Method for definition of integral absorption capacity of dispersive food products

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry, in particular to flour grinding, food-concentrates, cereals, confectionery, bakery, starch-and-sugar-processing and may be used for control of the process of thermal treatment of dispersive food products, such as grains, cereals, flour, sand sugar and salt. The method is implemented as follows. The dispersive food product is prepared. One forms a flat sample of the sifted layer by way of the dispersive food product sifting into a vessel. One measures environmental temperature and food product temperature on the upper surface of sifted layer. Environmental temperature is maintained around the sample at a permanent level. One performs uninterrupted infrared heating of the samplel to a specified temperature. One performs infrared treatment of the upper surface of the sifted layer sample with a radiant flux in oscillating mode. One determines temperature field on the upper surface of and inside the sample in the process of infrared heating. One determines oscillation amplitude of the sample medium temperature in the process of infrared treatment in oscillating mode. One measures the infrared energy radiant flux quantity on the sample upper surface in the process of infrared heating. One measures amplitude and frequency of oscillation of the infrared energy radiant flux on the sample upper surface in the process of infrared treatment in oscillating mode. One determines the angle of phase displacement of the radiant flux oscillation and the sample medium temperature in the process of infrared treatment in oscillating mode. One calculates integral absorption capacity of dispersive food products according to a patented formula explained in the invention formula.

EFFECT: invention allows to enhance yield of the target product, to reduce the time of technological processes implementation and to enhance precision of control of qualitative properties due to a higher precision and reliability of measurement instruments.

3 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to food industry, in particular by milling, food concentrates, cereals, confectionery, bakery products, starch and sugar industries, and can be used to control the curing process, the dispersed food products, namely grains, cereals, flour, starch, sugar and salt.

There is a method of determining the integral absorption ability of dispersed food, namely, that form the test sample in the form of a thin layer of uniform thickness. The upper surface of the sample is irradiated with a continuous flow of infrared energy. On the lower surface of the sample set photo sensor that registers the last of infrared radiation through the thickness of the sample, i.e. the spectral hemispherical absorption ability. Measure the spectral magnitude of the flow of infrared radiation incident on the top surface of the sample. Further, the magnitude of the spectral hemispherical absorption capacity and the spectral magnitude of the incident flux of infrared radiation averaged over the spectrum of the incident flux of infrared radiation from the selected emitter and on what basis by well-known methods is determined by the value of the integral absorption ability of dispersed food (Ilyasov YEAR, resnicow CENTURIES Physical basis of infrared irradiation of food. - M.: Food industry, 1978, - s-178).

The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency of control and precision control of quality indicators due to the different lighting conditions of the light-sensitive surface of the photocell, the registration has passed through the sample to infrared radiation. This leads to considerable measurement error caused by the fact that the photocurrent depends on the angle of incidence transmitted through the sample flow of infrared radiation on the photosensitive surface of the photosensor and the integral sensitivity Fotolia on the photosensitive surface of the photosensor is unevenly distributed (in some cases, chaotic, and in some other cases with a pronounced increase in sensitivity in the near contact region area Fotolia).

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method of determining the integral absorption ability, namely, that form the prototype of the investigated product in the form of a flat ring. The source of infrared radiation begins to evenly rotate in a plane parallel to the upper surface of the fixed pattern along the circumference of the sample. In this case, the measured value of the flow is To radiation, changing according to the different optical properties of inhomogeneous particles dispersed food variously positioned relative to the incident IR-flow, adopts different when moving the sample oscillating values. This "oscillating" reflected and missed the dispersed layer of the food product infrared radiation falling on the photosensors, cause them pulsating amount of current. The average value of the pulsating current will be proportional to the integral of the reflective and absorption abilities, based on which, by law, Kirchhoff integral is defined absorption ability of dispersed food (Ilyasov YEAR, V.V. Krasnikov Physical basis of infrared irradiation of food. - M.: Food industry, 1978, - s-182).

The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency of control and precision control of quality indicators, due to the presence of heat exchange between the sample environment, heat sinks, as well as trouble-isothermal conditions. The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of determining the integral reflectivity, since all measurements are made in an indirect way, which causes the error due to the averaging of the measured values.

the present invention is to increase regulatory effectiveness and the accuracy of determination of quality parameters.

The technical result of the present invention is to increase the yield of the target product and the reduction of the time-process.

This object is achieved in that in the method of determining the integral absorption ability of dispersed food are preparing disperse food, form a flat sample of the bulk layer by filling disperse food product into the container. Measure the ambient temperature. Measure the temperature of the product on the upper surface of the bulk layer. Keep the temperature of the environment around the sample at a constant level. Ongoing IR-heating of the sample to a predetermined temperature. Perform IR irradiation of the upper surface of the sample bulk layer radiant flow in an oscillating mode. Determine the temperature field on the upper surface and inside the sample during IR heating. Determine the amplitude of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode. Measure the amount of infrared radiant flux energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating. Measure the amplitude and frequency of the radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR exposure in an oscillating mode. Determine the angle of shear pascolini radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode. Calculate the integral absorption ability of dispersed food according to the following formula:

E0- the average value of the incident radiant flux within the infrared radiation in an oscillating mode, W;

ω is the oscillation frequency of the incident radiant flux, with-1;

with the heat capacity of the sample food product, j/K;

φ is the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode, grad. (rad.);

Tandthe amplitude of the average temperature of the sample during thermal irradiation of a sample in an oscillating mode, To;

κ is the amplitude of the incident radiant flux relative to the average value of E0.

This formula was obtained by the author based on known formulas in solving the problem of radiant heat transfer from a flat plate with the environment with the boundary conditions of the 2nd kind (Filatov V.V., Azizov RR Analytical study of heat transfer by radiation in the working chambers of the IR systems. Theoretical journal "Storage and processing of farm products, No. 11, M, 2008, p.14-16).

Preparation of dispersed food required to remove trash and inclusions, as well as to determine the equilibrium moisture content.

The formation of the bulk sample layer by filling dispersed PI is avago product capacity is needed to define the geometric shape of the sample and to determine the boundary conditions.

Measuring the ambient temperature and the product temperature at the upper surface of the bulk layer to the IR heating is due to the fact that the result set information about the law of interaction between the environment and the sample surface of the bulk layer.

The temperature of the environment around the sample at a constant level allows you to eliminate the inertia of the heating and the effect of initial conditions on the accuracy of the determined characteristics.

Continuous IR heating of the sample to a predetermined temperature due to the fact that nullified the effect of thermal contact resistance between the image source and sinks of heat because the heat flux is introduced into the sample radiation (non-contact) by.

IR irradiation of the upper surface of the sample bulk layer radiant flow in an oscillating mode is the essence of the method and due to the fact that it is necessary to create a model of normal incidence of a plane electromagnetic wave by a harmonic (sinusoidal) law on a flat sample and its heat exchange with the environment by convection and radiation.

Determination of the temperature field on the upper surface and inside the sample during thermal heating due to the fact that it is necessary to measure heat is soderzhanie sample, which changes due to the absorption of the incident radiant flux, heat loss to the environment long-wave (reflected) radiation and by convection and by conduction to the structural elements supporting the sample.

Determining the amplitude of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, the measurement of the radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating, the measurement of amplitude and frequency of the radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, due to the fact that all of the above values are the main informative parameters, on the basis of which is determined by the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode, resulting integral is calculated absorption ability of dispersed food.

The method is as follows.

Prepare a dispersed food product, removing weeds and inclusion, and then weighed on an electronic analytical balance and determine the mass. Form a prototype of a bulk layer of the same height throughout the volume by filling disperse food product capacity in the ü. Ambient temperature is measured using thermocouples. Measurement of product temperature on the top surface of the bulk layer is performed using a remote thermometer. Keep the temperature of the environment around the sample bulk layer at a constant level and maintain the sample reaches a uniform temperature distribution throughout the volume, placing the container with the sample in a thermostat. Ongoing IR-heating of the sample to a predetermined temperature by using a heat block consisting of two infrared generators of the type KGT-220-1000-1 with individual parabolic reflectors with known geometric characteristics. After the sample is dispersed food is evenly heated and has reached the set temperature, carry out the IR irradiation of the upper surface of the sample bulk layer radiant flow in an oscillating mode. Oscillating mode IR irradiation of the sample is performed as follows. After IR heating of the sample heat block with two infrared generators of the type KGT-220-1000-1 continues to operate in a continuous mode, and the oscillation of the radiant flux is carried out using radar shutter - flat, thin, metal plates, which periodically screens (shading) of the upper surface of the sample from the incident radiant flux, so that the magnitude of the incident radiant flux is changed by a harmonic (sinusoidal) to the law

E0- the average value of the incident radiant flux, W;

κ is the amplitude of the incident radiant flux relative to the average value of E0;

ω is the oscillation frequency of the incident radiant flux, with-1;

τ is the current time, C.

Determination of the temperature field on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating is performed using a remote thermometer. Determination of the temperature field inside the sample during IR heating is determined by the battery microarmour by well-known methods (Filatov V.V. improving the process of heat treatment of grain with infrared power supply. Diss. CTP M.: Publishing a complex of Moscow state University of food, 2005, - 312 C.). Determining the amplitude of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode is also determined using battery microarmour by well-known methods taking into account the fact that the amplitude of the average temperature of the sample is changed by a harmonic (sinusoidal) law (Plaksin, Y.M., Filatov V.V. and others under the General Ed. Filatov V.V. "fundamentals of theory of infrared heating" /Monograph/ Publishing Complex of Moscow state University of food, 2007, 182 S.).

The measurement of infrared radiant flux energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating, and measuring the amplitude and frequency to lebani infrared radiant flux energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR exposure in an oscillating mode is carried out using differential rod radiometer by well-known methods (Filatov CENTURIES, Azizov P.P. Experimental study of the density distribution of the radiant flux in thermal IR camera installations. Theoretical journal "Storage and processing of agricultural products". Issue No. 9, M., 2008, p.19-21).

Further, by setting the sine laws fluctuations infrared radiant flux energy and the average temperature of the sample is determined by the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample when the IR radiation in the oscillatory mode using the phase meter.

The result is calculated integral absorption ability of dispersed food product according to the following formula:

E0- the average value of the incident radiant flux within the infrared radiation in an oscillating mode, W;

ω is the oscillation frequency of the incident radiant flux, with-1;

with the heat capacity of the sample food product, j/K;

φ is the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode, grad. (rad.);

Tandthe amplitude of the average temperature of the sample during thermal irradiation of a sample in an oscillating mode, To;

κ is the amplitude of the incident radiant flux relative to the average value of E0.

Example 1. The method of determining the integral absorption capacity was carried out by p the prototype. Form the prototype of starch with moisture content of 12.1% at tk=20°C in the form of a flat ring, falling asleep dispersed food (starch) in a special container (cuvette) with the following geometrical characteristics of the d1=30 mm, d2=50 mm, h=5 mm Monochromatic flux of IR radiation emerging from the exit slit of the spectrophotometer SF-4A through the optical system is directed normal (90°) to the upper end surface of the annular dispersed sample of the food product. Then spectrophotometer with an optical system starts to evenly rotate in a plane parallel to the upper end surface of the annular dispersed sample of the food product, so that a directed flow of infrared radiation in the area of 6×10 mm2scans of the upper end surface of the dispersed food product. Diffuse the reflected infrared radiation from the upper surface of the circular sample of the starch is collected using the ellipsoid mirror and focused onto a photosensitive receiving surface of the photosensor. Since infrared radiation through the thickness of the annular dispersed sample of the food product is also registered by the second photosensor. The resulting photocurrents from the 1st and 2nd of photosensors brand PASS-a are registered with a reading device UV-206 measuring currents up to 1 µa. In the results of which are determined by the spectral hemispherical absorption values of T λand reflection Rλfrom which, by law, Kirchhoff Andλ=1-(Tλ+Rλ) is determined by the spectral hemispherical amount of absorption of infrared radiation dispersed food product. Next on the well-known formula (3) is determined by the integral absorption capacity

where aλspectral hemispherical value acquisitions, sredniaia on the spectral composition of the incident flux of infrared radiation;

Eλ- spectral magnitude of the incident flux of infrared radiation, depending on the characteristics of the infrared generator and irradiation conditions disperse food product.

The results of the calculation of the integral absorption capacity for starch with an optical layer thickness of 1-5,0 mm for different types of infrared generators are shown in table 1.

Table 1
Type IR generatorThe integral absorption ability, And
CGT-220-1000-1 with a parabolic reflector, T[Izl]=2500 K, the reflection coefficient of the reflector Rand=0,910,3
Nichrome spiral with a parabolic reflector, T[Izl]=982 K, Rand=0,480,8
Metal tile with a parabolic reflector, T[Izl]=598 K, Rand=0,280,9

The accuracy of the integral absorption capacity in this case is ±10%.

Example 2. Defined the integral absorption ability of the starch under the proposed method. Starch was subjected to purification by removing trash and debris. Determined equilibrium moisture content, which was 13.1%, bulk density of 650 kg/m3and the weight of 1.02 kg of Starch was filled in a container in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with an aspect ratio of 50:150:210 mm ambient Temperature of 20°C. the Temperature on the top surface of the sample bulk layer 18°C. Maintained the temperature of the environment around the sample at a constant level. Withstood the sample reaches a uniform temperature distribution throughout the volume, placing the container with the starch in thermostat. Continuously, the infrared heating of the sample up to a temperature of 170°C using a heat block consisting of two infrared generators of the type KGT-220-1000-1 with individual parabolic reflectors with the following geometrical characteristics: the width of the reflector x=0,077 mm, height of reflector y=0,027 m, focal length f=0,017 m is the Capacity of one of the IR generator of 1 kW. Infrared heat generators in the th block are on the same horizontal plane, the step between the generators is 0,090 m Distance to the irradiated surface of 0.35 m Sample with starches is set against thermal block with IR-generators in such a way as to guide the falling stream of infrared radiation was perpendicular to the irradiated surface of the sample. Determination of the temperature field on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating is carried out remotely using an IR pyrometer. Determination of the temperature field inside the sample during IR heating, and determining the amplitude of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode by using battery copper-konstantovich of microthermal by well-known methods. Oscillating mode of the infrared radiation is generated by periodic heat shielding unit and the infrared generators of the leaf shutter (flat plate) so that the magnitude of the incident radiant flux varies in a sinusoidal law e=E0·(1+K·sin(ω·τ)), where E0=(2000÷2500) W, κ=(1000÷1500), ω=(5÷15)-1. Measurement of radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating, and measuring the amplitude and frequency of oscillations of the radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR exposure in an oscillating mode is performed with the aid of the rd differential rod radiometer by well-known methods. Next, having established using differential rod radiometer sine laws fluctuations infrared radiant flux energy and the average temperature of the sample is measured, the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode by using a phase meter. On what basis is calculated integral absorption ability of dispersed food product, in particular starch, copyright the formula (2), table 2.

Table 2
Type IR generatorThe integral absorption ability of starch,
CGT-220-1000-1 with parabolic reflectors, T[Izl]=2500 K, Rand=0,91 (reflectance reflector)0,365
Nichrome spiral with a parabolic reflector, T[Izl]=982 K, Rand=0,480,785
Metal tile with a parabolic reflector, T[Izl]=598 K, Rand=0,280,907

The accuracy of the integral absorption capacity in this case is ±1%, which is 10 times higher than in example 1.

Example 3. Defined the integral absorption ability bread crumbs (baton "Sliced"). The original humidity ω=41,3%, layer thickness of 5.0 mm, All other parameters and the method of determining, as in example 2. The results of calculations of the integral absorption ability for bread crumbs when the irradiation of various types of infrared generators are presented in table 3.

Table 3
Type IR generatorThe integral absorption ability, And
CGT-220-1000-1 with individual parabolic reflectors, Rand=0,91
T[Izl]=2650 K,0,467
T[Izl]=24500,521
Nichrome spiral with a parabolic reflector,0,628
T[Izl]=982 K, Rand=0,48
Metal tile with a parabolic reflector, T[Izl]=598 K, Rand=0,280,745

The accuracy of the integral absorption capacity in this case is ±1%, which in as above, than in example 1.

Studies have been conducted integrated absorption ability grains, cereals, flour, sugar. Accuracy is ±1%, which is 10 times higher than in example 1.

The obtained value of the integral absorption ability of dispersed food products have been used in the management of technological process of heat treatment at infrared power supply.

Measure the effectiveness of the management of technological process of heat treatment, in particular starch, is the yield of the target product performance target product, the dynamic viscosity of the pastes prepared from the IR-modified starches, the heat treatment time, and the measure of quality - the accuracy of the integral absorption capacity.

In the case when the integral absorption capacity was determined based on the prototype, the process performance the following:

the yield of the target product - 220 kg/h;

is the dynamic viscosity of the pastes prepared from the obtained IR-modified starches - 600 PA·s;

- time IR-heat treatment - 45 min;

- measuring accuracy ±10%.

In the case when the integral absorption capacity was determined by the proposed method:

the yield of the target product - 275 kg/h;

- dynamic wascott the pastes, prepared from the obtained IR-modified starches - 10 PA·s;

- time IR-heat treatment - 15 min;

- measurement accuracy ±1%.

The use of the proposed method in comparison with the prototype allows to increase the efficiency of the regulatory process, the measure of which is the output of the target product, the process time and increase the accuracy of control of the quality indicators due to the higher accuracy and reliability of measurement tools. And improve quality indicators:

to increase the yield of the target product by 25%;

to reduce the dynamic viscosity of the pastes prepared from the obtained IR-modified starches (qualitative indicator of the presence of dextrins highest grade) in 60 times;

- time infrared heat treatment to reduce 3 times;

- measurement accuracy to increase 10 times.

The method of determining the integral absorption ability of dispersed food, including preparation of dispersed food, the formation of a flat sample of the bulk layer by filling disperse food product into the container, measuring the ambient temperature, temperature of the product on the upper surface of the bulk layer, the temperature of the environment around the sample at a constant level, continuous IR heating of the sample to a predetermined temperature, IR about the torching of the upper surface of a flat sample of the bulk layer by radiant flux in an oscillating mode, determination of the temperature field on the upper surface and inside the sample during IR heating, the determination of the amplitude of oscillations of the average sample temperature during IR exposure in an oscillating mode, the measurement of radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of the sample during IR heating, the measurement of amplitude and frequency of the radiant flux of infrared energy on the upper surface of a flat sample for infrared radiation in an oscillating mode, determining a phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode, and calculating the integral absorption ability of dispersed food product according to the following formula:

E0- the average value of the incident radiant flux within the infrared radiation in an oscillating mode, W;
ω is the oscillation frequency of the incident radiant flux, with-1;
with the heat capacity of the sample food product, j/K;
φ is the phase angle of oscillation of the radiant flux and the average temperature of the sample during thermal radiation in an oscillating mode, grad. (rad.);
Tandthe amplitude of the average temperature of the sample during thermal irradiation of a sample in an oscillating mode, To;
κ is the amplitude of the incident radiant flux relative to the average value of E0.



 

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The invention relates to techniques for sterilization of products and materials and can be used in medicine, Microbiology, cosmetology, livestock and other sectors of the economy

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, particularly to processes of treatment of liquid products (milk, juices etc) of agricultural and food industry. The installation for treatment of liquid with infrared and ultra-violet radiation in a thin layer consists of a primary heat-exchanger-recuperator, of a flow metre and of a device fro ultra-violet radiation; also the flow metre and the device for ultra-violet radiation are installed by means of couplers into a cut of a product supply pipe between the heat-exchanger and a receiving chamber with a thin layer former; the heat exchanger corresponds to a secondary heat-exchanger-recuperator. The facility of ultra-violet radiation disinfects water filling the system for process flushing the equipment of the installation, and also at replacing ony type of product to another. Due to implementation of the primary heat-exchanger-recuperator power expenditures are cut down at 10-15%. The flow metre together with a circulation pump of product supply determine preset flow of liquid in the system, which considerably simplifies forming a thin layer in a working cylinder and consequently upgrades quality of food product treatment.

EFFECT: facilitating long-term conservation of product maintaining its nutrition and taste properties.

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