Method for generation of sprite

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: sprite represents images of irregular shape overlaid over background images, preferably online. Generated sprite has specified first multitude of possible values of non-transparent colours of pixels and at least one value of pixel colours identifying transparent colour of pixel. Sprite is generated using initial data, including the first data structure specifying colour image with specified second multitude of possible colours of pixels, and the second data structure specifying non-transparent part of specified sprite. Compliance of colours of the first data structure and possible non-transparent colours of sprite is partial projection of the specified second multitude into the specified first multitude, where augmentation of area of identification of specified partial projection to the specified second multitude is the multitude, capacity of which is considerably lower than capacity of the specified second capacity, besides to identify the value of colours included into the specified first multitude and complying with colour of pixel from the first data structure, the following actions are taken: if pixel of the first data structure has colour that does not belong to the specified area of identification, then value of this pixel is established as equal to colour being one of nearest to initial colour of pixel and included in the specified area of identification; specified partial projection is applied to colour of pixel of the first data structure.

EFFECT: improving sprite generation reliability.

5 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods for creating sprites, which are images of irregular shape and superimposed on the background image, preferably in real time. The invention can be used in the formation of the overlay image with the specified color key in real time.

[Http://www.xserver.ru/computer/langprogr/razn/36/10 .shtml] flat bitmap irregular shape are called sprites. The documentation for DirectX 2 SDK, they are called decades. The sprite can be imagined in the form of figures, cut out of cardboard and installed at some point in the layout.

[Http://www.delphisources.ru/pages/faq/base/sprites_work.html] with reference to the book of Andre La Mota sprites are called "little objectice that are on the playing field and can move. The term caught on with a light hand programmers company Atari and Apple in the mid 70-ies. Sprites are characters in PC games, which can easily move around the screen, change the color and size. In other words, the sprite is a character in the game. We can say that a sprite is an array of colors; for simplicity, let us imagine it as a BMP file or TBitmap, moreover, that this format is supported by Windows and does not contain compression. What we needed: from sprite to make it appear on the screen to form the animation. Animation is not only a change of coordinates of the sprite, but ISM is out of the image. Therefore, the sprite can only have one image, but several. Change them and leads to the animation.

[Http://durus.ru/content/view/292/59/] sprite is called the image in a rectangular area filled with color key, where the color key is one or more colors for the image, transparent color. The pixels are painted this color, not copied when blitting. This allows you to create the illusion of a non-rectangular image, although blitting copied only the rectangular area.

[Http:/www.mobilab.ru/artictes/53/] sprite is partially transparent image or set of images, which may overlap and move through the background or on another sprite without having to redraw all the main window. In other words, the sprite is moved game object.

[Http://silencer.times.lv/tools_articles_1.htm] sprites are essentially the same as the bitmap, but with one distinctive feature - they have a region with a transparent color, which is in the process of rendering is simply ignored and not displayed. The term "sprite" is still sometimes used to indicate the animated bitmap. Modern sprites usually consist of several frames of the animation, this is done to ensure, for example, to achieve the effect of a flying ship, walking man, etc.

[Http://computers.plib.ru/programming/SVGA/Glava%203/Index13.htm] spritesodazoda drawings, for which the mask is formed dynamically, depending on the code values of the pixels of the picture, but in any event the masking has one purpose. Whatever form was not the picture itself, such as a triangle, arrow, hourglass, etc., his image is always padded to the rectangle so that all rows have the same size. This greatly simplifies the storage and playback of images and at the same time forced to apply masking excluding display the portion of the rectangular area, which is not true to the picture. Through the use of a mask is displayed, for example, the arrow of the pointer, not the black rectangle against which it is drawn.

In accordance with [http://www.255.ru/index.php?newsid=636] the sprite - small image, freely moving on the monitor. In the original sense of the word, this term was applied to a hardware output images. In fact, only one real sprite can be found on IBM PC - hardware mouse cursor. When the architecture of the ×86 under the sprite is commonly understood programmatically displayed image, which may have a complex shape and to move on top of the background, not deleted.

In U.S. patent 6337701 sprites are called graphical objects that move on the display screen before any other objects.

When used 4-autovue representing colors of pixels, one byte is allocated for the so-called alpha channel that specifies the degree of transparency of a pixel. In this case, no problems with creating sprites does not occur. However, it is widely used formats for the presentation of colors that do not contain an alpha channel. In this case, the coding regions of transparency use specially allocated for this purpose, the colors, the combination of which determines the color key.

[Http://www.xserver.ru/computer/langprogr/razn/36/10 .shtml] proposed a way to create a sprite, which removed all extraneous detail to keep a clean image shapes, and fill the surrounding background black (translucent) color, if the original image contains black areas, replace the black in the image of another color (for example, instead of the RGB: 0, 0, 0, you can use RGB: 0, 0, 1). Then use Microsoft Imager to reduce the number of colors from 256 to 8. The disadvantage of this method is that it is designed only to create sprites in paletted mode, and that it is not intended for use in real-time.

[Http://durus.ru/content/view/292/59/] a method for creation sprite, which create an image, a limited rectangular area, and all pixels in the rectangular region that do not belong to the image, paint special color that is not and is used in the image and this particular color is prescribed as a color key. When blitting he will not be copied, and instead of pixels painted this color will remain the pixels of the background - has the illusion of transparency. The disadvantage of this method is that the determination of the color, which was not used in the image, is a very tedious operation, and therefore very problematic is the use of this method when creating sprites in real time, especially on slower computers.

In U.S. patent 6337701 (prototype), a method for generating a sprite with the specified first set of possible colors of the pixels in the first data structure specifies a color image with the specified second set of possible colors of the pixels, and the second data structure defining the shape of the specified sprite. To get the value of each pixel of the sprite is determined by the second data structure if the specified pixel in the opaque part of the specified sprite, and if so, set the color value of the current pixel of the sprite is equal to the value of the specified first set of colors corresponding to the color of the pixel from the first data structure, and if not, then set the color value of the current pixel of the sprite is equal to the value that defines the transparent color of the pixel. Determining whether a pixel in prozrachnuy part of the specified sprite, produced by determining whether the corresponding element of the second data structure a predetermined value. The sprite is considered a color cursor, and the formation and conclusion of the sprite is produced only if the number of different colors in the color structure of the image data does not exceed the number of available colors in a hardware sprite. The disadvantage of this method is its low reliability, due to the fact that the output of the sprite occurs only when the number of different colors in the color structure of the image data does not exceed the number of available colors in a hardware sprite. This is a consequence of the fact that in the way that is the prototype, do not make any attempts to adjust the colors in the source image to suit the hardware limitations on the number of colors available.

Considering the above, it is important to develop ways of generating sprite with the specified first set of possible values for opaque colors of pixels and at least one specified color value of pixels that defines the transparent color of the pixel at which the sprite generate source data comprising the first data structure specifies a color image with the specified second set of possible colors of the pixels, and a second data structure that defines the opaque portion of the specified sprite. The method should provide for the generation of sprite even in the case when the number of different colors in the color structure of the image data exceeds the number of available colors, due to hardware limitations, so as not to lead to a situation where it is impossible to create the sprite.

This is due to the fact that to get the value of each pixel of the sprite is determined by the second data structure if the specified pixel in the opaque part of the specified sprite, and if so, set the color value of the current pixel of the sprite is equal to the value of the specified first set of colors corresponding to the color of the pixel from the first data structure, and if not, then set the color value of the current pixel of the sprite is equal to the value that defines the transparent color of the pixel. In contrast to the prototype color match the first data structure and possible opaque colors sprite is a partial display of the specified second set specified in the first set. The addition of the definition area of the specified partial display to the specified second set is a set whose power is substantially less than the capacity specified second set. To determine the value included in the specified first set of colors and the corresponding color of the pixel from the first data structure, perform the following steps:

if the pixel of the first data structure has a color that does not belong to the specified scope, then the value of this pixel is set equal to the color, which is one of the closest to the original color of the pixel and within the specified scope;

applied to the color pixel of the first data structure indicated partial mapping.

Due to the correction of pixel values of the first data structure and the use of partial display of the second set to the specified first set, i.e. the set of all colors in the image to the set of feasible opaque colors of the sprite, achieved the main technical result consists in increasing the reliability of the method of generation of the sprite, because unlike the prototype the sprite generation is possible in any case. While there may be some reduction in the quality of the sprite associated with the distortion of the values of some of the colors in the original image. However, in most cases, the scope of the partial display is chosen so that the maximum distance from additions to the scope is very small, and thus the specified distortion is practically invisible.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where

Figure 1. The formation of the sprite on the two structures is m of the original data.

Figure 2. The structure of the partial display & Phi;0.

The implementation of the invention

1. General description

The basic requirement for the generated sprite is that the colors of the pixels of the sprite must belong to the specified first set of possible values of the opaque colors of pixels, which excludes values that define transparent color pixels. At the same time as the specified first set of possible values for opaque color pixel, and values that define transparent color pixels are a subset of the space of possible hardware sold flowers. Graphics system with overlay (overlay) of the sprite on the background image will replace the pixel values of the background image corresponding values of the pixels of the sprite, if they correspond to the opaque pixel colors, and leave the pixel values of the background image unchanged if the corresponding pixels of the sprite are values that define transparent color of the pixel. It is very important that no pixel of the sprite within the area corresponding to the opaque part, no matter corresponding to the transparent color. Otherwise, in these pixels, instead of the color of the sprite image, the observer will see the background color, which imposed a sprite, and the sprite will be the Casa is about being with a hole.

At the conclusion of the sprite on the computer screen in the form of overlay multiple transparent colors set the color key. For the overlay surface set the color key for the source that specifies a range of transparent colors. In accordance with [http://www.bringyou.to/games/ddraw.PDF, p.36] the color key is used when calling a method IDirectDrawSurface::UpdateOverlay to control which part of the overlay surface will be visible above the primary surface, and what part of the overlay surface is transparent. Color key overlay may be connected with the source and receiver, which is set by the method IDirectDrawSurface::SetColorKey. At the conclusion of the sprites in use overlay color key source, which put the flag DDCKEY_SRCOVERLAY in the first dwFlags parameter of this method. Method IDirectDrawSurface::UpdateOverlay uses a color key to determine which pixels of the sprite on the overlay surface should be considered as transparent, enabling them to see through them to the primary surface. The formation of the color key can be done in various ways, which are discussed in section 2.

The source data for generating sprite include two data structures, where the first data structure specifies a color image with the specified second set of possible colors of the pixels, and the second data structure defines cont the transparent portion of the specified sprite (see figure 1).

As a first data structure that specifies a color image with the specified second set of possible colors of the pixels can be any image in one of the standard formats, such as BMP, TIFF, etc. In this space V of possible colors of the pixels of such an original image may coincide with the space W of possible hardware-implemented color of the sprite, and it may differ. In any case blitting the original image into the surface of the sprite is hardware color conversion of the original image in a hardware-implemented color. This mapping defines a mapping φ:V→W. the Space of possible opaque colors sprite is a subset of W0⊂W the set of all hardware sold flowers from which you have removed all the colors that define transparent color pixels of the sprite. These colors usually are determined by the value of the color key and form a parallelepiped K in the space W of all hardware sold flowers. Thus there is a partial mapping φ0: V→W0with the scope & Phi;0-1(W0)=φ-1(W0)=V/φ-1(K) (see figure 2). Thus, the matching colors of the first data structure and possible opaque colors sprite is a partial display of the decree of the frame of the second set to the specified first set.

Addition φ-1(K) determining the specified partial display to the specified second set is a set whose power is substantially less than the capacity specified second set. Indeed, as will be seen from paragraph 2, the cardinality of K is significantly less than the cardinality of the set W of all hardware sold flowers. In addition, in real situations blitting the original image in the sprite number of colors in the original image that can move in a single color sprite is very small, otherwise the image quality is inevitably corrupted when blitting. It follows that the cardinality of φ-1(K) substantially less than the capacity specified in the second set, and for each point from the set φ-1(K) will be close to the point of determining V/φ-1(K) (see figure 2).

There are several options of the second data structure that defines the opaque part of the generated sprite. In any case, such a data structure should allow for each pixel of the generated sprite to determine the pixel to log in opaque part of the sprite and have a color that matches the color of the pixel in the original image, or must have a transparent color. Widely used at least three types of data structures to specify opaque frequent the sprite: bitmask a set of horizontal lines of pixels and vector specifying the boundaries of the opaque parts of the sprite.

The firing of the sprite is produced as follows. First of all, for each color of the set φ-1(K) determine the equivalent color C', which is the closest to the color of all colors, not included in the set φ-1(K). Then make a list of all such pairs (s, s') and order the set of all such pairs in ascending C. These steps may be performed once before you begin the application that uses the formation of sprites. If you need to build a sprite on the above source data to obtain the value of each pixel of the sprite is determined by the second data structure if the specified pixel in the opaque part of the specified sprite. If the pixel is included in the opaque part of the sprite, then check whether the color of the pixel with one of the colors from the available list of pairs (C, C'), and if Yes, then replace the color of the pixel With the corresponding color'. Otherwise, no replacement color pixel not produced. Then set the color value of the current pixel of the sprite is equal to the value included in the specified first set of colors and the corresponding color of the pixel from the first data structure by applying the mapping φ. If the pixel is not included in the opaque part of the JV is ayt, then set the color value of the current pixel of the sprite is equal to the value that defines the transparent color of the pixel.

2. Forming a color key

Color key overlay for displaying sprites are the most convenient form so that the value of the upper limit of the color key match the value of the lower limit of the range of the color key. Thus the set of colors belonging to the color range of the color key will consist of only one color, called the key color. Select key color depends on the color depth of the pixels. Often as a key color select fixed color, which rarely occurs in real images. Acceptable are, for example, black color [http://progma.narod.ru/directdraw.html], blue [http://jack.kiev.ua/linuxjournal/LJ/0081/4401 .html], red-blue color [http://mini-stalker.googlecode.com/svn-history/r29/trunk/Mini_STALKER/animation.h], Magenta [http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20010629/geczy_02.htm].

Sometimes there is a situation when the color key used is not one color, but many colors, representing the parallelepiped in the color space. For example, in the known technology of the "blue screen" with the aim of forming a sprite shoots real scene, for example, speaker of the television program, on a background of a blue background, then cut out only the part of the image, which is th corresponds to a real scene. In this case, as the color key is convenient to use the minimum parallelepiped in the color space containing the colors of all pixels of the image corresponding to the background.

In any case, the variety of colors included in the color key has a capacity substantially less power all the possible colors in the image.

If the original image specified by the first data structure has a depth of color that matches the color depth of the sprites, the value of the key color can be chosen so that, when converting the color format of the source image pixels at most one color pixels of any such original image by converting the received value of the key color. Indeed, consider the map φ color space of the source image in the color space of the sprites. Since these two color spaces have the same color depth, the power of the two color spaces are the same. Therefore, any mapping φ biactive or is not surjective. In the first case, when any select key color when converting the color format of the source image pixels at most one color pixels of any such original image when converting can take the value of the key color. In the second case, in the color ol the space overlay surface there is a color value, which lies outside the image display φ. If this value is taken as the key color, then when converting the color format of the source image pixels are none color pixels of any such original image when converting will not be able to take the value of the key color. The way to implement such a selection key color is obvious: it is enough to convert an array of all colors in the color space of the source image in the color space of the sprites, to organize the received values in ascending order and as a key color to choose any value missing in the resulting array of colors. If missing values no, then the map φ is bijective, and as a key color, you can take any color.

1. The method of generation of the sprite with the specified first set of possible values for opaque colors of pixels and at least one specified color value of pixels that defines the transparent color of the pixel at which the sprite generate source data comprising the first data structure specifies a color image with the specified second set of possible colors of the pixels, and a second data structure that defines the opaque portion of the specified sprite in which to get the value of each pixel of the sprite is determined by the second data structure in the result whether the specified pixel in the opaque part of the specified sprite, and if Yes, then set the color value of the current pixel of the sprite is equal to the value of the specified first set of colors corresponding to the color of the pixel from the first data structure, and if not, then set the color value of the current pixel of the sprite is equal to the value that defines the transparent color of the pixel, wherein the color match the first data structure and possible opaque colors sprite is a partial display of the specified second set specified in the first set, where the addition of the definition area of the specified partial display to the specified second set is a set whose power is substantially less than the capacity specified in the second set, and to determine the values of the incoming in the specified first set of colors and the corresponding color of the pixel from the first data structure, perform the following steps: if the pixel of the first data structure has a color that does not belong to the specified scope, then the value of this pixel is set equal to the color, which is one of the closest to the original color of the pixel and within the specified scope; apply to the color of the pixel of the first data structure indicated partial mapping.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the set transparent color is tol is to one element.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the set transparent color is parallelepiped in space colors of the sprite.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the addition of the definition area of the specified partial display to the specified second set is a type of color key operation blitting specified first data structure in the space of sprites.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the addition of the definition area of the specified partial display to the specified second set is a set of at most one element.



 

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24 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: sprite represents images of irregular shape overlaid over background images, preferably online. Generated sprite has specified first multitude of possible values of non-transparent colours of pixels and at least one value of pixel colours identifying transparent colour of pixel. Sprite is generated using initial data, including the first data structure specifying colour image with specified second multitude of possible colours of pixels, and the second data structure specifying non-transparent part of specified sprite. Compliance of colours of the first data structure and possible non-transparent colours of sprite is partial projection of the specified second multitude into the specified first multitude, where augmentation of area of identification of specified partial projection to the specified second multitude is the multitude, capacity of which is considerably lower than capacity of the specified second capacity, besides to identify the value of colours included into the specified first multitude and complying with colour of pixel from the first data structure, the following actions are taken: if pixel of the first data structure has colour that does not belong to the specified area of identification, then value of this pixel is established as equal to colour being one of nearest to initial colour of pixel and included in the specified area of identification; specified partial projection is applied to colour of pixel of the first data structure.

EFFECT: improving sprite generation reliability.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises: starting a first animation of the user interface element, wherein the first animation includes adjusting a value of a property of the first element; wherein the property is a size property that affects the size of the element when the value is adjusted; setting a transmission mode which specifies what actions to take when the second animation is started and the first animation is still adjusting the value of the size property of the element; detecting a trigger signal for the second animation while the first animation is running, wherein the first and second animations adjust the value of the size property of the element, wherein the trigger signal is an event generated in response to a user interaction with the element; recalculating a value of the property of the user interface element during the running of the first animation; storing the recalculated value of the property each time the value is recalculated; and causing the second animation to run using the specified transmission mode.

EFFECT: high quality and continuity when viewing animations.

19 cl, 10 dwg

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