of the filled water. If we assume that Cywhile the system is running oops increases at least 10% compared with the situation when there is no oops. The lift force of the aircraft when the separation is determined by the formula:
Determine how you will change the carrying capacity of the aircraft using the proposed system oops.
Let us denote: Y1Cy1, G1accordingly the force of the lift, the lift coefficient and the capacity of LA if no system oops. We believe that a separation of aircraft occurs at the same velocity VRef.. The2Cy2, G2accordingly the force of the lift, the lift coefficient and the capacity of the aircraft using the system oops.
I.e. I2=1,11. But I2=G2;1=G1. It turns out G2=1,1 G1i.e. the carrying capacity of the aircraft is increased by 10% (assuming increasing Cy10%).
For example, the plane, the IL-76 has on takeoff mass of 150 t . If we assume that this mass is balanced lifting force N1 at a speed of separation of the VRef.when using the system oops weight of the aircraft will increase by 10% (Cy2=1,1 Cy1), i.e. becomes equal to 165 tons (an increase of 15 tons). So 300 kg system oops, increasing as the load capacity of the aircraft, is an effective tool.
If LA weight is 15 tons at takeoff, the use of the system oops, increasing Cy 10%, results in an increase in payload of 1.5 tons (300 kg of them are 20%). Thus, the use of steam system WHU gives a significant increase in carrying capacity of the aircraft.
The best option is a combined system oops, combining the steam system described above, and the traditional system that uses an air compressor engine (example : the SU-15).
The drawing shows the valve 10 with non-return valve and the line from the compressor. The valve 10 can be switched on only when turned off, the solenoid 4, and Vice versa. But off and can be both solenoid.
Steam systems the COC works only on takeoff, not reducing the tractive force of the engine. Supply of water in the tank 5 is calculated so that the steam system is running a few seconds after takeoff, in order to achieve already in the air speed at which the lifting force would be enough to keep LA in the air off the system oops. When the water in the tank 5 ends, the solenoid 4 is turned off or automatically, or switch. If the solenoid 4 is not off, then the air coming from the compressor to the boost tank 5 (creating a pressure Pb), will flow through the solenoid 4, the check valve 3 and the throttle 9 in the jacket 6, and out through the check valve 3, tank 2, the safety valve 1 - blowout of the surfaces of the wing 7. But the thrust of the engine will be reduced, which is not desirable. Therefore, you must power off the solenoid 4 at the time of termination of water from the tank 5.
However, in some parts of the flight (except take-off) is required to increase the lift coefficient Cy, but not required, operation of the engine at maximum thrust mode, i.e. the thrust of the engine can be reduced, for example, on landing to reduce the length of the run (shortened runway or ground airfield). Then may be involved air system oops with intake air from the compressor of the engine. In this case turns on the solenoid 10, and such from the compressor through the enabled and check valves enters the tank 2 and then through the safety valve 1 (air pressure enough to open it) - ventilation of the surfaces of the wing 7.
The proposed drawing a diagram of the steam generator as if it allows to do without the solenoid 10 with non-return valve when the work STS from the compressor. However, some elements of the steam system can't be adjusted to work from air, for example a throttle 9. In vlagoustoychiv tank 2 is going condensed moisture.
The use of the claimed invention can significantly increase the carrying capacity of the aircraft (LA) or to reduce the length of the run, and run, the use of steam as a gas for system UPS significantly extends the use oops to improve various characteristics of the aircraft.
Sources of information
1. Zeitlin G.M. and other Aerodynamics and flight dynamics of the aircraft with turbojet engines. - M.: Voenizdat, 1973. - 480 S.
2. Aerodynamics and flight dynamics of flexible aircraft / Under the editorship of Professor Lysenko NM - M: Military publishing house, 1984. - P.106.
3. Patent No. 2274585 C2 "Method of changing the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft and the device for its implementation", Russia.
4. Small D., A. Trifonov. Fundamentals of theory and automatic control of jet engines. - M.: Military publishing house, 1972. - P.21.
5. The SU-15. Technical description, book 3-I, 1970.
6. Practical aerodynamics of aircraft IL-76. The tutorial. - Monino.: The air force Academy is Oia, 1984. - P.6.
1. The steam generator is designed for blowing steam at least one surface of the aircraft, characterized in that it comprises the United highways: a tank of water, which podavlyaetsya gas, for example from a compressor, the first valve, the first check valve, a throttle and a shirt with a closed volume, which is located on the outer surface of the engine in the most heated location and the location of evaporation of water from the tank, and mentioned the shirt is designed to supply steam to the nozzles for blowing the respective surfaces of the aircraft, such as wing flaps, through the second check valve, the tank is a small tank and safety valve, with there is a second valve and the third check valve for sampling gas from the compressor and blowing each corresponding surface of the aircraft.
2. The method of obtaining gas for cooling the surface of the aircraft to increase the lift coefficient, characterized in that the use of a steam generator according to claim 1.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: inventions are intended for manufacturing boiler tubes from corrosion-resistant alloy and can be used in boilers for kraft process. Metal tubes are installed in wall or bottom of recovery boiler intended for kraft process. Some of the above tubes are composite tubes containing inner layer and outer layer. Inner layer is made from steel, and outer layer has the following composition, wt %: 25-35% Cr, 5-15% Fe and 50-70% Ni with low quantities of other impurities and alloying elements. Modification method of recovery boiler intended for kraft process consists in the fact that it includes the stage at which metal tubes are removed and composite tubes are installed in their place. Composite tubes have inner layer and outer layer. Assembly method of recovery boiler for kraft process consists in the fact that boiler is manufactured by using composite metal tubes. Assembly method of gasificator of black liquor for kraft process consists in the fact that gasificator wall is manufactured by using composite metal tubes. Recovery boiler for kraft process is used in kraft process by using black liquor.
EFFECT: invention provides production of alloy which provides high resistance to crack formation and corrosion.
28 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for recycling of household wastes. Water-steam boiler for remelting of plastic bottles comprises inclined body; hopper in the upper part of body; receiving tank for melted plastic in lower part of body; exhaust fan connected to exhaust nozzle for vapors, in upper part of body; control gate valve in lower part of body. Inside body there is inclined tray made of pipes that are heated by steam or hot water, which heats remelted bottles up to melt temperature and drains produced melted plastic into receiving tank.
EFFECT: reduced environment pollution and also production of stock for further manufacture of different plastic products.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: boiler comprises furnace with burners, evaporating heating surfaces, horizontal rotatable gas duct with the steam overheating surface for heating the primary steam flow, and gas duct. The gas duct receives steam overheating surface for heating intermediate steam flow. The bottom section of the rotatable gas duct receives shielding surface for heating primary steam flow and distributor of heat fluxes. The distributor of heat fluxes is made of assembled units the number of which depends on the steam parameters and type of the fuel.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly, to vehicles. Motor transport vehicle comprises ICE with exhaust gas system incorporating silencer and heat recovery system. Recovery system medium circulation circuit incorporates pump, evaporator, expander, and condenser, and allows conversion of engine and/or its assembly unit off-heat into useful energy that increases ICE output. Evaporator is either incorporated with the silencer and in extreme exhaust pipe, or partially doubles as silencer, or it is mounted outside the silencer while exhaust pipe extreme end is located behind it. It may also be integrated with extreme exhaust pipe running above driver cabin and built therein or partially doubles as it, or integrated with silencer built in exhaust pipe running upward behind the driver cabin.
EFFECT: better design due to arrangement of evaporator in silencer.
10 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric power and heat production. Proposed system comprises Stirling engine, first exhaust channel, second exhaust channel, primary heat exchanger and secondary heat exchanger. Stirling engine has a pylon-like head. Burner faces end surface of Stirling engine heated head. Said first exhaust channel runs along side surface of Stirling engine heated head. Said second exhaust channel continues aforesaid first exhaust channel to run along side surface of the first exhaust channel, opposite Stirling engine. Primary heat exchanger is arranged on lateral side of the second exhaust channel, opposite Stirling engine. Secondary heat exchanger communicates with outlet of the first exhaust channel. Secondary heat exchanger makes a latent heat exchanger to extract hear from waste gases by condensation of vapor of said waste gas.
EFFECT: reduced heat losses.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly to internal combustion engines (ICE). Proposed ICE comprises cylinder block (1), pistons (2), con rods (3) with cranks (4) coupled with crankshaft (6). Top cover of every cylinder accommodates fuel jet (7), intake (9) and exhaust (10) valves. Levers (12) have their arms resting on valve caps (11) and ends of rods (13). The latter have their opposite ends thrusting against cams (14) of camshaft (15). The latter is coupled, via gear drive system (16), with crankshaft (6). Discharge valves (10) are communicated, via discharge manifold (17), with gas turbine (18). Wheel of compressor (19) is fitted on the shaft of turbine (18). Aforesaid compressor wheel communicates, via cooler (20) and pipeline (21), with spaces of intake valve (9). Switching plates (23) are rigidly fastened on exhaust manifold (7). High-temperature ends (24) of thermoelectric elements (25) are attached to said switching plates. Low temperature ends (26) of thermoelectric elements (25) are furnished with radiators (27). Said low-temperature ends (26) are connected with load (28).
EFFECT: thermoelectric emf, higher efficiency of ICE.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to steam engines. Suggested engine with heat regeneration uses water both as working fluid and as lubricating material. During operation water is supplied by pump from collecting tray via coil around exhaust opening of cylinder, and as a result water is previously heated by steam exhausted from cylinder. Then preliminarily heated water is supplied to steam generator and is heated by means of combustion chamber to generate superheated high-pressure steam. Air is preliminarily heated in heat exchanger, and then is mixed with fuel from fuel sprayer. Spark plug ignites sprayed fuel, and flame and heat centrifuge is created inside combustion chamber. Speed and torque moment of engine are controlled by system of yoke and cam, which opens needle valve for inlet of superheated high-pressure steam in cylinder, inside of which there is piston of reciprocal travel. Supplied steam expands in explosive action at piston top at high pressure, which makes the piston go down, at that piston with the help of driving force transfer turns joined crank cam and crankshaft. Spent steam is sent via centrifugal condenser, having system of flat plates. Cooling air from air blowers circulates via flat plates to transfer steam into liquid condition. Condensed water is returned into collecting tray for further use with the purpose of steam generation. Method is considered for energy generation in engine.
EFFECT: provides for increased efficiency factor and engine performance, by provision of heat regeneration and engine operation at critical pressure and temperature.
12 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to transport vehicle or stationary power unit that comprises supercharged internal combustion engine supplied from turbocompressor that operates on spent gases, as drive source, and components supplied by heat from medium available in closed circuit of medium. Turbine (4) of turbocompressor (2) operating on spent gases is used and/or arranged in the form of heating source, and for that purpose turbine casing (10) has heat exchanger (12) outside, which is located in circuit (3, 3') of medium or arranged with the possibility of connection in it, and in internal space (13) of which medium passed directly or along channels is heated by application of at least radiated thermal energy of turbine hot body (10).
EFFECT: invention provides utilisation of turbine casing wall thermal radiation for fast and quite strong heating of medium that passes through heat exchanger.
25 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building and power engineering. Proposed method consists in guiding the ship main internal combustion engine exhaust gases via the engines turbo compressors into waste-heat recovery boiler whereto heat carrier is fed from the steam separator for it to be heated by the aforesaid gases and in feeding the steam formed in the boiler evaporation pipes into the steam separator. Here note that the ship main engine exhaust gases are forced into the exhaust pipe, their temperature behind the aforesaid waste-heat recovery boiler is kept, in all operating ranges, not less than 160°C. In compliance with this invention, given the reduction of the main engine output or the ship auxiliary loads heat consumption drop, the boiler evaporation pipe water heat carrier is replaced with an air heat carrier. For this, the boiler evaporation pipes are, first, disconnected from the steam separator by appropriate shut-off valves, the boiler evaporation pipe water heat carrier is dried off for the pipes to receive air heat carrier by communicating them with air reservoir communicating, in its turn, with the ship compressed air system. Then, air heat carrier is heated by exhaust gases in the waste-heat recovery boiler to be fed into heat exchanger for sea and mineral water desalination. Note here that brine and hot air resulted at the desalination apparatus outlet are used for ship service purposes while generated steam is fed into separator for its condensation. The proposed device incorporates additionally a heat exchanger for water desalination, a compressed air reservoir communicating with the ship compressed air system. Note here that the said reservoir outlet communicates via pressure control and shut-off valves with the waste-heat recovery boiler feed pipeline at the section between its coils and shut-off valve. The boiler coil discharge pipeline at the section between the boiler shut-off valve and coils communicates via the said shutoff valve with the said desalination heat exchanger heat carrier inlet. Note also that the boiler coils are furnished with devices to remove working heat carrier and that the desalination apparatus outlets communicate with the ship brine, steam and hot air consumers.
EFFECT: higher degree of internal combustion engine exhaust gas recovery.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: internal combustion engine incorporates crankshaft, con-rod, piston pin, cylinder, intake and outlet valves, inlet and outlet manifolds, turbo-compressor, nozzle to inject water into the outlet manifold and pipeline to feed water to the aforesaid nozzle. In compliance with this invention, the aforesaid pipeline feeding water to the nozzle is furnished with the fuel combustion product heat regenerator and water is injected into the outlet manifold in overheated state.
EFFECT: increased steam formation speed in injecting water into outlet manifold and improved enthalpy of combustion products.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: external combustion Stirling engine and electric generator are fitted on one shaft with the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every ICE cylinder is provided with a magnetic field source arranged in the upper part of the former and made in the form of an annular electromagnet built in the cylinder wall, or as several radial electromagnets. The Stirling engine working cylinder is enclosed in a housing with its inner space communicating with the ICE exhaust system, the electric generator being wired to the magnetic field source.
EFFECT: lower toxicity of exhaust and fuller combustion of fuel.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat supply systems, particularly, to heat-generating plants. Power plant consists of heat engine, for instance, internal combustion engine, with, at least, one mechanic energy shaft, heat-exchangers of engine cooling, heat-exchanger of heat removal from gas exhaust, all heat-connected via the coolant circulation circuit, with, at least, one heat energy consumer, in which shaft of heat engine is kinematically connected with the drive shaft of cavitating-vortex heat-generator, which - at least, via inlet and outlet hydraulic channels - is connected to the mentioned circulation loop of coolant, for example, water. To provide self-purification of heat-exchangers, cavitating-vortex heat-generator is installed directly before the inlet to heat exchanger of heat removal from engine gas exhaust. Installation provides possibility to control power of the cavitating-vortex heat-generator at stabilised (set) rotations of engine drive shaft and possibility to control a ratio between power values removed from the engine to generate heat and electric energy.
EFFECT: enhancement of operational characteristics; expansion of functional abilities.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: domestic facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined heat and power supply plant for household use. Proposed domestic combined heat and power plant contains Stirling engine and water heater. Stirling engine is installed for heating by first burner supplied with fuel gas. Plant contains additionally intake gas duct passing from Stirling engine in contact with fuel gas intake in first burner preliminary heating of fuel gas delivered into first burner and then heating of water which is subsequently heated by water heater. Water heater is provided with second burner. Plant is designed so that outlet gas and gas from second burner form combined flow immediately after heating of water, and combined flow for heating of water is located higher from outlet gas relative to flow. Plant contains additionally cooler of Stirling engine arranged for heating water higher than outlet gas relative to direction of flow.
EFFECT: provision of effective heating of water, reduced cost of heating and provision of compact device.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed wing comprises carcass, envelopment, curved top and flat bottom aerodynamic surfaces, console with engine jointed to carcass and ejector with round inlet and outlet holes. Said ejector is arranged on upper aerodynamic surface that has flute-like recess on ejector inlet side. Aforesaid console is arranged along the recess bottom. Ejector confuser lies on upper aerodynamic surface, while diffuser lies partially on upper aerodynamic surface where above ejector outlet is located.
EFFECT: higher lift and thrust.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft wing comprises carcass, upper and lower aerodynamic surface skins, airflow deflection elements, nacelle with engine and ejector. Nacelle with engine and ejector are arranged on the wing end. Wing panel with engine makes extension of said wing.
EFFECT: higher aerodynamic properties.
FIELD: aircraft manufacture; engine oil cooling systems of multi-engined helicopters.
SUBSTANCE: proposed oil cooling system includes fan, fan failure warning indicator, oil radiators, oil tanks, oil filters, warning units of maximum permissible oil temperature and oil lines. Cooling system is provided with additional oil lines, additional oil radiators separate for each engine which are connected with oil radiators and oil tanks through additional oil lines and are provided with thermal valve. Air ducts communicated with outside air are provided with additional oil radiator mounted inside them. Bypass lines with control unit are connected with oil lines by their inlets and with additional oil lines by their outlets.
EFFECT: possibility of cooling oil with serviceable and failed fan.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device to vary aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic aircraft comprising airframe, engine, fuel system, planes and control surfaces incorporates bled gas source connected, via sealed pipelines, to permeable porous inserts intended for local gas blow-off into boundary layer of airflow. Cross section area of channels arranged in permeable porous inserts makes 30% to 60% of insert area. Distance between adjacent inserts is 6 to 10 times larger than insert width. Said permeable porous inserts are connected, via sealed pipelines, to low-temperature gas source representing a vortex tube. Proposed method consists in bleeding gas from gas source and feeding it to permeable porous inserts arranged on aircraft surfaces, using above described device, bled gas temperature being other than that of ram airflow.
EFFECT: higher lift.
14 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering and ship building.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to apparatuses moving in air or water. Proposed apparatus comprises aerodynamic section wheel with top convex surface, fluid medium high-pressure source communicates with high-pressure jet generator arranged above the wing convex surface. Six design versions of proposed apparatus are distinguished for by the design of aforesaid high-pressure jet generator. Method of generating thrust consists in using high-pressure jet generator arranged above the wing convex surface. Five versions of the method are distinguished for by the design of aforesaid high-pressure jet generator.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
11 cl, 16 dwg