Method and device to move in gases or fluids

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device intended for generation of propellant forces for vehicles. Proposed method is characterised by drag effects on wing front surface or screw front surface wherein ram inflow on plane periphery is turned and tangential flow is created on rear plane with speed smaller than that of ram flow. Flow on rear surface front edge is directed from the root to plane lateral edge and intersect it with flow swirled long lateral edge of the plane read surface for their interaction to create force oriented along the plane. Ram flow is used to stabilise boundary layer on the plane rear surface rear edge. In compliance with the first version, aircraft cuts in propellers. Peripheral plane of propeller blade accommodates the structure of profiles with its elements. Another version of aircraft comprises wings. Structure of profiles is located on wing plane periphery.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of converting drive power into propellant power.

7 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a transport apparatus, and more specifically to devices create a driving force for moving the transport apparatus, and can be used in aircraft and other transport vehicles transported in gaseous and liquid environments.

Currently known way to create a driving force aircraft centrifugal screw (see U.S. patent No. 2,807,428, from 24.09.1957). In this way, by means of the centrifugal screw on the front surface plane which create incoming flow and pressure in its velocity head of the flow is oriented axially and radially and then through a curved duct external environment result in axial movement along the axis of the screw. All this creates an axial-directional pulse that generates the driving force apparatus. The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency of conversion of velocity head of the blades is the driving force behind the apparatus. This is due to the parasitic influence of the inductive resistance arising from the interaction of axial flow of air and the bottom of the apparatus. This narrows the scope of its application.

Currently known and the method of imparting the driving force of the transport apparatus for locomotion in liquid or gaseous environment, such as aircraft Vert is an intersection take-off and landing, with the screw. Known, for example, a method of creating a driving force of helicopters, including various designs with vertically oriented screw (see Izakson A.M. Soviet helicopters. M. engineering, 1991.) It is a way of creating a driving force includes creating rolling screw of flow and pressure in its velocity head forming the lifting force of the transporting apparatus. It is the formation of vortex motion around the blades and the deviation of the direction of flow of the working medium during its interaction with the vortex. The disadvantage is the low energy and the geometrical efficiency of the conversion of engine power into the effort and the large dimensions of the screw beyond the dimensions of the apparatus. This is because the lifting power of the apparatus is limited by the smallness of the angle of the working plane of the screw, which caused disruption in the flow and the resulting instabilities his work. The complexity of the behavior of large rotating blades complicates the apparatus and increasing its value. This deteriorating security and narrows the application of the device using the method.

There is a method of creating a liquid or gaseous medium carrying power for transportation vehicles, for aircraft having a wing, for example, aircraft. (See U.S. patent No. 2,589,994, from 18.03.1952.) About the includes creating drive through the relative movement of the working environment and profiled the work plane of the wing. High-speed power incident on the wing flow create a lifting force through the formation of vortex motion around the wing and reject flow at their interaction. To improve the efficiency of the method of high-speed flow is created directly above the wing. The disadvantage of this method is the low conversion efficiency of drive power to the lifting force. This is because the lifting force of the wing is limited to a small angle of the working plane of the wing to the incident flow, which is associated with the disruption of the flow and the resulting instabilities his work.

Closest to the invention in essence and the achieved result is a way to create a driving force in the liquid or gaseous medium through the lattice plate, for example, when creating recovery systems for spacecraft. (See Lgesi. Mechanics of fluids and gases. Fizmatgiz. M. 1959) This method create in a gaseous or liquid medium driving force of the transport apparatus includes a relative displacement of the working environment and profiled the work plane when the front surface plane of the wing or propeller creates incoming flow environment, unroll it and at the rear of the plane creating a shear flow with a speed greater than the speed of incoming flow. The impetus of this thread generates a lifting force. Power is odavama lattice wing, may be greater than the lifting force normal wing, but to get big lifting power of the wing should be placed across the flow, the drag is high, which limits the scope of such a wing, or screw, when it was brought into rotation.

Known transport device is moved in the environment, such as aircraft, including jet in the form of a centrifugal fan, containing radial-shaped blades. This device is to create a driving force in the gas or liquid medium includes moving the profiled the work plane. The fan is placed in the apparatus, does not go beyond its size and creates a flow directed along the axis of the device, the pulse, vibrate, and this formed the driving force. (See U.S. patent No. 2,807,428, from 24.09.1957.) The speed of the generated flux is less than the speed of the outer edge of the screw, which limits the generated impulse and momentum. The disadvantage is the low efficiency of energy conversion of rotation of the centrifugal fan in the driving force of the apparatus. This narrows the scope of its application.

Known transport device moving in a liquid or gaseous medium, for example an aircraft, with the propeller. (See Izakson A.M. Soviet helicopters. M. engineering, 1991.) Devices which contains a shaped working plane, made in the form of a screw, which causes the environment in axial movement along the axis, which creates a force producing apparatus in motion. The disadvantage of the transport device are its large size - the diameter of the screw, the complexity of its design and the low efficiency of the conversion of engine power into propulsion force, narrowing the scope. Closest to the invention in essence and the achieved result is a device for creating a liquid or gaseous medium carrying power through the wings, for example the plane. (See U.S. patent No. 2,807,428, from 24.09.1957.) The device includes wings in the form of profiled surfaces that move relative to the environment, which creates a force that holds the transport apparatus in the air in the process. To improve the efficiency of the device high-speed stream is created directly above the wing. The drawback of the device are large geometric dimensions of the device - the wing span and a relatively low energy conversion efficiency of engine power to the lifting force, narrowing the scope of its applicability.

The basis of the invention lies in the task of developing a method and a device with high energy and geometric conversion efficiency drive power to the driving force of the transport apparatus, floating in the liquid igateway environment, in particular aircraft.

The technical result achieved by the invention is the expansion of the scope of the transport equipment.

The problem is solved and the technical result is achieved due to the fact that implemented method of creating a driving force of the transport apparatus in a gaseous or liquid medium pressure velocity head of the flow incident on the front surface plane of the wing or propeller, characterized in that the periphery of the incoming flow and deploy at the rear of the plane creating a shear flow with a speed greater than the speed of the flow.

The essence of the method lies in the fact that it generates a dynamic pressure of the flow incident on the wing or propeller, but unlike the usual "thick" wing or screw, when the result is a doubling of the speed of flow over and under the wing and then the formation of the vortex, in the way that the flow velocity above the plane increases more than twice. And therefore, there is a growing pressure on him, is the ejector and the acceleration of the mass to the back plane of the wing or propeller and grows lifting, driving force generated by the method.

This thread on the front edge of the rear surface is directed from the root to the side edge plane, intersect it with the flow, zakluchenny is along the side edges of the rear surface plane, and in their interaction creates a force oriented along the plane of the wing or propeller, and the flow speed of the medium on the rear edge of the rear surface of the plane to prevent disruption of the boundary layer. In this case, the surface flow generated by the structure of the profiles in the leading edge plane of the wing or propeller interacts with the vortex generated by the structure of the profiles on their lateral edge, and the result is a force tangent plane and perpendicular to the flow generated by the front edge. It lies in the plane of the wing or propeller, and if the plane is shaped and oriented their part across the flow, then lifting (driving) force generated by the device increases. This thread formed on the rear edge surface creates a vacuum along it and thus is the exhaust mass from the region of the parietal area of the rear surface. But it is known that the suction of even a small part of the flow from the rear surface of the wing prevents disruption of the boundary layer with it, makes the laminar flow and reduces the drag of the wing that allows him to consistently create a lifting force even at large angles of attack of the wing or propeller blades.

It is possible that the flow at the trailing edge of the rear surface of the wing or propeller direct to the root portion plane and acoperire azimuthal and radial part of nested energy flow. In this case, in the case of screw recovery is when the traffic flow towards the axis, as in a radial turbine, and in the case of the wing flow creates excessive pressure on the rear surface of the body of the device than reduces the rolling resistance of the transport apparatus (plane) to the stream.

It is possible that the flow at the trailing edge of the rear surface of the wing or propeller is directed from the root to the side edge plane on one or more additional planes, expand and transform the azimuthal and radial components of flow in the driving force.

For implementing the method using a transport apparatus comprising a propeller with blades, characterized in that the profile structure with its elements placed on the periphery of the plane of the propeller blades, the leading edge of the screw elements in the profile structure is oriented along the flow at an angle to him, and their profiles are directed to the side edge plane, the elements of the structure profile of the side edge plane oriented fan-shaped and curved profiles against movement of the blade, the trailing edge of the screw elements of the structure are oriented along the flow across it, and the whole structure forms with the blade of a single concave profile of the screw.

It is known that the negative pressure generated on the rear surface of the blade, quadratic depends on soon the minute gas flow over it and because of the speed of its rotation. It is known that in the lattice increase the flow velocity behind it grows in proportion to the tangent of the angle at which the grating deflects incoming source stream, and that for large angles the very strong correlation and at large angles of 50° C. growth rate exceeds the doubled and is growing rapidly and forth. Also rising dramatically and the pressure on the propeller blades, which is placed on the periphery of the structure airfoils. But the structure of the profiles is grating profiles, because its elements are not fixed with rigid regularity when they are placed on different parts of the periphery of the screw or wing. When working as a whole, in this case at the periphery of the screw in the area formed by the edges of the rotating blades, is formed by a vacuum region in which the suction mass both in the front and side part of the surface area. There is transfer of momentum from the jet to the entire intake mass, the scope works as a mass nozzle and the flow rate flowing from the bottom end part reaches and may even exceed the speed of the outer edges of the screw. This allows implemented according to this method, the transport apparatus to receive lifting (driving) force at smaller sizes (diameter) of the screw, until its size is comparable or even smaller than the body of the device. It expands the scope of its application, until safe use is possible when driving in the city. Despite the fact as there is transfer of longitudinal momentum suck big mass in the region of the screw, like the transfer of longitudinal momentum of a large mass of gas in the secondary circuits multistage jet engine increases and the energy efficiency of the device.

Possible transport apparatus, characterized in that it further comprises more than one fixed plane, and part of it is made in the form of vanes, and the other placed the structure of the profiles, oriented across the flow generated by the propeller, and curved against the direction of flow the front edge and the rear edge of the profile in the direction of the driving force. The plane is made in the form of vanes on the site, where there is absorption of the working environment. For this purpose, the blades in this area can be bent in the direction of rotation of the screw and against him. In areas where the stream flows with a screw, it is directed at the structure of the profiles posted on the additional plane. Thus the azimuthal and radial components of the flow interacting with the structure of the profiles, change the direction of movement in the axial and create a pulling force directed along the axis of the screw. Additional plane, covering the area of the screw, increase the security of the device.

The above screw together the stationary planes can be like pulling, and a pusher propeller. This interesting variant of their placement on the engine, in particular a jet engine. Pulling the screw may be antechamber of the engine, and the output can be placed pusher propeller.

Essential aspects of this option is that at small sizes, and therefore at high speeds (at the same peripheral speed edge) of the proposed screws in the engine may not be the gearbox. This leads to the simplification and reduction of its cost, and a pusher propeller makes the engine implicitly circuit, because of its extensive structure and operation of mass of the nozzle, implement it.

Possible transport apparatus, characterized in that the elements of the structure of the profiles at the trailing edge plane of the blade is oriented along the flow, and profiles are bent and directed towards the axis of rotation of the screw. This allows you to recover part of the azimuthal component of the energy flow and to reduce the energy consumption of the device.

Possible transport apparatus, characterized in that the elements of the structure of the profiles at the trailing edge plane of the blade is oriented across the flow, and profiles are curved and directed along the axis against the direction of movement of the apparatus. This allows you to transform part of the azimuthal component of the energy flow in traction at the Ilia of the screw.

Possible transport apparatus, characterized in that the elements of the structure of the profiles at the trailing edge plane of the blade is oriented along the flow, and profiles are curved and directed away from the axis of rotation of the screw. If the device axial component of the flow is not lost, and gained radial component is great, with this implementation of the screw under it creates an area of low pressure. The pressure above the body of the transport device and the interaction flowing from the screw thread with the body of the device allow to increase the efficiency of the device. Extending beyond the dimensions of the screw outside of the housing, made asymmetrically, can be profiled and to participate in improving the efficiency of the device.

A special case of this variant is the case when the elements of the structure of the profiles on the back edge of the blade is oriented fan-shaped, and their profiles are curved transversely to the direction of movement of the blade and is directed away from the axis of rotation of the screw. This allows, without losing formed axial component of the flow and expanding it radially, to create the body of the device is a vacuum region which is additionally involved in the creation of his lifting (driving) forces.

Possible transport apparatus, including the wings, which is characterized by the fact that the structure is and profiles with elements placed on the periphery of the plane of the wing, on the front edge of the plane of the wing elements of the profile structure is oriented along the flow profiles and directed to the side edge plane, the elements of the structure of the profiles on the side edge plane oriented fan-shaped profiles and curved against the movement of the wing at the trailing edge of the wing elements of the profile structure is oriented along the flow and the whole structure of the profiles with the plane forms a single concave profile of the wing.

As a result of such execution wings transport apparatus, processes similar to the processes described in the explanation of the operation of the screw, also grow as the geometric and energy efficiency.

Possible transport apparatus, characterized in that located on the rear edge of the wing trailing edge structure elements of curved profiles to the root of the wing. In this case formed on these edges of the wing flow creates excessive pressure on the rear surface of the body of the device than reduces the rolling resistance of the transport apparatus (plane) to the stream.

Possible transport apparatus, characterized in that on the rear edge of the wing trailing edge structure elements of curved profiles by the end of the wing, where it is additionally placed end washers with the structure of the profiles. While the elements of the structure profile mo the ut to be oriented vertically, and profiles curved front edge against the flow, and the rear edge oriented in the direction of movement of the apparatus. When this stream is directed to the periphery of the wing, interacting with the structure of the profiles, change the direction of its movement on the longitudinal, and creates a force directed along the axis of the apparatus and reduce its drag. Possible and the case when the elements of the profile structure is oriented horizontally, and the profiles of the curved front edge against the flow, and the rear edge is oriented vertically, in the direction of the lifting force. When this flow going to the periphery of the wing, on the face of the washer with the structure of the profiles, change the direction of movement vertical, creates a force that increases lifting strength.

Possible transport apparatus, characterized in that the elements of the structure of the profiles on the leading edge of the wing is missing and left elements of the profile structure, located on the side and rear edges of the wing, while the rear edge is curved to the root of the wing, and the wing is made with a reverse sweep in the plan.

In this case, the efficiency of the wing a few drops, but its design is dramatically simplified. Thus formed on the rear edge of the wing fast subsurface flow creates a vacuum on the rear surface of the flat the STI wing. And thus goes the suction mass from the region of the parietal area of the back surface in this thread. But it is known that the suction is already a small part of the flow from the rear surface of the wing prevents disruption of the boundary layer, makes the laminar flow and reduces the drag of the wing that allows him to consistently create a lifting force even at high angles of attack. This reduces the rolling resistance of the transport apparatus (plane) flow and improve its flight characteristics.

Thus, specified the constructive implementation of the transport apparatus can improve its energy and geometric efficiency.

Objectives and advantages of the present invention will be clear from the following example of its implementation and the proposed drawings, in which:

Figure 1 - transport device with a console placement of the engines pulling and pushing screws (schematically).

Figure 2 - an embodiment of the propeller blades (schematically).

Figure 3 - transport device with wing (schematically).

4 is a profile of a structure on the periphery of the plane (schematically).

Examples of execution of the device

Figure 1 shows schematically the transport aircraft, which is the design that includes a housing 1, which comprises: a payload, including the crew of the sea is theme of the power of the motors and control system elements. The engine 2 is placed on the casing on the consoles. They can be placed on the apparatus body 1 directly or inside it. On the shaft of the engine 2, either directly or after an inline gearbox and drive hosted a two-blade or multi-blade screws 3 (and pulling (or pushing). Additional plane 4 is placed either directly on the motor housing 2 or on the housing of the apparatus 1, if the engine 2 is placed directly in the casing 1. Additional planes 4 are section of the guide vanes 5 and plot the correction of the exit stream 6, which can be placed the structure of profiles 8. In addition, the casing 1 is placed on unspecified diagram of the active elements of the system management apparatus. The blades shown in figure 2, and the plane of the wings on the figure 3. They contain the bulk plane 7 and placed on the periphery of the plane of the wing or propeller blades profiles structure 8 with its profiled elements 9. All plane shaped and has a concave surface.

The device operates as follows.

Describe the operation of this device on the example of one of the variants, for example, shown in figure 1. The rotation of the screw 3 from the motor shaft 2, create the dynamic pressure of the flow medium, in which the rotation runs onto the blades 3. The structure of the profile 8 of p is affilirovannyh elements 9, located on the periphery of the plane 7 of the blades, expands the incoming flow and forwards along the profile structure 8. Since the incident on the plane of the screw the environment after its reversal of the profiled elements 9 moves gently to the structure of the profile 8, the speed of the expanded stream above the plane increases, with a corresponding geometry of the profiles more than twice. It is essential that this is mutual cartoons, and increased flows generated sequentially placed one behind the other elements of the 9 patterns of profiles 8. And thereby increasing the pressure above it, is sucked up to them and the acceleration of the mass medium, both the anterior and lateral surface area washed by rotating the screw 3. Grows lifting or driving force generated by the method. Significant and more subtle aspects of the profiling elements of the structure placed on the periphery of the propeller blades. First of all the thread on the front edge of the rear surface of the blade is directed from the root to the side edge plane 7, which intersect with the stream, swirling along the side edges of the rear surface plane 7, along which the elements are oriented fan-shaped.

And the result of the interaction of these flows create a force oriented along the plane 7. Force is proportional to the vector product for the school component of the flow at the rotor vortex, forming a swirling flow from the fan-shaped floated elements of the lattice. Significant another aspect of the device. On the rear edge of the rear surface of the propeller blades 3-speed flow from the profile structure 8, is sucking parietal stream itself, prevents disruption of the boundary layer and thus to ensure its operation at high angles of attack of the propeller blades, and hence to increase its lifting force.

It is also important that the proposed screw 3 length can be comparable and larger radius. Therefore, the portion of the perimeter of the screw, including the front and side of the screw, which is sucked up to him mass with a relatively small input flow rate, initially more than the bottom, the front-end part, which is the flow of the stream. The device in this case represents the mass of the nozzle, and therefore, it is possible modes, when the longitudinal velocity of the flow at the outlet becomes comparable or even greater than the speed of a circumferential edge of the propeller blades.

Additional planes 4, covering the screw 3, in the area of the guide vanes 5, direct the incoming flow. In this case, the possible options. If the guide vanes 5 Orient the flow of the medium in the direction of rotation of the screw 3, the reduced power consumption in the device, but drops his thrust. If the guide vanes 5 are oriented thread about the Yves rotation of the screw, this leads to the growth of the effective angular velocity and simultaneous increase in both energy consumption and traction apparatus. Additional planes 4, screening the screw 3, increase the security of the device, covering the screw 3 from the outside. And at its end part, where the phase correction of the exit stream 6 may be placed the structure of the profile 8, which converts the azimuthal and radial components of the flow in axial flow.

While the structure elements on the bottom edge of the screw 3 can be performed in several ways, leading to different modes of operation of the transport apparatus. Perhaps when the axis of the elements in the profile structure 8 on the trailing edge of the propeller blades 3 are mainly oriented along the axis of rotation of the screw 3, and the rear edges of the elements 9 guide the thread to the axis. In this case, in operation, the screw 3 is the recovery of the azimuthal velocity component of flow while maintaining the axial component. Perhaps when the axis of the structure elements of the profiles on the trailing edge of the propeller blades 3 are mainly oriented radially, and the rear edges of the elements in the profile structure to guide the flow along the axis. In this case it behaves as a complex flap in the process is the increase of the axial component of the flow velocity, and increases the thrust of the screw. In both these cases, the azimuthal component of uhodyashih the thread still and transport apparatus after the screw 3, suitable for extra planes 4, which can also be made in the form of patterns airfoils 8 items 9 and translating the azimuthal component of the flow velocity in the axial component. When this expedient the design of the transport device with a pusher propeller. Outdoor outside, extended along the axis of the screw 3 behaves as a "submerged jet", which, prissila to itself the mass of the external environment and the passing of the longitudinal momentum, creates a traction device.

Interesting variant, when such a screw is installed at the entrance to the jet engine and is the prechamber forming the high-speed stream (subsonic and even at supersonic engine inlet, already in the starting mode for it) at the entrance to the camera its combustion. This is possible because the longitudinal velocity generated in such a screw thread may be comparable or even higher than the speed of the outer edges of the screw. This may allow you to simplify the design of the engine. At the same time its output can be installed pusher propeller.

The blade suction screw can in this case be performed without the structure of the profiles at the trailing edge, and the blade pusher propeller without structure profiles on their front edge. Additional planes 4 mounted on the engine inlet, also in this case vypolnyaut is no structure profiles at the trailing edge. (Figure 1 additional plane 4 is drawn only on one console engine.)

Especially it is necessary to consider the case when the axis of the elements 7 of the profile structure on the trailing edge of the propeller blades are mainly oriented along the axis of rotation of the screw, and the rear edges of the elements in the profile structure to direct the flow from the axis. In this case, during the movement grow azimuthal and radial components of the flow velocity, and retains its axial component. In the end part of the screw on the rear edge can then be formed in an area of low pressure, and become suitable design with lifting (or pulling) screw, but required the cooperation of the thread of the screw housing. It is advisable, when the radial dimensions of the case with more dimensions of the screw and on the front part of the housing has a radial (travenol) form, and the thread of the screw touches the housing 1 and then washing it away from the apparatus against its motion. While in the case of this apparatus is suitable for extra planes 4, which convert the azimuthal and radial components of the flow in axial flow.

In the case of a wing of the main principles of the work described above, mainly repeated. Especially only need to consider a simplified version of the implementation of the wing. Figure 3 given the option transportnogo the apparatus, which elements of the structure of the profiles on the leading edge of the wing is missing and left only the elements of the structure of the profiles, located on the side and rear edges of the wing, while the rear edge of the curved profiles to the root of the wing (see figure 4), and the wing is made with a reverse sweep in the plan. In this case, the generated stream, due to the backward swept wing and the current from the wing root to its periphery along the rear surface, interacts with the vortex formed on the side edge of the wing. As a result of their interaction, a force directed along the plane of the apparatus and having a vertical lifting component and traction component directed against the oncoming wing flow. Thus formed on the rear edge of the wing fast subsurface flow creates a vacuum at the rear of the plane of the wing and prevents disruption of the boundary layer from the back surface plane of the wing.

1. The way to create the driving force of the transport apparatus in a gaseous or liquid medium pressure velocity head of the flow incident on the front surface plane of the wing or propeller, in which the incoming flow on the periphery of the plane and deploy on the rear surface creates a shear flow with a speed greater than the speed of the nab the surrounding flow, characterized in that the thread on the front edge of the rear surface is directed from the root to the side edge plane, intersect it with the stream, swirling along the side edges of the rear surface plane, and their interaction creates a force oriented along the plane, and on the rear edge of the rear surface plane flow speed stabilize the boundary layer.

2. Transport apparatus comprising a propeller with blades, characterized in that the periphery of the plane of the propeller blades posted profile structure with its elements on the leading edge of the screw elements in the profile structure is oriented along the flow at an angle to him, and their profiles are directed to the side edge plane, the elements of the structure profile of the side edge plane oriented fan-shaped and curved profiles against movement of the blade, the trailing edge of the screw elements in the profile structure is oriented along the flow and the whole structure of the profile forms with the blade of a single concave profile of the screw.

3. The transport apparatus according to claim 2, characterized in that the elements of the structure of the profiles at the trailing edge plane of the blade is oriented along the flow, and profiles are curved and directed away from the axis of rotation of the screw.

4. The transport apparatus according to claim 2, characterized in that the elements of the structure of the profiles on the back is the movie plane is oriented across the flow, and their profiles are curved and directed along the axis against the direction of movement of the device.

5. The transport apparatus according to claim 2, characterized in that it further comprises a fixed plane, some of them made in the form of vanes, and on the other hosted profile structure with its elements, the profiles of which are oriented across the flow generated by the propeller, and a curved front edge against the direction of flow, and the rear edge in the direction of movement of the device.

6. The transport apparatus, including the wings, characterized in that the profile structure with its elements placed on the periphery of the plane of the wing at the leading edge of the plane of the wing elements of the profile structure is oriented along the flow profiles and directed to the side edge plane, the elements of the structure on the side edge plane oriented fan-shaped profiles and curved against the movement of the wing at the trailing edge of the wing elements of the structure are oriented along the flow and the whole structure of the profiles with the plane forms a single wing profile.

7. The transport apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that on the rear edge of the wing trailing edge structure elements of curved profiles by the end of the wing, where it is additionally placed end washers with the structure of the profiles.



 

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FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to long-range executive aircraft. Proposed aircraft comprises airframe, sweptback wing, vertical tail unit, running gear and power plant made up of engines, air intakes and nozzles. Airframe front has flatted nose cone smoothly aligned with cockpit and passenger cabin with circular sections. Wing root front edge is rounded and smoothly aligned with airframe. Wing root rear edge has a break. Vertical rudder integrated with horizontal tail unit is arranged on tip of vertical tail extension. Wing features crosswise V angle. Supersonic air intakes are arranged above wing top surface on both sides of airframe, while, ahead of air intakes, both wing and airframe are a bit contracted. Ahead of air intakes, there are perforated sections for intake of boundary layer. Supersonic air intakes comprise mechanism of controlled air cross flows from boundary layer discharge channel into channel feeding air into engine. Supersonic nozzle critical section is arranged above airframe top surface between two vertical tail fins. Flat nozzle has rotary top flap. Airframe tail section changes into flat surface to smoothly terminate in elevation rudder. Tail elevation rudder comprises mechanism of down-displacement in take-off-landing conditions. Reverse rotary panel is arranged ahead of elevation rudder above airframe top surface. Channels for reverse lower jets are arranged below said panel.

EFFECT: minimised effects on ecology at high cruising speeds.

14 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft with low noise at take-off and landing. Proposed aircraft comprises airframe, two wings arranged on both sides of airframe ant carrying engines, and tail unit. Vertical tale consists of at least two fins to make with airframe rear end a channel on airframe top. Airframe top accommodates at least one engine to make airflows created by it come into said channel and to engine rear noise is shut off by said channel in lateral and bottom directions. Sweep forward wings have their butt joints arranged behind airframe, nearby engine air intake, to shut off front noise in lateral and bottom directions by wings.

EFFECT: aircraft reduced noise.

2 dwg

FIELD: air transport.

SUBSTANCE: airplane includes nose, front, central, rear and tail sections and fast-speed arrow wing with jet engines. Fast-speed arrow wing is characterised by change of maximum relative profile thickness, geometric twist angle, angle of lateral V wing under wing semispan and middle surface curvature both along semispan and profile chord. Fuel system includes reservoir of the airplane central section and reservoirs in outer wings near the central section at middle part and at the periphery. The central section is equipped with expandable walls. Fuel system provides initial use of fuel from central section reservoir, then from fuel tanks of outer wings located near central section and then from tanks at the periphery of outer wings, and after all the others - from the middle part of the wing by fuel transfer between tanks.

EFFECT: improvement of aerodynamic characteristics for planes with different weight and hull length.

22 cl, 54 dwg

FIELD: air transport.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft is made in proportion L/C=1/1, where L - hull length with diametre df≥4.18 m, C - wing span, which is formed with supercritical sections and made with the following parametres: aspect ratio λ≥1.5, sweep in line 1/4 chord χ≥26.5°, setting angle α0=3°, local transverse wing V angle ψ=5.37°, taper aspect η=3.928 and mean aerodynamic chord ba=3.479 m.

EFFECT: decreasing fuel consumption.

5 dwg, 3 tbl

Aircraft wing tip // 2378154

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft wing tip features sweepback of leading edge with wing lower surface formed by smooth continuation of wing lower surface generatrix. Leading edge of wing tip end is made straight and sharp with sweepback of 70° to 85° at the point of intersection of nonlinear leading edge of wing tip with continuation of the line of maximum wing thickness. Profiles chords parallel to wing symmetry plane form lower surface. Transition from wing with profile blunt nose to sharp one of wing tip rear end, over lower surface, is made smooth. Upper surface of wing tip is formed by continuation of wing upper surface to smoothly terminate at sharp leading edge.

EFFECT: improved aerodynamic properties.

8 dwg

FIELD: aeronautical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed straight high-speed wing is made at aspect ratio λ=9-11 and taper ratio η=3.5-4.2. Wing is formed as integral spatial system on base of straight wing having zero sweep by rear spar and leading-edge wing extension with integral base profile; profiles from root one to tip one have maximum negative concavity f=0.015-0.02 in tail sections of profile at position in span changing from X=0.5 for root profile to X=0.9 for tip profile. Wing thickness ratio ranges from 0.165 to 0.13. Profile twist angles φi change from +1.5 to -1.5 degrees according to linear law; angles of inclination of upper surface at trailing edge is δ£6-7 degrees.

EFFECT: enhanced lift and speed qualities; reduction of mass; increase of wing net volume.

8 dwg

FIELD: aeronautical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed wing is formed as integral spatial system on base of rear spar at zero sweep and integral base profile which is modified in span in such way that root profile is mounted at angle of plus 1.0-1.5 degrees ensuring maximum of magnitudes Mk* and Mzo at moderate magnitudes Cymax and tip profile is mounted at angle of minus 1.5-2 degrees ensuring maximum magnitude Cymax. Profiles have maximum negative concavity f=0.15-0.2 in tail sections of profile whose position changes in span from X=0.6 for root profile to X=0.9 for tip profile. Wing thickness ratio changes from 0.16 to 0.13.

EFFECT: enhanced lift and speed qualities.

8 dwg

FIELD: aeronautical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed wing has skin and under-wing pylons. Skin is made from smoothly engageable parts at positive and negative curvature of median surface. At change from side section of wing to end section, profiles of sections are made at change of angle of geometric twist of sections, maximum thickness ratio of profiles, dihedral angle of wing and relative nose radius. Magnitude of dihedral angle of wing along its semispan has maximum between side section and plane of installation of engine. Under-wing pylon has inner side wall directed to fuselage and outer side wall which are flat in larger part of first half of pylon; they are located symmetrically relative to plane of installation of engine. Side walls of pylon are bent towards fuselage in its tail section. Maximum deflection of inner side wall from plane of installation of engine at change from lower sections of pylon to upper ones reduces and its position smoothly shifts in direction opposite to flight.

EFFECT: improved aerodynamic characteristics.

15 cl, 35 dwg

High-speed wing // 2311315

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed high-speed swept wing consists of center-wing section and outer-wing panel. Wing is formed as single spatial system on base of non-planar middle surface having S-shaped profile of center lines at negative concavity in tail sections at X>0.7-0.8 and positive concavity f=0.015-0.02 at X> 0-0.7. At change from side sections in span, negative concavity disappears gradually and positions of maximum positive concavity smoothly shift backward by chord from magnitude X=0.3 at side to magnitude X=0.5 in end sections. Aspect ratio of wing λ=9-11, taper ratio η=3.5-4.2 and leading-edge sweep angle is up to Xl.ed.=35o. Upper generatrices of profiles are so made that at rated conditions, maximum rarefaction does not exceed permissible limits Cmax.perm.. Thickness ratio of profiles is formed according to two laws: from leading edge up to X=0.3, at range of C=0-8% and from X=0.3 to the trailing edge at range C=0-17%; maximum thicknesses of profiles are found at X=0.56-0.66.

EFFECT: increased flying speed.

8 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to aircraft engineering. Propeller consists of a bush and blades. In compliance with the first version, features the blade shank parts with a zero slip. In compliance with the second version, the aforesaid parts feature negative slip. In compliance with the third version, the propeller shank part is inclined lengthwise forward along the propeller motion. In compliance with the fourth version, the propeller features the tangential line to the saber-like blade, at its shank, passes behind relative to the propeller axis rotation direction.

EFFECT: reduced translation drag.

7 cl, 6 dwg

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