Method to detect integral radiating ability of dispersed food products

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry, in particular, to flour-grinding, food concentrate, cereal, confectionary, bakery, starch- and sugar-processing industries, and may be used to control process of thermal treatment of dispersed food products, namely, grain, cereal, flour, starch, sand sugar, dried and finely ground breadcrumbs, etc. The method is realised as follows: dispersed food product is prepared. Flat sample of loose layer is formed by pouring of dispersed product into reservoir. Ambient temperature and product temperature on upper surface of loose layer are measured. Ambient temperature around sample is maintained constant. Continuous infrared heating of sample to specified temperature is carried out. Upper surface of sample of loose layer is exposed to infrared radiation by radiant flux in oscillating mode. Temperature field is detected on upper surface and inside sample during infrared heating, as well as amplitude of oscillations of average temperature of sample during infrared heating in oscillating mode. Value of radiant flux of infrared energy is measured on upper surface of sample during infrared heating, as well as amplitude and frequency of oscillations of radiant flux of infrared energy on upper surface of sample during infrared radiation in oscillating mode. Angle of phase shift of radiant flux and average temperature of sample is determined in infrared radiation in oscillating mode. Produced data is used to calculate integral radiating ability of dispersed food products according to author's formula given in invention formula.

EFFECT: using method of invention will make it possible to increase efficiency of technological process control and accordingly to increase yield of target product, to reduce time of process and to increase accuracy of quality parametres control due to higher accuracy and reliability of measurement facilities.

3 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to food industry, in particular by milling, food concentrates, cereals, confectionery, bakery products, starch and sugar industries, and can be used to control the curing process, the dispersed food products, namely grains, cereals, flour, starch, sugar, bread crumbs, bread crumbs, etc.

There is a method of determining the integral emissivity of dispersed food, namely, that form the test sample in the form of a thin layer of uniform thickness. The upper surface of the sample is irradiated with a continuous flow of infrared energy. Using a thermocouple measures the temperature at the top of the irradiated surface of the sample. Measure the spectral magnitude of the flow of infrared radiation incident on the top surface of the sample, and the integral absorption ability of dispersed food complex method using a spectrophotometer SF-4A and special attachment in the form of 2 mirror ellipsoids. To determine the reference value of the integral emissivity of a black body at a given temperature. On the basis of which determine the magnitude of the integral emissivity of dispersed food at a given temperature (Ilya is offering this YEAR, V.V. Krasnikov Physical basis of infrared irradiation of food): Food industry, 1978 - pp.178-180).

The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency of control and precision control of quality indicators due to the unstable lighting conditions of the light-sensitive surfaces of the photosensors, registering passed through the sample and reflected from the upper surface of the sample infrared radiation. This leads to considerable measurement error caused by the fact that the photocurrent depends on the angle of incidence of the infrared radiation on the photosensitive surface of the photosensor. Also the disadvantage of this method is the fact that the weight measurement is carried out in an indirect way and it makes a more significant error in the determination of the value of the integral emissivity.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method of determining the integral emissivity, namely, that form the prototype of the investigated product in the form of a flat ring. The source of infrared radiation begins to evenly rotate in a plane parallel to the upper surface of the fixed pattern along the circumference of the sample. In this case, the magnitude of the reflected flux of infrared radiation, Esmerelda the Xia depending on the different optical properties of inhomogeneous particles dispersed food product, variously positioned relative to the incident flux of infrared radiation, takes a different movement pattern "oscillating" values. This "oscillating" reflected and missed the dispersed layer of the food product infrared radiation falling on the photosensors of PASS-u cause them pulsating amount of current. The average value of the pulsating current will be proportional to the integral of the reflective and absorption abilities, on the basis of which is determined by the integral absorption ability. Also determined the spectral magnitude of the incident flux of infrared radiation using a radiation thermocouples Bpositive. Further reference is determined by the value of the integral emissivity of dispersed food at a given temperature (Ilyasov YEAR, V.V. Krasnikov Physical basis of infrared irradiation of food): Food industry, 1978 - s-182).

The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency of control and precision control of quality indicators, due to the presence of heat exchange between the sample environment, heat sinks, as well as trouble-isothermal conditions. The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of determining the integral emissivity, as seosmarty are carried out in an indirect way, which causes the error due to the averaging of the measured values.

The present invention is to increase regulatory effectiveness and the accuracy of determination of quality parameters.

The technical result of the present invention is to increase the yield of the target product and the reduction of the time-process.

This object is achieved in that in the method of determining the integral emissivity of dispersed food are preparing disperse food, form a flat sample of the bulk layer by filling disperse food product into the container. Measure the ambient temperature and product temperature on the top surface of the bulk layer. Keep the temperature of the environment around the sample at a constant level. Ongoing IR-heating of the sample to a predetermined temperature. Perform IR irradiation of the upper surface of the sample bulk layer radiant flow in an oscillating mode. Determine the temperature field on the upper surface and inside the sample during IR heating. Determine the amplitude of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode. Measure the amount of infrared radiant flux energy at the top surface the sample during IR heating. Measure the amplitude and frequency of the radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR exposure in an oscillating mode. Determine the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode. Calculate the integral emissivity of dispersed food copyright the formula:

where C is the heat capacity of the sample material, j/K;

Tmthe average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, To;

Tathe amplitude of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, To;

Tothe temperature of the sample at the end of the IR-heating before the oscillations of thermal flow, To;

σo- Stefan-Boltzmann constant (reference value), W/(m2·K4);

φ is the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode, UNED (rad.);

κ is the amplitude of the incident radiant flux;

ω is the oscillation frequency of the incident radiant flux, with-1;

F - the area of the irradiated surface of the sample, m2.

This formula was obtained by the author based on known formulas in solving the problem of radiant heat transfer from a flat plate with OCD is concerned with the environment with the boundary conditions of the 2nd kind (Filatov V.V. Improving the process of heat treatment of grain with infrared power supply. Diss. Ph.D. M.: Publishing a complex of Moscow state University of food, 2005. - 312 (C).

Preparation of dispersed food required to remove trash and inclusions, as well as to determine the equilibrium moisture content.

The formation of the bulk sample layer by filling disperse food product in a container is necessary in order to define the geometric shape of the sample and to determine the boundary conditions.

Measuring the ambient temperature and the product temperature at the upper surface of the bulk layer to the IR heating is due to the fact that the result set information about the law of interaction between the environment and the sample surface of the bulk layer.

The temperature of the environment around the sample at a constant level allows you to eliminate the inertia of the heating and the effect of initial conditions on the accuracy of the determined characteristics.

Continuous IR heating of the sample to a predetermined temperature due to the fact that nullified the effect of thermal contact resistance between the image source and sinks of heat because the heat flux is introduced into the sample radiation (non-contact) by.

IR irradiation of the upper surface of the sample bulk layer radiant flow in an oscillating mode is IU is the essence of the method and due to the fact, what you need to create a model of normal incidence of a plane electromagnetic wave by a harmonic (sinusoidal) law on a flat sample and its heat exchange with the environment by convection and radiation.

Determination of the temperature field on the upper surface and inside the sample during thermal heating due to the fact that it is necessary to measure the heat content of the sample, which varies due to the absorption of the incident radiant flux, heat loss to the environment long-wave (reflected) IR-radiation and by convection and by conduction to the structural elements supporting the sample.

Determining the amplitude of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, the measurement of radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating, the measurement of amplitude and frequency of the radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, due to the fact that all of the above values are the main informative parameters, on the basis of which is determined by the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode, resulting integral is calculated emissivity with osobnosti dispersed food.

The method is as follows. Prepare a dispersed food product, removing weeds and inclusion, and then weighed on an electronic analytical balance and determine the mass. Form a prototype of a bulk layer of the same height throughout the volume by filling disperse food product into the container. Ambient temperature is measured using thermocouples. Measurement of product temperature on the top surface of the bulk layer is performed using a remote thermometer. Keep the temperature of the environment around the sample bulk layer at a constant level and maintain the sample reaches a uniform temperature distribution throughout the volume, placing the container with the sample in a thermostat. Ongoing IR-heating of the sample to a predetermined temperature by using a heat block, consisting of 2 x IR generators type KGT-220-1000-1 with individual parabolic reflectors with known geometric characteristics. After the sample dispersed food is evenly heated and has reached the set temperature, carry out the IR irradiation of the upper surface of the sample bulk layer radiant flow in an oscillating mode. Oscillating mode IR irradiation of the sample is performed as follows. After IR heating the sample th the howling block with two infrared generators of the type KGT-220-1000-1 continues to operate in continuous mode, and oscillate radiant flux are made using radar shutter - flat, thin, metal plates, which periodically screens (shading) of the upper surface of the sample from the incident radiant flux so that the magnitude of the incident radiant flux is changed by a harmonic (sinusoidal) of the act:

E0- the average value of the incident radiant flux, W;

κ is the amplitude of the incident radiant flux relative to the average value of E0;

ω is the oscillation frequency of the incident radiant flux, with-1;

τ is the current time, C.

Determination of the temperature field on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating is performed using a remote thermometer. Determination of the temperature field inside the sample during IR heating is determined by the battery microarmour by well-known methods (Filatov V.V. improving the process of heat treatment of grain with infrared power supply. Diss. Ph.D. M.: Publishing a complex of Moscow state University of food, 2005. - 312 S.). Determining the amplitude of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode is also determined using battery microarmour by well-known methods taking into account the fact that the amplitude of the average temperature of the sample izmenyaetsya harmonic (sinusoidal) law (Plaksin, Y.M., Filatov V.V. and other fundamentals of theory of infrared heating. The monograph. Under the General editorship Filatov V.V. - M:. Publishing complex of Moscow state University of food, 2007, 168 C.). The measurement of infrared radiant flux energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating, and measuring the amplitude and frequency of oscillations of the radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR exposure in an oscillating mode is carried out using differential rod radiometer by well-known methods (Filatov V.V., Azizov P.P. Experimental study of the density distribution of the radiant flux in thermal IR camera installations. Theoretical journal "Storage and processing of farm products", Issue №9, Moscow, 2008, p.19-21).

Further, by setting the sine laws fluctuations infrared radiant flux energy and the average temperature of the sample is determined by the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample when the IR radiation in the oscillatory mode using the phase meter.

The result is calculated integral emissivity of dispersed food product according to the following formula:

with the heat capacity of the sample material, j/K;

Tmthe average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, To;

T andthe amplitude of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, To;

Tothe temperature of the sample at the end of the IR-heating before the oscillations of thermal flow, To;

σo- Stefan-Boltzmann constant (reference value), W/(m2·K4);

φ is the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode, UNED (rad.);

κ is the amplitude of the incident radiant flux;

ω is the oscillation frequency of the incident radiant flux, with-1;

F - the area of the irradiated surface of the sample, m2.

Example 1. The method of determining the integral emissivity was carried out on the prototype. Form the prototype of starch with moisture content of 12.1% at tk=21°C in the form of a flat ring, falling asleep dispersed food (starch) in a special container (cuvette) with the following geometrical characteristics of the d1=30 mm, d2=50 mm, h=5 mm (d1- internal d2- outer ring diameter, h - height (thickness) of the ring). The monochromatic flux of IR radiation emerging from the exit slit of the spectrophotometer SF-4A through the optical system is directed normal (90°) to the upper end surface of the annular dispersed sample of the food product. After that, the spectrophotometer with the op is practical system begins to rotate evenly in the plane parallel to the upper end surface of the annular dispersed sample of the food product, so that a directed flow of infrared radiation in the area of 6×10 mm2scans the upper surface of the dispersed food product. Diffuse the reflected infrared radiation from the upper surface of the circular sample of the starch is collected using a mirror ellipsoid of rotation and focuses on the reception of the light-sensitive surface of the 1st photosensor of PASS-u. The past through the thickness of the annular pattern of dispersed food product infrared radiation is also collected with the help of mirror ellipsoid of rotation and focuses on the reception of the light-sensitive surface of the 2nd photosensor of PASS-u. The resulting photocurrents from the 1st and 2nd of photosensors brand PASS-a are registered with a reading device UV-206 measuring currents up to 1 µa. In the result of which is determined by the integral absorption ability of dispersed food product by well-known methods. Also determined the spectral magnitude of the incident flux of infrared radiation using a radiation thermocouples Bpositive. Further reference is determined by the integral emissivity of black body (standard) at a given temperature. On the basis of which the well-known formula (3) determine the integral will emit the function ability of dispersed food in particular starch:

where TI.P.the temperature of the upper surface of the layer, K;

Δλ,=λ21, λ21spectral composition of the incident flux of infrared radiation, mcm;

Andλ(TI.P.)=Aλ(2π, 2π) - depolymerizes absorption ability of the layer at a temperature TI.P., UNED (%);

Rλa(TI.P.) - depolymerizes reflective layer at a temperature TI.P., UNED (%).

Thus, in the context of this formula, the integral emissivity is numerically equal to the integral absorption ability with respect to the emissivity of a black body at a temperature equal to the temperature of the surface layer TI.P.. The results of the calculation of the integral emissivity for starch with an optical thickness of l=5.0 mm for different types of infrared generators and temperature of the irradiated surface layer shown in table 1.

Table 1
Type IR generatorε(TI.P.), Rel. unitsTI.P.To
CGT-220-1000-1 with a parabolic reflector, T[Izl]=2500 K, Rand=0,91 (coefficient neg is the position of the material of the reflector) 0,4404
Nichrome spiral with a parabolic reflector, T[Izl]=K, Rand=0,480,5391
Metal tile with a parabolic reflector, T[Izl]=598 K, Rand=0,280,7382

The accuracy of determining the integral emissivity in this case is ±10%.

Example 2. Defined the integral emissivity of starch on the proposed method. Starch was subjected to purification by removing trash and debris. Determined equilibrium moisture content, which amounted to 13.9%, a bulk density of 650 kg/m3and the weight - of 1.03 kg of Starch was filled in a container in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with an aspect ratio of 50:150:210 mm ambient Temperature of 20°C. the Temperature on the top surface of the sample bulk layer 18°C. Maintained the temperature of the environment around the sample at a constant level. Withstood the sample to achieve or homogeneous temperature distribution throughout the volume, placing the container with the starch in thermostat. Continuously, the infrared heating of the sample up to 200°C using a heat block, consisting of 2 x IR generator the Directors type KGT-220-1000-1 with individual parabolic reflectors with the following geometrical characteristics: the width of the reflector x=0,077 mm, the height of the reflector y=0,027 m, focal length f=0,017 m is the Capacity of one of the IR generator of 1 kW. The infrared generators in thermal block are on the same horizontal plane, the step between the generators is 0.09 m Distance to the irradiated surface of 0.07 m Sample with starch is set against thermal block with IR-generators in such a way as to guide the falling stream of infrared radiation was perpendicular to the irradiated surface of the sample. Determination of the temperature field on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating is carried out remotely using an IR pyrometer. Determination of the temperature field inside the sample during IR heating, and determining the amplitude of the sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode by using battery copper-konstantovich thermocouples by well-known methods. Oscillating mode of the infrared radiation is generated by periodic heat shielding unit and the infrared generators of the leaf shutter (flat metal plate) so that the magnitude of the incident radiant flux varies in a sinusoidal law E=E0·(1+K·sin(ω-τ)), where E0=(2000÷2500) W, κ=(1000÷1500), ω=(5÷15)-1. The measurement of infrared radiant flux energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating, and u is the amplitude and the oscillation frequency of the radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR exposure in an oscillating mode is carried out using a differential beam radiometer by well-known methods. Next, having established using differential rod radiometer sine laws fluctuations infrared radiant flux energy and the average temperature of the sample is determined by the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode by using a phase meter. On what basis is calculated integral emissivity of dispersed food product, in particular starch, by the above copyright the formula (2), table 2.

Table 2
Type IR generatorε (TI.P.), Rel. unitsTI.P.To
CGT-220-1000-10,412423
parabolic reflector0,421448
T[Izl]- 2500 K,0,458473
Rand=0,9 (factor0,491498
reflection of the material of the reflector)0,52 523
Nichrome spiral
parabolic reflector,
T[Izl]=982 K, Rand=0,48
0,523
0,548
0,573
0,597
0,611
423
448
473
498
523
Metal tile0,712423
parabolic reflector0,728448
T[Izl]=598 K, Rand=0,28of 0.741473
0,776498
0,798523

The accuracy of determining the integral emissivity in this case amounted to ±1%, which is 10 times higher than in example 1.

Example 3. Defined the integral emissivity bread crumbs (baton "Darnitsa"). The original humidity ω=42,7%, layer thickness of 5.0 mm, All other parameters and the method of determination as in example 2. The calculation of the integral emissivity for bread crumbs when the irradiation of various types of infrared generators are presented in tab is .3.

Table 3
Type IR generatorε(TI.P.), Rel. unitsTI.P.To
CGT-220-1000-10,485423
individual0,497448
parabolic0,511473
reflectors, T[Izl]=2500 K,0,527498
Rand= 0,910,541523
Nichrome spiral0,647423
parabolic reflector0,681448
T[Izl]=982 K, Rand=0,480,699473
0,721498
0,742 523
Metal tile0,791423
parabolic reflector0,827448
T[Izl]=598 K, Rand= 0,280,843473
0,861498
0,894523

The accuracy of determining the integral emissivity in this case amounted to ±1%, which is 10 times higher than in example 1.

Studies have been conducted integral emissivity of grain, cereals, flour, sugar. Accuracy is ±1%, which is 10 times higher than in example 1.

The obtained temperature dependence of the coefficients of the integral emissivity of dispersed food products have been used in the management of technological process of heat treatment at thermal power supply.

Measure the effectiveness of the management of technological process of heat treatment, in particular starch, is the yield of the target product performance target product, the dynamic viscosity of the paste is in, made from IR-modified starches, the heat treatment time, and the measure of quality - the accuracy of the integral emissivity.

In the case when the integral emissivity was determined based on the prototype, the process performance the following:

the yield of the target product - 215 kg/h;

is the dynamic viscosity of the pastes prepared from the obtained IR-modified starches - 620 PA·s;

- time IR-heat treatment - 48 min;

- measuring accuracy ±10%.

In the case when the integral emissivity was determined by the proposed method:

the yield of the target product - 271 kg/h;

is the dynamic viscosity of the pastes prepared from the obtained IR-modified starches - 8 PA·s;

- time IR-heat treatment - 17 min;

- measurement accuracy ±1%.

The use of the proposed method in comparison with the prototype allows to increase the efficiency of the regulatory process, the measure of which is the output of the target product, the process, and to improve the accuracy of control of the quality indicators due to the higher accuracy and reliability of measurement tools. And improve quality indicators:

to increase the yield of the target product by 26%;

to reduce the dynamic viscosity of the pastes, prigotovlenn the x from the received IR-modified starches (qualitative indicator of the presence of dextrins highest grade) 77.5 times;

- time infrared heat treatment to reduce 2.8 times;

- measurement accuracy to increase 10 times.

The method of determining the integral emissivity of dispersed food, including preparation of dispersed food, the formation of a flat sample of the bulk layer by filling disperse food product into the container, measuring the ambient temperature, temperature of the product on the upper surface of a flat sample of the bulk layer, the temperature of the environment around the sample at a constant level, continuous IR heating of the sample to a predetermined temperature, the infrared irradiation of the upper surface of a flat sample of the bulk layer by radiant flux in an oscillating mode, the determination of the temperature field on the upper surface and inside the sample during IR heating, the determination of the amplitude of the oscillations in the average temperature of the sample during IR-irradiation in an oscillating mode, the measurement of radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating, the measurement of amplitude and frequency of the radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of a flat sample for infrared radiation in an oscillating mode, determining a phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode is IU and calculating the integral emissivity of dispersed food product according to the following formula:

where C is the heat capacity of the sample material, j/K;
Tmthe average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, To;
Tandthe amplitude of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, To;
Tothe temperature of the sample at the end of the IR-heating before the oscillations of thermal flow, To;
σo- Stefan-Boltzmann constant (reference value), W/(m2·K4);
φ is the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode, UNED (rad.);
κ is the amplitude of the incident radiant flux;
ω is the oscillation frequency of the incident radiant flux, c-1;
F - the area of the irradiated surface of the sample, m2.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: waveguide element is in form of a channel cavity in diffusely scattering hydrophobic materials having cavities without direct contact with the channel cavity. Inside the cavities there are light sources and receivers spaced apart by a distance which provides the required assay sensitivity. Direct-flow of the analysed sample is created inside the channel cavity. The channel cavity can also be coated with porous material which enables extraction of the analysed substance with subsequent measurement of its optical absorption. The apparatus can also be fitted with washing apparatus.

EFFECT: high sensitivity of the apparatus and possibility of self-cleaning of the measurement channel.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: transmission coefficient is periodically measured in water samples taken at the inlet and outlet of a boiler unit. The difference in light transmission ΔT is determined and content of metal contaminants is determined using the following relationship: ΔMe=a·ΔT. According to the invention, the obtained value of content of metal contaminants ΔMer is then compared with a given value ΔMe3, and a decision is made to continue or stop washing the boiler unit based on the comparison result: washing is stopped if ΔMerMe3 and continued if ΔMer>ΔMe3; the value of light transmission ΔT is determined at wavelength λ=230-630 nm, where a is an experimentally determined coefficient of proportionality, mg/%·dm3; ΔMe is amount of metal contaminants during a specific measurement and held during operation of the boiler unit, kg/t; ΔMe=Mein - Meout, kg/t; Mein is content of metal in water at the inlet of the boiler unit, kg/t; Meout is content of metal in water at the outlet of the boiler unit, kg/t; Me is total amount of metal contaminants in the water, kg; λ is wavelength, nm, Tin is value of light transmission at the inlet of the boiler unit, %; Tout is value of light transmission at the outlet of the boiler unit, %; ΔT is change in value of light transmission: ΔT=Tout-Tin, %.

EFFECT: higher reliability and information content of the determination process.

3 tbl, 5 dwg

Turbidimetre // 2408873

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: turbidimetre has a cup with a perforated lateral surface, a hollow cylinder, a radiation source, a cover with holes and a radiation receiver. On the lateral wall of the cup opposite each perforation there is light-absorbing cap having a perforated lateral wall, and inside the cup there is a ⊥-shaped hollow rotor placed coaxially with possibility of rotation, in which are mounted a direct illumination light-emitting diode and a diode, light from whose output of which is partially scattered and partially absorbed in the light-absorbing cap, each of which has entrance and exit windows. The entrance windows of the light-emitting diodes lie opposite the radiation source, the exit window of the light-emitting diode, light from whose output of which is partially scattered and partially absorbed in the light-absorbing cap, lies opposite the perforation in the cup closed by the perforated cap, and the exit window of the direct illumination light-emitting diode lies opposite the radiation receiver. The light-emitting diodes can be made from metal or polymer material and have total reflection mirrors. The material of the light-emitting diodes can be optical fibre.

EFFECT: high measurement accuracy by taking into account the background component of the optical radiation used.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus employs two cylindrical electrodes for supplying radio-frequency power, combined with socket pieces for inlet and outlet of a mixture of working gas and the substance and joined by a ceramic pipe. An extra socket piece with an earthed electrode is connected to the centre of the pipe and is used for output of radiation.

EFFECT: simple design, high reliability and sensitivity.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus employs two cylindrical electrodes for supplying high-frequency power, combined with socket pieces for inlet and outlet of the working gas. The substance in solid form is put in the cavity of the second electrode.

EFFECT: simple design, high reliability and sensitivity.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves extraction of titanium (IV) from a solution containing cyanate ions, a complexing agent and an extraction agent with subsequent analysis of the extract, where the complexing agent and extraction agent used is a mixture of low-melting point diantipyryl methane and benzoic acid, taken in molar ratio 1:1. Extraction is carried out with H2SO4 acid content equal to 0.05-1.0 mol/l, with subsequent quantitative detection of titanium (IV) ions using a spectrophotometric method.

EFFECT: simplification and high selectivity, safety of extracting titanium ions for subsequent determination.

1 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to devices for hair growth regulation. Device contains light emitter for regulation with wave length from 400 nm to 1000 nm for irradiation of target sections on person's body, metre of moisture content, made with possibility of non-contact measurement of target section moisture content; unit of determination for determination whether or not light should be emitted for regulation on the basis of result of measurement by metre of moisture content. Moisture content metre is provided with light emitter for measurement with wavelength from 1300 nm to 2000 nm for irradiation of target section; photo-receiving element for reception of light, reflected from target section, and its transformation into electric signal, and signal analyser for analysis of electric signal from photo-receiving element in order to obtain spectrum of reflected light and for estimation of moisture content by obtained spectrum.

EFFECT: application of invention allows to reduce probability to injure eyes in case of incorrect use and increase application convenience.

6 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: four identical suspensions of test microorganisms are produced to estimate activity of an antimicrobial preparation. The first one contains physiologic saline, the second one - the antimicrobial preparation in the preset concentration Cprep, the third one - physiologic saline, and the fourth one - the antimicrobial preparation in the same amount. After a certain period of time td, a detergent is added to the third and fourth suspensions, while two first samples of suspension are filled with physiologic saline so that microorganism concentration are the same in all four samples of suspension. The fluorescence levels of these suspensions are measured with a laser and/or non-laser fluorometre at the moment t1 and after an interval Δt equal to 15 minutes approximately. Then measurements are performed once again at the moment t2 and after an interval Δt. Further, the measured values are used to calculate the antimicrobial preparation efficacy ε by solving kinetic equations.

EFFECT: use of the method allows cutting time of estimated efficien of the antimicrobial preparation, more precise and simplified procedure of choosing a preferential antimicrobial preparation.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: detection and identification of biological objects and their nanocomponents are enabled by exposure to radiation, monochromatic or nonmonochromatic radiation, including laser, sensing of one or more samples containing microobjects and their nanokcomponents with the use of a set of sample response measurement and record devices. The responses characteristics of each radiation conversion event are measured separately or in the aggregate, transferred and reduce in a diagnostically linear form. It is followed normalisation, correction and creation of a base of the reference and diagnosed parametres of microobjects and/or their nanocomponents. Further, the reference, diagnosed and identified microobjects and/or their nanocomponents are recognised and compared with experience data of required parametres on the basis of measurement with the use of a matrix.

EFFECT: use of the declared method allows precise qualitative and quantitative analysis of detected, identified, diagnosed parametres of the microobjects and their nanocomponents on the basis of optical measurement.

4 cl, 12 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: substance of the method consists in pus substratum sampling, analysed for irrigating solution reaction, and pus pocket washing with the most effective irrigating solution. The irrigating solution is analysed for efficacy in test tubes of greater surface roughness in the bottom, 1/5 filled with pus substratum. The test tubes are 3/5 filled with the irrigating solutions then, placed in a chamber and video filmed by a digital video camera transferring an image through an interface to a data processor which compares colour of the bottom filled with pus substratum and the appropriate reference colours of the irrigating solution images stored in the memory of the data processor. If the colour of the filmed image is matched with a reference colour of one of the irrigating solutions, video recording is stopped. Then time during which pus substratum moves up completely over the irrigating solution is fixed. The solution with faster pus substratum effect time is considered to be effective and used for irrigating the pus pocket of a patient to ensure a pure water effect. In the process of treatment, the irrigating solution is introduced for a period of time not smaller than time during which pus substratum moves in a test tube. An irrigating solution activity tester comprises a chamber with placed test tubes and a digital video camera connected to a data processor. The chamber has ports arranged on the same optical axis and comprising a lighter and a digital video camera. The data processor accommodates a data record and storage unit, a preset area selection unit, a comparator unit, and a timer; a heating and temperature control unit is connected to the chamber. The test tubes are marked at 1/5 and 3/5, while a lower quarter of an internal surface of the test tubes has greater roughness, than the other.

EFFECT: more effective and faster pus substratum removal from a cavity.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry, in particular to flour grinding, food-concentrates, cereals, confectionery, bakery, starch-and-sugar-processing and may be used for control of the process of thermal treatment of dispersive food products, such as grains, cereals, flour, sand sugar and salt. The method is implemented as follows. The dispersive food product is prepared. One forms a flat sample of the sifted layer by way of the dispersive food product sifting into a vessel. One measures environmental temperature and food product temperature on the upper surface of sifted layer. Environmental temperature is maintained around the sample at a permanent level. One performs uninterrupted infrared heating of the samplel to a specified temperature. One performs infrared treatment of the upper surface of the sifted layer sample with a radiant flux in oscillating mode. One determines temperature field on the upper surface of and inside the sample in the process of infrared heating. One determines oscillation amplitude of the sample medium temperature in the process of infrared treatment in oscillating mode. One measures the infrared energy radiant flux quantity on the sample upper surface in the process of infrared heating. One measures amplitude and frequency of oscillation of the infrared energy radiant flux on the sample upper surface in the process of infrared treatment in oscillating mode. One determines the angle of phase displacement of the radiant flux oscillation and the sample medium temperature in the process of infrared treatment in oscillating mode. One calculates integral absorption capacity of dispersive food products according to a patented formula explained in the invention formula.

EFFECT: invention allows to enhance yield of the target product, to reduce the time of technological processes implementation and to enhance precision of control of qualitative properties due to a higher precision and reliability of measurement instruments.

3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for liquid products (milk, juice, etc.) processing. The unit is made in the form of identical constructions of modules interconnected by means of pipelines, at that each module contains the outer working cylinder from quartz glass, with an electric heater installed on it, made in the form of a high-resistance spiral coiled on its surface and fixed by heat-insulation with reflective inner surface, and internal working cylinder from quartz glass which is placed coaxially inside the outer working cylinder with formation of the gap between them of not greater than 4 mm. The source of infrared or ultraviolet radiation is installed coaxially in the internal cavity of the working cylinder.

EFFECT: modular structure of the unit enables to ensure high productivity with high product quality and reduction of energy costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for liquid products (milk, juice, etc.) processing. The unit is made in the form of identical constructions of modules interconnected by means of pipelines, at that each module contains the outer working cylinder with an electric heater with reflective inner surface installed on it, and internal working cylinder from quartz glass which is placed coaxially inside the outer working cylinder with formation of the annular gap between them of not greater than 2 mm. The source of infrared or ultraviolet radiation is installed coaxially in the internal cavity of the working cylinder.

EFFECT: modular structure of the unit enables to ensure high productivity with high product quality and reduction of energy costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of processing liquid substances like milk, juice etc. Device consists of pasteurisation chamber comprising several modules sequentially, parallely or jointly with help of conduits connected. Each module comprises operational cylinder with mounted inside quartz tube with split for leaking treated liquid not exceeding 2 mm. Source of infrared rays is installed into quartz tube.

EFFECT: improving quality of treating food product due to simplification of forming thin coat in operational cylinder and reducing energy costs by 15% with the same productivity.

1 dwg

FIELD: food-processing industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves two stages: first stage includes heating by means of microwave radiation to temperature of 85-140 C under atmospheric pressure in chamber, and second stage includes cooling to temperature of 30-50 C by evaporating part of moisture when pressure within chamber is reduced to 1.0-10 mm of mercury column; holding during 5-20 min; at first disinfection stage, product may be treated with water or steam supplied in an amount providing increase in moisture content by 1-3%.

EFFECT: improved quality of basic material owing to improved microbiological properties.

4 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: pasteurizing equipment for fluid food products such as milk, juices, beer, jelly, and pastes.

SUBSTANCE: pasteurizer has cylindrical upright working chamber and electric infrared emitter coaxially arranged in working chamber. Outlet reservoir is equipped with fluid product outlet opening and window communicating with lower part of working chamber. Pasteurizer has temperature detector for detecting temperature of pasteurized product and apparatus for feeding of fluid product onto inner wall of working chamber upper part, said apparatus being equipped with cavity, fluid product inlet opening and throttling portion for discharging fluid product onto working chamber wall. Working chamber is positioned for rotation relative to geometric longitudinal axis. Working chamber is rotated by means of electric drive. Such construction allows operating mode with stabilized thickness of film of liquid product under pasteurization process to be set.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in pasteurization of liquid products, including products with increased viscosity.

6 cl, 4 dwg

The invention relates to techniques for aseptic canning of milk, juices and extracts

The invention relates to food processing equipment and can be used in combination sterilization of liquid foods, heat and ultrasound

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry, in particular to flour grinding, food-concentrates, cereals, confectionery, bakery, starch-and-sugar-processing and may be used for control of the process of thermal treatment of dispersive food products, such as grains, cereals, flour, sand sugar and salt. The method is implemented as follows. The dispersive food product is prepared. One forms a flat sample of the sifted layer by way of the dispersive food product sifting into a vessel. One measures environmental temperature and food product temperature on the upper surface of sifted layer. Environmental temperature is maintained around the sample at a permanent level. One performs uninterrupted infrared heating of the samplel to a specified temperature. One performs infrared treatment of the upper surface of the sifted layer sample with a radiant flux in oscillating mode. One determines temperature field on the upper surface of and inside the sample in the process of infrared heating. One determines oscillation amplitude of the sample medium temperature in the process of infrared treatment in oscillating mode. One measures the infrared energy radiant flux quantity on the sample upper surface in the process of infrared heating. One measures amplitude and frequency of oscillation of the infrared energy radiant flux on the sample upper surface in the process of infrared treatment in oscillating mode. One determines the angle of phase displacement of the radiant flux oscillation and the sample medium temperature in the process of infrared treatment in oscillating mode. One calculates integral absorption capacity of dispersive food products according to a patented formula explained in the invention formula.

EFFECT: invention allows to enhance yield of the target product, to reduce the time of technological processes implementation and to enhance precision of control of qualitative properties due to a higher precision and reliability of measurement instruments.

3 tbl, 3 ex

Up!