System and method for efficient adaptation of scalable flows

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: system and method are proposed to indicate points of switching from lower level to higher one at the level of file format for efficient switching of scalable flows in flow servers and at local reproduction of files. Also the present invention proposes system and method for indication of switching points from lower level to higher in bit video flow, for instance to provide for intellectual forwarding of scalable levels in network elements, capable of recognition of media data, or computationally scalable decoding in receivers of flow.

EFFECT: provision of simple and efficient switching from lower level to higher one for adaptation of scalable flow without necessity in detailed selection and analysis of bit video flows by flow server, and thus reduction of computational and implementation resources.

16 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The technical FIELD

[0001] This invention relates to the encoding, decoding, storage and transmission media. More specifically, this invention relates to the encoding, decoding, storage and transmission of scalable media data.

BACKGROUND of the INVENTION

[0002] Multimedia applications include local playback, streaming or transmitting on-demand, interactive services, services broadcast (broadcast)/multicast (multicast). Technologies used in multimedia applications include, for example, encoding, storage and transmission media. Media types include speech, audio, image, video, graphics and text in real time. Various technologies have been developed different standards.

[0003] the video coding Standards include ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector, international telecommunication Union - sector telecommunications standards) N, ISO (International Standardization Organization, international organization for standardization)/IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission international electrotechnical Commission) MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group, Expert group on moving images) - 1 Visual (visual), ITU-T H.262 or ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Visual, ITU-T H.263, ISO/IEC MPEG-4 Visual and ITU-T H.264 (also known as ISO/IEC MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding, advanced coding)). In addition to the CSO, development of new video coding standards. For example, currently developing a standard SVC (Scalable Video Coding, scalable video coding). This standard will become an extension of the scaling of the standard H.264/AVC. Also in development are Chinese standards video encoding.

[0004] a Scalable video coding can provide a scalable bit streams. Part of the scalable bit stream can be extracted and decoded with low visual quality playback. Scalable bit stream contains a single unscaled main level and one or more improves levels. Improving the level can increase the temporal resolution (i.e. the frame rate), spatial resolution, or just the quality of the video information contained in the lowest level. In some cases, improving data level can be truncated after a certain position and even in arbitrary positions. Each position of the truncation may include some additional data, representing more superior visual quality. Such scalability is called FGS (fine-grained (granularity) scalability, scalability, small detail). Unlike FGS, scalability provided by the level of improvement, but not a scalability small is detalizacii, called CGS (coarse-grained scalability, scalability coarse granularity).

[0005] In the current draft SVC standard, the structure of a scalable level is characterized by three variables - temporal_level ("time level"), dependency_id (ID based) and quality_level ("quality"), which are indicated in the bit stream or can be obtained according to the standard. Parameter temporal_level is used to specify temporal scalability or frame rate. Level, consisting of images with a smaller value of temporal_level, has a lower framerate than the level, consisting of images with a large value of temporal_level. Parameter dependency_id is used to specify the hierarchy of dependencies inter-level coding. At any time the position of the image with a smaller value of dependency_id can be used for inter-prediction when encoding the image with a large value of dependency_id. Parameter quality_level is used to specify the hierarchy FGS-levels. In any temporary position and at the same dependency_id values for inter-prediction FGS-image with the value quality_level equal to QL, is used FGS-image with the value quality_level equal to QL-1, or the main image quality (that is, not FGS-image)if QL-1=0).

[0006] figure 1 shows an example of a time segment of a scalable video stream and specify the values of the three above-mentioned variables. It should be noted that the time values are relative, that is, the time value of 0 does not necessarily correspond to the time of the first image in the sequence of display of the bitstream. Typical predictive reference according to this example is shown in figure 2, where the solid arrows represent inter-predictive reference dependence in the horizontal direction, and the dotted block arrows inter prediction reference dependence. The element that shows an arrow used as a predictive reference the element from which the arrow starts.

[0007] Here, the level is defined as the set of images that have the same value temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level, respectively. Usually for decoding and playback of improving the level should be available to the lower levels, and the basic level, because they could be used, directly or indirectly, for inter-prediction when encoding improves level. For example, figures 1 and 2, the image s (t, T, D, Q) (0, 0, 0, 0) and (8, 0, 0, 0) belong to the basic level, which can be decoded independently of any improving levels. The image with (t, T, D, Q) is equal to (4, 1, 0, 0) belongs to improving the level that doubles the frame rate of the main level; to decode this is about the level of required images main level. Image with (t, T, D, Q) (0, 0, 0, 1) and (8, 0, 0, 1) belong to enhance the level, improve the quality and frame rate of the ground level by FGS; to decode this level also requires images of the ground level.

[0008] the instant Image update decode (IDR, instantaneous decoding refresh) is defined in the standard H.264/AVC as follows. This is a coded picture in which all slices are slices of type I or SI and immediately after the decoding of which the decoding process has to mark all reference picture as "unused as a reference". After decoding the IDR-picture all following coded pictures in sequence decoding can be decoded without inter prediction from the image, the decoded prior to the IDR picture. The first image of each coded video sequences is an IDR picture.

[0009] the Concept of IDR-image is also used in the current draft SVC standard, where the above definition is applicable to images with the same values of dependency_id and quality_level, respectively. In other words, IDR-picture is encoded image in which the decoding of the IDR-image and all subsequent coded images in the sequence decoding at the same level (i.e. with the same value is of dependency_id and quality_level, as the IDR-picture) can be performed without inter prediction from any of the images in front of IDR image in the sequence decoding at the same level. Immediately after decoding the IDR-picture decoding process must mark all reference pictures in the same level as "unused as a reference". It should be noted that used here in the context of the current draft SVC standard, the expression "the same level" means that the decoded image have the same value of dependency_id and quality_level, as IDR-picture. Or all images with the same value of the sequence number of the image (i.e. with the same temporary position), but different values of dependency_id or quality_level, coded as IDR images, or no images with the given sequence number of the image is not encoded as an IDR-picture. In other words, either all of the images in the unit of access unit) (including all images with the same sequence number of the image) are IDR images, or no images in the unit of access is not an IDR picture.

[0010] Existing standards of media formats include file format (ISO/IEC 14496-12), the file format is MPEG-4 (ISO/IEC 14496-14), file format AVC (ISO/IEC 14496-15) and file format 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project, a partnership Project third generation is possible) (3GPP TS 26.244). Currently, ISO/IEC MPEG develops SVC file format, whose description can be found in MPEG N7477, "Study verification model file format for scalable video coding (SVC)" ("VM Study Text for Scalable Video Coding (SVC) File Format"), 73 meeting of ISO/IEC MPEG, Poznan, Poland, July 2005, which is fully incorporated here by reference.

[0011] One of the advantages of scalable coding in comparison with a single-level encoding is that when scalable coding one thread can satisfy the various requirements of quality, bit rate, display size, and the like, while at one level encoding you want to use multiple threads. To use multiple threads requires more space for storage and, when simulcasting, large bandwidth transmission. In streaming applications when changing the parameters of the transmission system or recipients compared to their previous condition, such as bandwidth transfer, streams, we need to adapt. Adaptation of threads can execute gateways, and other able to recognize media network elements (media-aware network elements, MANE). The adaptation of the flow may also be required for local playback scalable encoded file (i.e. the file is in the same device, Thu and decoder, or in memory that is connected to a decoding device for rapid channel), if the decoder uses the computing resources in conjunction with any other processes. For example, if decoding is performed in the General-purpose processor that is running a multitasking operating system, in some intervals, the decoder can use the full power of the processor and to perform decoding of all scale levels. However, in other periods of time may be available only part of processor power, and he will be able to decode only a subset of the available scalable levels. Adapted stream may have a modified bit rate, frame rate and/or resolution. When a single-level coding adaptation of the flow can be performed by switching threads or transcoding. If only scalable stream adaptation stream can be performed by switching levels.

[0012] In scalable coding, switching from high level to low can be performed anywhere. However, to switch from low to high, the situation is different, because the decoding of the image, which has been a switch, usually requires the same level of some of the previous the images in the sequence decoding.

[0013] For the current draft SVC standard switching from low to high can be carried out at IDR unit access (including IDR images). However, the use of IDR blocks access has led to the deterioration of coding efficiency due to frequent coding IDR blocks access or slows down the adaptation of the flow. Both of these problems are closely connected with the perception of the end user. To ensure switching from low to high it is theoretically possible to use the methods of encoding SP/SI pictures or gradual decoding (gradual decoding refresh). However, these methods have been developed for single-level coding. So for scalable encoding these methods are currently not suitable. Moreover, even after the extension of these methods for use in scalable coding their application will lead either to additional restrictions on the encoding (which is equivalent to a lower coding efficiency), or complexity to the implementation.

[0014] Therefore, in a scalable video encoding there is a need to support simple and effective switch from low to high. Moreover, there is also a need to specify points simple and effective switch from low to high level multipartite what about the format so not to require the parsing and analysis of the bit stream to find places to switch from low to high, because the analysis of flow may require complex calculations.

The INVENTION

[0015] the Present invention provides a system and method for point of switching from the low level to the high level file format for efficient switching of scalable streams in streaming servers and local playback of files. The present invention also provides a system and method for point of switching from low to high in the bit stream, for example, to intelligently forwarding scalable levels able to recognize media network elements or computing scalable decoding in the receiving stream.

[0016] the Present invention makes possible a simple and efficient switching from low to high for the adaptation of scalable stream. This invention eliminates the need for a detailed examination and analysis of a streaming server of bit streams that would otherwise require a significant computational cost and implementation resources. This invention can be used in almost any application with scalable media data.

[0017] These and others the many advantages and features of the invention, as well as its organization and method of operation will become apparent from the following detailed description and drawings, in which identical elements have the same number.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

[0018] figure 1 shows an example of a time segment of a scalable video stream and specified values of three variables, temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level.

[0019] figure 2 shows a typical predictive reference dependence for the time segment shown in figure 1.

[0020] figure 3 illustrates the layout of the system, which can be implemented in the present invention.

[0021] figure 4 shows a perspective view of the electronic device, which can be implemented the principles of the present invention.

[0022] figure 5 shows the schematic diagram of the electric circuit device of Fig.4.

[0023] figure 6 depicts a typical system for streaming multimedia data, which can be applied hierarchy scalable coding of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION of PREFERRED embodiments of the INVENTION

[0024] With reference to 6 will be described a typical system for streaming multimedia data, which is one of the systems, which can be applied procedures of the present invention.

[0025] the System for streaming multimedia data obecnosci one or more sources 100 media for example, a video camera and microphone, or stored in memory, files, video or computer graphics. The baseline data obtained from different sources 100 media, combined in a media file encoder 102, which can also be called the edit box. The original data received from one or more sources 100 media, first captured by the means 104 capture in the structure of the encoder 102, which can usually be implemented in the form of various interface cards, driver software or application software that controls the functions of the card. For example, video data can be captured using a video capture card and software. Output means 104 capture typically comes in either uncompressed or slightly compressed stream of data, such as uncompressed video format YUV 4:2:0 or image format motion-JPEG, if you use a video capture card.

[0026] the Editor 106 connects the various media streams together to synchronize the video and audio streams for simultaneous playback on demand. Editor 106 can also edit any media stream, such as a video stream, such as reducing by half the frame rate or decreasing spatial resolution. These separate, but synchronized, the media streams are compressed in to the pressure 108, where each media stream is compressed separately using the appropriate compressor for this media stream. For example, the frames of YUV 4:2:0 can be compressed using ITU-T recommendation H.263 or H.264. Private synchronized and compressed media streams usually interspersed in the multiplexer 110, and the output of the encoder 102 is obtained a single, homogeneous bit stream, which consists of data of multiple media streams and may be called a multimedia file. It should be noted that for the formation of the media multiplexing of multiple media streams in a single file, not necessarily the alternation of media streams may carry out the streaming server directly before sending.

[0027] the Media files are transmitted to the streaming server 112, which is thus able to stream either in real time or in the form of gradual loading. With the gradual loading media files are first stored in server memory 112, where they then can as needed be retrieved for transmission. When streaming in real time editor 102 transmits a continuous media stream media stream server 112, and the server 112 forwards the stream directly to the client 114. As additional features are streaming in real-time may also be performed by sohraneniem media files accessible by the server 112 to the memory, where can be streamed in real-time and as needed to run a continuous media stream multimedia files. In this case, any controlling streaming editor 102 is not required. The streaming server 112 provides the formation of a stream of multimedia data in accordance with the available bandwidth of the transmission or the maximum speed decoding and playback by the client 114, while the streaming server can adjust the bit rate of the media stream, for example, passing In transmission frames, or by adjusting the number of scalable layers. In addition, the streaming server 112 may modify header fields multiplexed media stream to reduce their size and to form the multimedia data into packets suitable for transmission over used telecommunication network. The client 114 can usually regulate, to some degree, the server 112 using a suitable control Protocol. The client 114 is able to manage the server 112 at least to the extent that the client may be selected desired media file, and, in addition, the client is usually able to stop and interrupt the transmission of the media file.

[0028] When the client 114 receives the multimedia file, the file is first fed into the demultiplexer 116, kotoryjraspolagaet components of the file the media streams. Then separate the compressed media streams served in the decompressor 118, where each media stream is uncompressed appropriate for that particular media stream decompressor. Expanded and reconstructed flows are served in the block 120 playback, where the media streams are played back at the proper speed according to their synchronization data and serves on the means 124 for presentation. Real means 124 presentation can consist, for example, from a computer screen or mobile station and acoustic means. The composition of the client 114 is also typically includes a control unit 122, which the end user can usually manage through the user interface and which operates as a server, through the above-described control Protocol, and work unit 120 playback, on the basis of end-user instructions.

[0029] it Should be noted that the transfer of media files from a streaming server 112 to the client 114 is via a telecommunication network, the transmission usually consists of several network elements. It is therefore possible that there is at least one network element, which can perform traffic shaping of multimedia data in accordance with the available bandwidth of the transmission or the maximum decoding speed and play the Denia client 114, at least partially, in such a way as described above for the streaming server.

[0030] the Present invention provides a system and method for point of switching from the low level to the high level file format for efficient switching of scalable streams in streaming servers and local playback of files. The present invention also provides a system and method for point of switching from low to high in the bit stream, for example, to intelligently forwarding scalable levels able to recognize media network elements or computing scalable decoding in the receiving stream.

[0031] For example, the following describes several embodiments of the present invention. However, it should be noted that other alternatives are also possible embodiment of the invention, for example, obtained by some combination of the following options.

[0032] the First variant of the point of switching from low to high in a file format includes the use of switching points from low to high as one of the types of information on scaling. In this embodiment of the invention to specify a point of switching from low to high for each level defines a new block (bx). This block contains the data structure that contains information about the scaling for each scalable layer, for example, in the structure ScalableLayerEntry() ("the item table with information about scalable level"), as defined in the draft version of the standard file format for SVC. A block is defined as follows:

Unit type: 'Iswp'

Container: ScalableLayerEntry

Mandatory: No

Quantity: Zero or one

[0033] This unit provides a compact point switching from low to high for a single level in the stream. The table is organized strictly in order of increasing sample number. If for some level block switching points missing, for this level there are no other points of switching from low to high, in addition to samples of synchronization specified in the block of samples of synchronization, or samples of the shadow synchronization specified in the block of samples of the shadow synchronization.

[0034] In this example, "entry_count" gives the number of elements in the following table. Item "sample_number" gives the number of the sample, for which the following table shows information about the switch points from low to high for the current level. Item entry_count2" gives the number of elements in the following table.

[0035] the Element "delta_layer_id" indicates more than the high level, to which the stream can be switched from the current level, or lower level, with which the flow can be switched to the current level, the current sample number sample equal sample_number. A value greater than or equal to zero, indicates that the current sample stream can be switched from the current level to the highest level with level identifier equal to (layer_id+delta_layer_id+1). A value less than zero indicates that the current sample stream can be switched with the underlying level with level identifier equal to (layer_id+delta_layer_id) at the current level. The layer_id value for each level of the data structure that contains information about scalability for each scale level.

[0036] the Second option point switching from low to high in the file format includes a point of switching from low to high for all levels in a special block. This block is defined as follows:

Unit type:'Iswp'
Container:Sample Table Box ('stbl') ("block table sample")
Mandatory:No
Number:Zero or the Dean

[0037] This unit provides a compact point switching from low to high for all levels in the structure of the flow. The table is organized strictly in order of increasing sample number. If the block switching points from level to level is missing, there are no other points of switching from low to high, in addition to samples of synchronization specified in the block of samples of synchronization, or samples of the shadow synchronization specified in the block of samples of the shadow synchronization.

[0038] In this embodiment of the invention "entry_count" gives the number of elements in the following table. Value "sample_number" gives the number of the sample for which information about the switching points from low to high is listed in the following table. Value "entry_count2" gives the number of elements in the following table. Value "layer_id" network level ID for which information about the switching points from low to high is listed in the following table. Value "entry_count3" gives the number of elements in the following table.

[0039] the Value "delta_ayer_id" indicates the highest level to which a stream can be switched from the current level, or lower level, with which the flow can be switched to the current level, the current sample number sample equal sample_number. C is Uchenie, greater than or equal to zero, indicates that the current sample stream can be switched from the current level to the highest level with level identifier equal to (layer_id+delta_layer_id+1). A value less than zero indicates that the current sample stream can be switched with the underlying level with level identifier equal to (layer_id+delta_layer_id) at the current level. In this particular embodiment of the invention it is also possible to place the loop sample_number inside the loop with layer_id, instead of the shown method, where the cycle with sample_number is inside a loop with layer_id.

[0040] the Third variant of the point of switching from low to high in a file format includes the use of switching points of the signal tracks. This variant of the invention can also be used simultaneously with any of the other above-mentioned embodiments of the invention. This variant embodiment of the invention is applicable to the case of independently decoded combination of scalable levels combined with the formation of independent tracks, usually through the use of links. Basically the format of the media (ISO base media file format), media are presented in the form of a set of independent network tracks ("tracks"), while the tracks "hints" (hint track contains dependent on network information about packaging and associate MediaTemple is or parts thereof with the transport packets (by links of the tracks tips to MediaStream). Track extractor (extractor track contains links to mediatrac so that the subset of encoded images SVC block access forms sample in the track extractor. Therefore, each track extractor must represent a different subset of the scalable levels, and each track extractor must be resolvable without decoding other tracks extractor the same track.

[0041] In this particular embodiment of the invention it is possible to specify the switching point between tracks prompts or tracks extractor. Tracks containing or referencing a sufficient subset of scalable levels, giving the possibility of switching on at least one of the samples of the specified switching point in this track, connected with this track track reference of type 'tswf in container block of track links. Tracks for which this track contains a sufficient subset of scalable levels, enabling switching at least one of the samples of the specified switching point in them, connected with this track track reference of type 'tswt' in container block of track links.

Unit type:'tswd'
Container:Sample Table Box ('stbl')
Mandatory:No
Number:Zero or one

[0042] This unit provides a compact point switching from low to high between tracks prompts or tracks extractor. The table is organized strictly in order of increasing sample number. If the block switching points between tracks is missing, there are no other points of switching from low to high, in addition to samples of synchronization specified in the block of samples of synchronization, or samples of the shadow synchronization specified in the block of samples of the shadow synchronization.

[0043] In this embodiment, "entry_count" gives the number of elements in the following table. Value "sample_number" gives the sample number of switching points. Value "entry_count2" gives the number of elements in the following table. Value "src_track_id" specifies the ID of the track that contains the lowest level from which the stream can be switched to the level contained in the current track. Value "entry_count3" gives the number of elements in the following table. Value "dest_track_id" specifies the ID of the track that contains the highest level to which a stream can be switched from the level contained in the current track.

[0044] it Should be noted that the possible and the other is e syntax definition. For example, you can omit entry_count3 and appropriate cycle for values dest_track_id. In addition, if in the tracking link 'tswf' is specified, only one track, cycle for values src_track_id is not required. It is also possible to use the syntax TrackSwitchingPointBox ("block switching points of the tracks") independently, without track links 'tswf and/or 'tswt'. In addition, specified in the track information using the first or second option may be used again to obtain the switching points from low to high in the tracks of clues or tracks of the extractor, while the level ID is specified for each track tips or track extractor, such as the title track or in samplewas table row.

[0045] the Following is a discussion of various options for specifying the switching points from low to high in the bit stream. The first option involves the use of a new type of blocks NAL (network abstraction layer unit, the block-level network abstractions) to indicate that the image containing the coded slices of this type NAL units is an EIDR picture enhancement-layer instantaneous decoding refresh, instant updating of the decoding level improvements). EIDR-image is an encoded image, for which the decoding EIDR-image and all subsequent coded images in the sequence decoding at the same level (the. with the same values temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level, as EIDR-image)can be performed without inter prediction from any of the images in front of EIDR image in the sequence decoding at the same level. Immediately after decoding EIDR-image decoding process must mark all reference pictures in the same level as "unused as a reference". The EIDR-image values temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level cannot be simultaneously equal to zero. It should be noted that used here in the context of the current draft SVC standard, the expression "the same level" means that the decoded images have the same meanings temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level, as EIDR picture. It should be noted that here, unlike the most recent draft version of the SVC standard, the concept of "same level" is taken into account parameter temporal_level. The parameter temporal_level makes it possible to switch from the low level to a lower frame rate to a higher level with a higher frame rate. In addition, this improves the coding efficiency EIDR-image as the reference image with large values temporal_level automatically removed from the list of reference images, which reduces the number of actions required to reorder the list of the reference image, and identity values op the situations of the images become less which increases the efficiency of entropy encoding.

[0046] By definition, scalable coding, the lowest level may not depend on the highest, so EIDR-the picture may not be predicted from images in the same level and higher levels, but can be predicted from images of the lower levels, including a lower time. This gives the possibility of switching from the next lower level contains EIDR-image level in the EIDR-image. For example, you can define a new type NAL units, as shown in table 1. A new type of NAL units assigned the number 22, and a value of type NAL units with the number 20 is changed from "Coded slice of non-IDR-image extension scaling" on "Coded slice of non-IDR - not-EIDR images in the expansion of scale".

Table 1
nal_unit_typeThe content of NAL unit and RBSP syntax structure
0Not defined
1Coded slice of non-IDR-image slice_layer_without_partitioning_rbsp()2, 3, 4
2 Data coded slice segment And slice_data_partition_a_layer_rbsp()2
3Data coded slice, a segment In slice_data_partition_b_layer_rbsp()3
4Data coded slice, a segment With slice_data_partition_c_layer_rbsp()4
5Coded IDR slice images slice_layer_without_partitioning_rbsp()2, 3
6SEI (supplemental enhancement information, additional improving information) sei_rbsp()5
7The parameter set sequence seq_parameter_set_rbsp()0
8Set the image settings pic_parameter_set_rbsp()1
9The limiter block access access_unit_delimiter_rbsp()6
10The end of the sequence end_of_seq_rbsp07
11The end of the pot is ka end_of_stream_rbsp() 8
12Data-placeholder filler_data_rbsp()9
13The expansion parameter set sequence seq_parameter_set_extension_rbsp()10
14...18Reserved
19Coded slice of an auxiliary coded picture without partitioning slice_layer_without_partitioning_rbsp()2, 3, 4
20Coded slice of non-IDR - and He-EIDR-image in expanding scale slice_layer_in_scalable_extension_rbsp()2, 3, 4
21Coded IDR slice images in the expansion of the scale slice_layer_in_scalable_extension_rbsp()2, 3
22Coded slice EIDR-image in expanding scale slice_layer_in_scalable_extension_rbsp()2, 3, 4
23Reserved
24...31 Not defined

[0047] This option is applicable to scalable levels, coded using the expansion of the scale, indicating temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level. To provide temporal scalability can also use the actual standard H.264/AVC and specify the switching point using SEI messages subsequence (sub-sequence information SEI messages). However, in this case, temporal_level is not specified, and therefore, according to the current draft SVC standard is considered to be zero for all temporarily scalable levels. To ensure the effective switching from low to high between time levels without breaking compatibility stream with H.264/AVC uses a new SEI message indicating that the image is EIDR-image. However, when using the SEI message is not valid, the functionality of the control links EIDR-image, that is, EIDR-image, which is indicated by SEI message can be used to switch from low to high, but the decoding process is not required to mark all reference pictures in the same level as "unused as a reference". This is because SEI messages are not mandatory for compliant decoders. SEI message is determined as of the time:

Syntax SEI message EIDR-image

eidr_pic(payloadSize) {Descriptor
temporal_layer_numue(v)
}

[0048] the Semantics of SEI messages EIDR-image. The semantics of SEI messages EIDR-image is defined as follows: SEI message EIDR-image, if available, associated with the coded image for which temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level missing in the bit stream and, therefore, rely equal to zero. Destination image is also associated with SEI message subsequence, which indicates sub_seq_layer_num ("level number subsequence") to denote a hierarchy of temporal scalability. The presence of SEI messages EIDR-image means that the target image is EIDR-image, in which the decoding of the image and all subsequent coded images in the sequence decoding at the same level (i.e., temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level equal to 0 and with the same value sub_seq_layer_num that EIDR-image) can be decoded without inter prediction from any of the images in the same level, prior EIDR image in the sequence decoding.

[0049] the Parameter "temporal_layer__num" ("the number of temporary level") has the same semantics as the syntactic element sub_seq_layer_num in the SEI message subsequence. Its value matches the value sub_seq_layer_num in the SEI message, the subsequence associated with the same target image. It is also possible to exclude syntax element temporal_layer_num of syntax SEI messages. However, in this case, in order to know which temporarily scalable levels belongs EIDR-image, you will need to parse the information SEI message subsequence.

[0050] the Second alternative embodiment of the invention to specify a point of switching from low to high in the bit stream includes changing the definition of IDR-image and the weakening of restrictions on the encoding IDR images. In this embodiment, the term IDR modified in the following way. If at least one of the values temporal_level, dependency_id or quality_level is not zero, IDR-picture is encoded image in which the decoding of the IDR-image and all subsequent coded images in the sequence decoding at the same level (i.e. with the same values temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level, as the IDR-picture) can be performed without inter-prediction is t any of the images, in front of IDR image in the sequence decoding at the same level. In addition, immediately after the decoding of such IDR-image decoding process must mark all reference pictures in the same level as "unused as a reference". If the values temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level all equal to zero, then the IDR-picture is encoded image in which the decoding of the IDR-image and all subsequent coded images in the sequence decoding can be performed without inter prediction from any of the images in front of IDR image in the sequence decoding. Immediately after the decoding of such IDR-image decoding process must mark all reference pictures in the same level as "unused as a reference".

[0051] the Restriction on coding IDR-images (that or all the images in the block access is IDR images, or no images in the unit of access is not an IDR-picture) is weakened as follows. If the image temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level simultaneously equal to zero is IDR image, all other images in the same block access are IDR images. Due to this weakening of restrictions on the encoding IDR images it is possible to have a IDR-image in improving the operating levels in the block access in which the image of the ground level is not an IDR-picture. In this second embodiment, if any of the variables temporal_level, dependency_id or quality_level not equal to zero, determining IDR-image coincides with the definition of EIDR-image in the above-described first method, the point of switching from low to high in the bit stream. Accordingly, retains all the advantages of EIDR-image. Coding IDR-image method described here enables you to switch from the next lower level contains IDR-picture level in the IDR image.

[0052] This particular method is applicable to scalable levels, encoded using the scalable extension indicating temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level. To ensure the effective switching from low to high between time levels using the standard H.264/AVC can be applied the same way as option 1.

[0053] the Third alternative point of switching from low to high in the bit stream includes the easing of restrictions on the encoding IDR images and using SEI messages for temporarily scalable levels. In this embodiment, the definition of IDR-image is left unchanged, but the restriction on coding IDR images weakened following clicks the zoom.

[0054] If the image temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level simultaneously equal to zero is IDR image, all other images in the same block access are IDR images. This weakening allows encoding IDR-images, switching from low to high may be between levels with different values of dependency_id or quality_level. However, because the definition of IDR-image is left unchanged, that is, temporal_level not included in the definition of scalable level, for time periods, the problem of switching from low to high remains unresolved.

[0055] To solve the problem of switching from low to high for temporary levels encoded in accordance with either the expansion of the scale, or the actual standard H.264/AVC is applied SEI message EIDR-image similar to the one described in the first embodiment above, to indicate that the associated with SEI message destination image is EIDR-image, which can be used to switch from low to high. However, the specified SEI message EIDR-the image does not have the functionality of the control links, as SEI messages are optional for compliant decoders.

[0056] the syntax of the SEI message is the same as the first embodiment, the point of switching from low to high in the bit stream. If the target image is encoded using the H.264/AVC, semantics, too, remains the same. If the target image is encoded using the expansion of the scale, the semantics is changed as follows.

[0057] the Presence of SEI messages EIDR-image means that the target image is EIDR-image, for which the decoding of the image and all subsequent coded images in the sequence decoding at the same level (i.e. with the same values temporal_level, dependency_id and quality_level, as EIDR-image) can be performed without inter prediction from any of the images in the same level prior to EIDR image in the sequence decoding. Item temporal_layer_num" specifies the value of temporal_level EIDR-image. If EIDR-picture coded using the expansion of the scale, a syntax element temporal_layer_num can be excluded from syntax SEI message.

[0058] the Fourth variant of the point of switching from low to high in the bit stream includes the use of SEI messages for all scale levels. In this embodiment, is applied in a similar defined in the third embodiment SEI message EIDR-image, indicating that the associated with this SEI message destination image is EIDR-image, which is can be used to switch from low to high. However, in this particular embodiment of the invention SEI message is also used to solve the problem of switching from low to high levels with different values of dependency_id or quality_level.

[0059] figure 3 shows a system 10, which can be applied to the present invention, comprising multiple communication devices that can communicate over the network. The system 10 may consist of any combination of wired or wireless networks, including mobile telephone network, a local area network (LAN), personal area network Bluetooth, LAN, Ethernet, LAN, ring structure with token passing (token ring), WAN (wide area network), Internet, etc. the System 10 may include both wired and wireless communication devices.

[0060] for Example, shown in figure 3, the system 10 comprises a mobile telephone network 11 and the Internet 28. Internet connection 28 may be implemented, in particular through wireless long range, wireless short-range rockets, as well as through a variety of wired connections - in particular, telephone lines, cable lines, power line, power supply, etc.

[0061] among the communication devices of the system 10 can be, in particular, a mobile telephone 12, a combination of 16 PDA (personal data assistant, a pocket personal computer) and mobile is the phone, PDA 16, IMD (integrated messaging device, a device integrated messaging) 18, a desktop computer 20, a portable computer such as a laptop computer 22. Communication devices can be both stationary and mobile, such as portable moving person. Communication devices can be installed in any kind of transport - in particular, in automobile, truck, taxi, bus, boat, plane, Bicycle, motorcycle, etc. some or All of the communication devices can send and receive calls and messages and share information with service providers through a wireless connection 25 with the base station 24. The base station 24 may be connected to the network server 26, which provides communication between the mobile telephone network 11 and the Internet 28. The system 10 may include additional communication devices and communication devices of different types.

[0062] the communication Devices may communicate using various technologies such as CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access, multiple access, code-division), GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications global system for mobile communications), UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System universal mobile telecommunications system), TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access, multiple access with time division multiple access), FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access, multiple access with frequency split is m channels), TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, transmission control Protocol/Internet Protocol), SMS (Short Messaging Service, currency short message service), MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service, currency multimedia messaging), email, IMS (Instant Messaging Service, instant messaging), Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11, and the like, the communication Device may communicate using various media including radio, infrared, laser, cable connections, etc.

[0063] figure 4 and 5 shows a typical example of a mobile phone 12, which may be implemented with the present invention. However, it should be understood that the present invention is not limited to one specific type of mobile telephone 12 or other electronic device. In the structure shown in figure 4 and 5 of the mobile phone 12 includes a housing 30, a display 32 in the form of a liquid crystal display, a keypad 34, a microphone 36 and speaker 38, a battery 40, an infrared port 42, an antenna 44, a smart card 46 in the form of a UICC (universal integrated circuit card universal card integrated circuit) according to one of embodiments of the invention, the device 48 card reader, the electronic circuit 52 of the radio interface of the electronic circuit 54 codec, the controller 56 and a memory 58. There are separate electrical circuits and elements are well known in the art, for example, used in a mobile phone is x company Nokia (Nokia).

[0064] the Present invention is described in the General context of the steps of the method, which in one of the embodiments can be implemented as a computer program including executable computer instructions, such as program code, executable by computers in network environments.

[0065] generally, program modules include standard routines, programs, objects, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. Executable computer instructions, associated data structures, and program modules represent examples of program code for executing steps of the methods described here. The specific sequence of these executable instructions or associated data structures represents examples of corresponding acts for implementing the functions described in these steps.

[0066] Software and network implementation of the present invention can be accomplished with standard programming techniques with rule based logic and other logic to implement the different steps of the search in the databases, steps, correlation steps, comparison steps and decision. It should also be noted that here and in the claims, the words "component" and "module" includes the implementation of IP is alzouma one or more lines of source code, and/or implementation in the form of hardware and/or equipment manual input.

[0067] the Above description of embodiments of the present invention has been presented for the purpose of illustration and description. It is not exhaustive and does not limit the present invention accurately described here form and allows modifications and variations in light of the foregoing and in the light of practical experience of implementing the present invention. The above embodiments of the invention were chosen and described to explain the principles of the present invention and its practical application to the specialist in the art can use the present invention in such scenarios, implementation and with these modifications, which are suitable for specific consideration of the application.

1. A method of encoding an image sequence into a sequence of blocks of access, comprising: encoding the first image of a sequence of images in the first set of access of these sequence blocks access, the first access block contains internatioanal the first part of the lower level and intructional the first part of a higher level marking at least one of the decoded reference image decoded from th is s access prior to the first access block in the sequence decoding, as used as a reference, and inclusion in the sequence blocks access indication that the first part of a higher level mark mentioned at least one of the decoded reference picture as "unused as a reference".

2. The method according to claim 1, in which the first part of a higher level is a higher spatial level or a higher level of quality coarse granularity.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, which comprises the inclusion in the sequence blocks access indication that the first part of a higher level marked as "unused as control decoded reference picture that is marked as "used as a reference".

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, which includes the generation of a header block network abstraction layer (NAL) for at least one NAL unit for intracoronal part of a higher level so that it contained the mentioned indication.

5. Method of decoding a sequence of blocks accessed by obtaining the sequence of decoded images, and the sequence of blocks of access includes the first access block, which contains internatioanal the first part of the lower level and intructional the first part more in the high level, however, the above method comprises: decoding at least one access block preceding the first block access sequence decoding, to obtain at least one decoded reference image, note that at least one of the decoded reference image as "use as reference", the decoding of the first block of access, including the first part of a higher level, with the first decoded reference image, a detection zone associated with the first part of a higher level, and mark mentioned at least one of the decoded reference picture as "unused as a reference in response to detection of said indication.

6. An electronic device for encoding an image sequence into a sequence of blocks of access, comprising: a processor and a memory functionally connected to the processor and including a computer program comprising: program code for encoding the first image of a sequence of images in the first set of access of these sequence blocks access, the first access block contains internatioanal the first part of the lower level and intructional the first part of a higher level, the code for the litter and at least one of the decoded reference image, decoded blocks access prior to the first access block in the sequence decoding, as in "use as reference", and the code for inclusion in the sequence blocks access indication that the first part of a higher level mark mentioned at least one of the decoded reference picture as "unused as a reference".

7. An electronic device according to claim 6, in which the first part of a higher level is a higher spatial level or a higher level of quality coarse granularity.

8. An electronic device according to claim 6 or 7, which comprises program code for inclusion in the sequence blocks access indication that the first part of a higher level marked as "unused as control decoded reference picture that is marked as "used as a reference".

9. An electronic device according to claim 6 or 7, which comprises program code for generating a header block network abstraction layer (NAL) for at least one NAL unit for intracoronal part of a higher level so that it contained the mentioned indication.

10. An electronic device for decoding a sequence of blocks accessed by obtaining the sequence of decoded images, and sequence is lnost blocks access includes the first block access which contains internatioanal the first part of the lower level and intructional the first part of a higher level, while the electronic device includes: a processor and a memory functionally connected to the processor and including a computer program comprising: program code for decoding at least one access block preceding the first block access sequence decoding, to obtain at least one decoded reference image, program code to mark that at least one of the decoded reference image as "use as reference", program code for decoding the first block of access, including the first part of the higher level, receiving the first decoded reference image, program code for a detection zone associated with the first part of a higher level, and the code for the notes referred to at least one of the decoded reference picture as "unused as a reference in response to detection of said indication.

11. A method of encoding an image sequence into a sequence of blocks of access, in which: the first subsequence blocks access sequence blocks access is located on the first temporarily the level the second subsequence blocks access sequence blocks access is located on the second temporary level, the first subsequence blocks access can be decoded independently from the second subsequence blocks access, the second subsequence blocks access depends on the first subsequence blocks access, the method includes enabling display of the switching point from a first temporal level to the second temporal level sequence blocks access, with indication of the switching point indicates that the second subsequence of the blocks may be decoded starting from this point of switching, without the need to decode blocks access to the second subsequence blocks access to this switching point in the sequence decoding.

12. The method of inclusion of the sequence blocks access at least one file, in this case: the first subsequence blocks access sequence blocks access is located on the first temporary level, the second subsequence blocks access sequence blocks access is located on the second temporary level, the first subsequence blocks access can be decoded independently from the second subsequence blocks access, the WTO is th subsequence blocks access depends on the first subsequence blocks access the method comprises the inclusion in said at least one file indicating the switching point from a first temporal level to the second temporary level, with indication of the switching point indicates that the second subsequence of the blocks may be decoded starting from this point of switching, without the need to decode blocks access to the second subsequence blocks access to this switching point in the sequence decoding.

13. The method according to claim 11 or 12, which includes specifying additional improve of information (SEI), which includes the indication of the switching point.

14. An electronic device for encoding an image sequence into a sequence of blocks of access, in which: the first subsequence blocks access sequence blocks access is located on the first temporary level, the second subsequence blocks access sequence blocks access is located on the second temporary level, the first subsequence blocks access can be decoded independently from the second subsequence blocks access, the second subsequence blocks access depends on the first subsequence blocks access this electronic device includes a processor and a memory block, fu is clonale connected to the processor and including a computer program, includes program code to enable display of the switching point from a first temporal level to the second temporal level sequence blocks access, with indication of the switching point indicates that the second subsequence of the blocks may be decoded starting from this point of switching, without the need to decode blocks access to the second subsequence blocks access to this switching point in the sequence decoding.

15. Electronic device to enable sequence blocks access at least one file, in this case: the first subsequence blocks access sequence blocks access is located on the first temporary level, the second subsequence blocks access sequence blocks access is located on the second temporary level, the first subsequence blocks access can be decoded independently from the second subsequence blocks access, the second subsequence blocks access depends on the first subsequence blocks access this electronic device includes a processor and a memory functionally connected to the processor and including a computer program comprising program code for inclusion in said at least one the file in the paths of the switching point from a first temporal level to the second temporary level when this indication switching point indicates that the second subsequence of the blocks may be decoded starting from this point of switching, without the need to decode blocks access to the second subsequence blocks access to this switching point in the sequence decoding.

16. Item streaming system designed to allow switching from low to high in the bit stream comprising: a first block for receiving a bit stream containing a sequence of blocks of access, the first subsequence blocks access sequence blocks access is located on the first temporary level, the second subsequence blocks access sequence blocks access is located on the second temporary level, the first subsequence blocks access can be decoded independently from the second subsequence blocks access, and the second subsequence blocks access depends on the first subsequence of blocks; a second unit for identifying indication of the switching point from the first temporary level the second temporary level at least in one file, with indication of the switching point indicates that the second subsequence of blocks available is and can be decoded, starting from this point of switching, without the need to decode blocks access to the second subsequence blocks access to this switching point in the sequence of the decoding; and the third block to switch from the transfer of a subset of the scalable layers on a larger subset of the scalable levels at the point of switching from low to high.



 

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2 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl

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3 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: engineering of systems for encoding moving image, namely - methods for encoding moving image, directed at increase of encoding efficiency with use of time-wise remote supporting frames.

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EFFECT: increased encoding efficiency in direct prediction mode, decreased amount of information bits for frame, wherein a change of scene occurs.

2 cl, 6 dwg

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