Method of manufacturing ring fibre element

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: machine containing the device for the filing the first fibre cloth and placing it on the ring bearing alternately in one direction and in the opposite direction between coaxial circular outer ring and inner-ring, located on each side of the ring supports, to form a transverse first ring canvas. Also the device contains elements to hold cross-ring canvas on the outer and inner ring, a unit for second fibre canvas feeding on the ring support and its installation in the circumferential direction between the outer and inner rings to form a circular second ring of the canvas, a unit for linking and cross-county circular canvases with each other, and a device for driving cross-county and circular canvases to rotate around the axis of the outer and inner rings.

EFFECT: reduction of textile operations and waste production, reduction of production cost.

22 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl, 19 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a three-dimensional ring of fibrous elements.

Private use of the invention is the production of thick fibrous ring blanks, which form a reinforcing ring design products made of composite material, in particular brake discs, such as discs of material carbon/carbon or C/C (a frame made of carbon fibers, sealed carbon matrix) for aircraft brakes.

The level of technology

The usual process of making fibrous ring frames is to overlay and the connection of two-dimensional layers for the formation of thick sheets, from which cut out the frames. Such a process is described, for example, in U.S. patents 4790052 and 5792715, is associated with a significant disadvantage of large amounts of waste material. This disadvantage is compounded by the fact that the fibers are costly material, particularly in the case of carbon fibers or carbon precursor.

It was suggested various solutions aimed at eliminating this disadvantage and to obtain a fibrous structure in the form as close as possible to the desired circular shape. Thus, in U.S. patent 6009604 and 5662855 proposed to make the frames by applying and connecting the layers, educated braid, flat wound for the formation of the spiral. In U.S. patent 6363593 and 6367130 proposed the use of a panel of a spiral winding of superimposed on each of the coils connected to each other.

These solutions require the manufacture of fibrous tissue (braid or spiral cloth), which is an intermediate product between the strands or bundles of fibers and the ring frame, subject to manufacturing.

To avoid this intermediate step, in the patent document WO 98/49382 asked to put unorganized mass of fibers on the support ring and link them by development needles or igloprobivnye. However, the document does not say anything about the tools that should be used in practice to obtain the ring frame, satisfactory, at least in terms of uniformity. At the same time, in certain applications, such as the use of frames as the frames of the brake discs in aviation, the requirements for uniformity is very high, as well as requirements for quality control of mechanical properties.

In the patent document U.S. 2005/0172465 proposed to form a ring frame through a metered and controlled supply of short fibers on a rotating circular table with a serial poprobyval. You can get the frames R is vnominal patterns, however, the price of intermediate obtain short fibers.

Disclosure of inventions

Task one aspect of the invention is to provide a method which enables the manufacture of annular fibrous element directly on the market filaments or bundles, thereby limiting textile operations to reduce to a minimum the cost of manufacture.

In accordance with the invention the solution of this problem is achieved by a method containing the following steps:

- provide first fiber canvas, formed from the elements, essentially, one direction,

form a first transverse annular canvas by stacking the first fibrous canvas alternately in one direction and in the opposite direction between the coaxial outer circular ring and the inner circular ring with retention of the canvas on these rings,

- provide a second fibrous canvas, formed from the elements, essentially, one direction,

form a ring second ring canvas by stacking the second fibrous canvas in the circumferential direction between the outer and inner rings,

- connect the transverse and circumferential ring canvases with each other, and

- lead cross and the Tangenziale ring canvases during the rotation of the district to the axis of the outer and inner rings to complete many full turns with the purpose of obtaining directly from these elements in one direction of a thick fibrous ring element, containing layers formed transverse canvas, striped and associated with layers formed by a circumferential canvas.

This first fiber canvas, and the second fibrous canvas can be formed filaments or bundles, or, essentially, strands, which are received by the distribution harness, or a number of such strands, located next to each other. So you can get a ring of fibrous element directly from yarns or bundles with virtually no waste.

According to the features of the invention, the first fiber canvas laid to the reduction of its width between the outer ring and the inner ring, and the ring canvas form with a density that decreases between the outer ring and inner ring. Preferably a transverse annular canvas laid in such a way as to make it essentially constant density along any circle. This enables you to get essentially homogeneous fibrous element, thus increasing the density of the transverse canvas due to the contraction of the first fiber of the canvas to the inner ring is offset by a decrease of the density of the district of canvas.

According to another features of the way first fibrous canvas placed so that the fibrous elements of the girth of the canvas to the contraction in the comfort angle ranging from 45 to 75 with the tangent direction to the district in the middle of the circle cross ring canvas. Preferably this angle is approximately 60. You get a fibrous element cross canvas, in which the fibrous elements intersect in three directions, forming between the corners is about 60.

Preferably the annular transverse canvas hold the inner and outer rings with pins installed on these rings.

Also preferably the transverse and circumferential canvases result in rotation by the outer and inner rings.

According to the following features of the way of the transverse and circumferential ring canvases form a horizontal support ring, which is located between the outer and inner rings and which successively lowered as forming an annular fibrous element. After forming an annular fibrous element it can be disconnected by relative vertical displacement between the annular support and the outer and inner rings.

Preferably the coupling between transverse and circumferential ring canvases are produced sequentially as they are laid, and this binding is carried out, for example, by igloprobivnye.

According to the following features of the way the Tangenziale ring canvas stack after it has been laid girth canvas, and directly per the d-link canvases with each other.

In another aspect of the invention is the creation of an installation for implementing the method.

The solution to this problem is achieved by creating a setup that contains:

the feeder of the first fiber of the canvas and its installation on the ring support alternately in one direction and in the opposite direction between the coaxial outer circular ring and the inner circular ring located on each side of the ring support to form a first transverse annular canvas

elements to hold the girth of the canvas on the inner and outer rings,

the feeder of the second fibrous canvas on the support ring and its installation in the circumferential direction between the outer and inner rings for forming the circuit of the second ring canvas

device for cross-linking and the district of circular canvases with each other, and

the device for driving the transverse and circumferential ring canvases in rotation around the axis of the outer and inner rings.

Preferably, the device for feeding and stacking of the first fibrous canvas contains:

the feeder of the first fiber canvas, and

forming the hook body made with the possibility of reciprocating movement between a position outside narodnog the ring and position inside the inner ring and with the possibility of impact on the first fibrous canvas for its submission to the internal ring with a decrease in the width of the canvas.

Preferably forming the hook body includes a curved area for emphasis in the first fibrous canvas to supply it to the internal ring into the canvas of curvature in the region of the inner ring corresponding to the curvature of the inner ring.

Also preferably the elements for retaining the transverse canvas made in the form of pins mounted on the inner and outer rings.

According to another particular installation further comprises clamping elements in the form of motile curved rods, facilitating the handling of the first fibrous canvas on the pins by means of pressure on the first fibrous canvas.

Preferably, the device for driving in rotation contains outer and inner rings.

Also preferably annular bearing is made with possibility of vertical travel.

According to the following features of the system connecting device made in the form of punched device located in the direction of movement directly behind the feeder of the second fibrous canvas on the annular support.

Brief description of drawings

Next, with reference to the accompanying drawings will be described in detail embodiments of the invention are not limiting. In the drawings:

1 schematically depicts in the PE the perspective installation for implementing the method according to the invention,

figure 2 schematically depicts the installation of figure 1 in the top view,

figure 3 depicts in perspective and in the context of the installation of figure 1,

figure 4 schematically depicts part of the installation of figure 1, presenting, in particular, a device for feeding and stacking, intended for forming transverse canvas

figure 5 depicts the flow of the strands forming the transverse canvas

6 schematically depicts part of the installation of figure 1, showing the transverse canvas in the process of forming,

figa-7G depict sequential steps in the process laying in the formation of the transverse canvas

Fig depicts a plot of the obtained cross canvas

figures 9 and 9A very schematically depict part of the installation, presenting, in particular, a device for feeding and stacking intended for formation of the district on canvas

figa-10C schematically depict part of the setup, showing the annular fibrous element at two stages of its manufacture and then at the stage of withdrawal after fabrication.

The implementation of the invention

Shown in figure 1 the apparatus comprises two horizontal round rings with a common vertical axis And the outer ring 100 and the inner ring 200, between which is located a horizontal annular bearing or the bearing ring disc 150.

The outer ring 100 carries a circular series of pins 102 in which Alceste several dozen. The pins 102 are vertically upwards from the upper surface of the ring 100 in close proximity to its inner edge. Similarly, the inner ring 200 carries a circular series of pins 202 in the number several dozen. The pins 202 are vertically upwards from the upper surface of the ring 200 in close proximity to its outer edge. The upper surface of the ring 100 and 200 are essentially in the same horizontal plane.

Rings 100 and 200 are rotated around the axis A. the Rotary actuator can be carried out using friction wheels 106, 206, communicating respectively with the outer side surface of the ring 100 and the inner side surface of the ring 200. Friction wheel 106, 206 are relevant motors or a single motor through the transmission (drive means not shown). In another embodiment, ring 100, 200 can be set in rotation by a toothed wheels, siteplease serrated crowns, formed respectively on the outer and inner side edges of the rings 100 and 200. The rollers such as the rollers 108 for ring 100 and the guide track (not shown) guide and support rings 100 and 200 relative to the frame 110 of the installation.

The annular disk 150 is made firm but movable vertically supported on vertical rods 152 Executive eliminate the STV 154 (3), for example, three actuators, which are synchronized to maintain the horizontal position of the disk 150.

In addition, the installation of figure 1 further comprises a device 300 feeding and stacking of the first fibrous canvas for forming transverse canvas, passing between the rings 100 and 200; the device 400 filing and applying the second fibrous canvas for the formation of the circuit layer, passing between the rings 100 and 200; and a connecting device 500 for connecting the transverse and the district of canvases. The device 400 feed and blending is located in the direction of the back of the device 300 feeding and stacking and directly in front of the connecting device 500. The term "direction" is used here in relation to the direction of rotation of the rings 100 and 200 (arrow F).

As shown in Fig.4-6, the device 300 feeding and stacking receives many strands 302 (5-6), formed by the distribution of the respective cables. Each strand around a number of pulleys 303 and pulling device with a drive wheel 304, which are mounted on a plate 305. Then each strand around the roller 306, forming a tension regulator and installed with a possibility of free movement in the vertical slot 307 of the plate 305. This feeder is in itself well known.

Two rows 314, 316 rollers installations which are on the frame 318, supported by the frame 110. These videos take strands 302 under tension for their incorporation and formation of fibrous canvas 320 by the location of the strands next to each other (Fig.6). The two rollers located one above the other rows 314, 316 arranged in staggered rows, and the rows are along the arc of a circle centered on the axis And to facilitate placement of the canvas 320 on the arc sector.

The device 300 feeding and stacking also contains the stacker or the hook 322 made with the possibility of translational motion essentially in the radial direction in both directions between the rear position outside of the outer ring 100 and the front position inside the inner ring 200. On its way between the rear and front positions the hook 322 passes over the rings 100 and 200.

On his way from the rear position to the front hook 322 directs the canvas 320 so that brings it to the inner ring 200 with a simultaneous narrowing to form the annular segment to the area of the canvas, which takes place between the rings 100 and 200. For this Shuttle 322 is formed by a rod with a curved Central section 324, the curvature of which corresponds to the curvature of the inner edge segment of the canvas. In other words, the Central section 324 has the shape of a circular arc centered on the axis And, when the hook 322 is in its forward position the Institute. The Central section is connected to the ends 326 and 328 dropship curved sections facing convex sides of the inside of the hook to ensure the narrowing of the canvas 320.

The ends 326, 328 dropship connected to respective brackets 330, 332 attached to the sliding blocks 334, 336, installed with the possibility of translational motion in the guide 338, 340 sliding on the frame 110. Floaters, 334, 336 are provided in a synchronous movement along the guide rails 338, 340 drive means (not shown), such as actuators, cables or conveyor belt driven motors.

The device 300 feeding and stacking also contains two clamping element, the outer clamping element 342 and the inner clamping element 344, made in the form of curved rods. Clamping elements or curved rods 342, 344 are designed for sitting on pins 102, 202 edges of each segment of fibrous canvas 320, arranged between the rings 100 and 200. Rod 342 passes along the arc of a circle centered on the axis a and is located directly outside near pins 102. Rod 342 has a length at least equal to the length of the outer edge segment of the laid fibrous canvas 320, and more preferably this length. Rod 344 passes along the arc of a circle centered on the axis a and is located directly inside a series of pins 202. CTE is Zhen 344 has a length, at least equal to the length of the inner edge segment of the laid fibrous canvas 320, and more preferably this length. The rods 342, 344 preferably have a cross-section in the shape of a Crescent and turned its flat side to the corresponding pins 102, 202.

At its rear in the direction of the ends of the rods 342, 344 mounted in the brackets 346, 348 (figure 2). Bracket 346 has a horizontal portion passing over the ring 100 and is attached outside of the ring to the vertical part of passing down to the level below the supporting disk 150. The bracket 348 has a horizontal portion passing over the ring 200 and attached inside the ring to the vertical part of passing down to the level below the supporting disk 150. The rods 342, 344 are movable vertically and rotatable around an axis And, as will be described in detail below. For this purpose the brackets 346, 348 can operate actuators rotational and translational motion.

Then laying fibrous canvas 320 using the hook 322 and rods 342, 344 will be described with reference to figa-7G and 8.

As shown in figa, segment 360 canvas 320 already stacked and mounted on the pins 102 and 202 using rods 342, 344, and the hook 322 is in its rear position.

Further, the hook 322 is moved to its forward position, stretching the canvas 320 to wew the indoor ring 200 and passing over the rod 342 (pigv). The hook 322 abuts with its inner side in the canvas 320 and causes successive narrowing of the canvas while simultaneously giving the desired curvature of the inner edge 362b again supplied segment 362 of the canvas.

The rods 342, 344 are then sequentially moved as described below. At first, they turn towards the direction of motion, to be freed from segment 362, so that the canvas 320 tightly stretched on the pins 102 under the action of the tension of the canvas. Thereafter, the rods are moved up and then rotated in the direction of movement (position 6)to be above the segment 362 (figs) and finally fall for draping segment 362 on the pins 102, 202, based on the inner and outer rings (fig.7D).

On the hook 322 is moved to its rear position. Under the action of tension in the strands forming the canvas 320, it covers the rod 344, and a new segment 364 is held between the inner and outer rings (fige).

The rods 342, 344 again turn towards the direction of motion, to be freed from segment 364, so that the canvas 320 tightly stretched on the pins 202 under the action of its tension. Thereafter, the rods are moved up and then rotated in the direction of motion to be above the segment 364 (fig.7F) and finally down to sitting CE is ment 364 on the pins 102, 202 (fig.7G). This provision is similar to the position figa, and the process can be continued in the manner described.

Canvas 320 is placed with the simultaneous drive of the rings 100 and 200 in the rotation. The rotational movement may be continuous. This should ensure that the rods 342, 344 may have a sufficient length to clamp the entire width of the canvas while draping it on the pins 102, 202. It is also possible cyclical rotation of the rings 100 and 200, for example, with stops at the time of exposure of the rods 342, 344 on canvas 320.

Due to the effect of rotation of the rings 100, 200 sequentially stacked segments 360, 362, 364 canvas 320 overlap, as shown in Fig. Preferably the rotational movement of the rings 100, 200 and forward movement of the hook 322 is selected so that for a given width of the canvas 320 consecutive outer edges, such as edge 360 and a, and consistent inner edge, such as edge 362b and 364b are located next to each other or back to back. You get a cross canvas 366 passing between the rings 100 and 200 and has a density, which is essentially constant along any circle, but increases from the outer ring 200 to the inner ring 100. It is preferable also to provide the width of the canvas to strands 302 sequentially stacked segments formed angle and in PR the cases from 45 to 75 with the tangent to the average circumference of the ring segment. In the most preferred embodiment, this angle is about 60, as shown in Fig.

The device 400 filing and overlay (Fig.9) receives many strands 402 formed by the distribution cables. Strands 402 bypass stretch and preparatory device (not shown), similar to the device 5, and then go around deflecting rollers 406 and sent guides 408, 410 so that supplied to the upper surface of the support disk 150 and are located directly above it. As shown more coarsely on figa, guides 408, 410 in the form of ridges. Each of them forms a series of passages oriented essentially in the radial direction between the rings 100 and 200. Guides 408, 410 are located close to each other, and the passages in the guide 408 are staggered relative to the openings in the guide rail 410. The strands emerging from the guide 408, 410, abut end-to-end to each other and form a ring canvas 420 passing between the rings 100 and 200. Strands 402 suited to guides 408, 410 vertically or at an inclination to the support disk 150. Guides 408, 410 and passes made curved so that the strands 402 out of them, essentially tangent to the horizontal. The width of aisles in the guide corresponds to the width of the strands 402. Therefore, adjust the width guides and state the strands 402 to obtain the district of canvas 420.

Because the device 400 is in the direction of the back of the device 300, the ring canvas 420 is superimposed on top of the transverse canvas 360 on the supporting disk 150 between the rings 100, 200. In the example implementation Fig in which elements (strands 302) canvas form an angle of about 60 with the circumferential direction in the middle of the ring segment, adding the district of the canvas provides input elements (strands 402), which at this level also form an angle of 60 with the elements of the canvas 360. This means that after connecting canvases reinforcing elements are located approximately in the configuration of 360.

Preferably the canvas 420 give a density that decreases from the outer ring 100 to the inner ring 200 to compensate for the increased density of the canvas 360 and a General canvas 360+420 having a uniform density across the entire width. For this canvas 420 can be formed from strands having the same width, but derived from the harness, the weight of which decreases from the outer to the inner ring. In alternative embodiments, the strands can be formed of bundles of the same weight, but with increasing width with increasing distribution), as shown in Fig.9, or a combined image.

Preferably the binding device 500 is a device for the examination of needles or igloprobivnye. It is contains needle head 502, which is contained in a vertical reciprocating motion, for example, a crank mechanism (not shown). Head 502 is a lot of needles 504 with hooks that are used to bind the canvas 360 and 420 each other by capturing fibers and move them in a vertical direction (direction Z) is well-known manner.

Needle head passes along the annular sector. Part of the support disk 150, which is located under the needling head, with openings 156 in accordance with the arrangement of the needles 504 so that the needles pass through these holes without damaging the disk. Needles distributed in such a way as to provide essentially uniform density development between the outer and inner edges.

The location of the binding device 500 directly behind the device 400 in the direction of movement allows you to secure the canvas 420 immediately after its installation and limits the risk of disorganisation of the canvas 420 to its connection with canvas 360. Thus, this arrangement is preferable, but not mandatory. Possible implementation in which the ring canvas laid before the formation of the transverse canvas.

As rotation of the rings 100, 200 creates a fibrous structure or fibrous element formed superimposed on each other is loamy with alternating transverse canvas 360 and the district of canvas 420, which are wound from superimposed on each interleaved spirals. Igloprobivnoj produced by penetration needle to a depth greater than the thickness of the two layers so that the newly formed part of the canvases 360 and 420 are connected not only with each other but also with the underlying part of the produced fibrous ring element.

To provide essentially uniform across the thickness of the fibrous element, it is desirable to ensure that the depth of igloprobivnye was essentially constant. For this purpose, the support disk 150 is moved down as the formation of the fibrous element. At the beginning of the formation of the fibrous element of the disk 150 is horizontally near the upper ends of the pins 102, 202 (figa). Further support disk 150 is moved down (pigv), so that the circumferential and lateral canvases continue to form, essentially, on the same horizontal level. The depth of penetration of the needle corresponds to a value greater than the thickness of the two layers, while in the beginning of the process of the needles pass through the apertures 156 in the supporting disk, and after reaching the fibrous element of a certain thickness of the needle is already not reach the lower layer of the fibrous element.

It should be noted that as such, the connection technology of fibrous layers by igloprobivnye as their application bearing serial op is a Scania supports to maintain a constant penetration of the needles is well known. Thus, under these conditions, the lowering of the support disk 150 may be similar to that described in the aforementioned U.S. patent 5792715, and control of the depth of penetration of the needles is similar to that described in the aforementioned U.S. patent 6374469. The lowering of the support disk 150 may be performed continuously or cyclically increments lowering after each full rotation of the rings 100 and 200.

In the process, when forming the fibrous element is subjected to a binder igloprobivnye, he held the cross in his position so that successive coils of transverse canvas 360 are placed on the pins 102, 202, and the rods 342, 344 ensure the consistent movement of the layers of the fibrous element down pins with clamps to the last stacked segment of the stacked canvas 320. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the pins had a height of not less than, and preferably slightly greater than the thickness of the produced fibrous element.

After reaching the desired thickness of the fibrous ring of the needle element head 502 and guides 408, 410 assign, and the hook 322 is transferred to the rear position. Canvases 360 and 420 cut off, and fibrous element is removed by lifting the support disk 150 to detach from the pins 102, 202 (figs). In another embodiment, the fibrous element can be removed, for example, by the transmission of the rings 100 and 200, while the support disk 150 remains in the position which it occupied at the end of the manufacture of the fibrous element.

In the above description of each canvas, 320, 420 is made by laying next to each other or butt strands formed by the distribution cables. In the embodiment, one and/or the other of the canvas 320, 420 can be formed by distributing a single bundle or from a combination of yarns or bundles of fibers in one direction.

In variants of the implementation of the wiring can kill and canvases can be installed automatically using automatic systems, by type described in U.S. patent 6684564 and 6690987.

The nature of the fiber fleece 320 and 420 depends on the intended use. In the case where the fibrous elements are frames for brake discs made of composite material With a/C, you can use carbon fiber or fibers of the precursor of carbon, i.e. fibers of the pre-oxidized polyacrylonitrile. When using fibers from precursor carbon ultimate fate in the carbon produced by heat treatment after fabrication of the fibrous element.

Examples 1-4

Fibrous element as an annular frame for brake disk of composite material, having an outer diameter the Tr Do=445 mm and inner diameter Di=226 mm, was manufactured by applying and igloprobivnye transverse canvas and the district of canvas as follows.

Using carbon bundles of 50,000 fibers (50) or 24,000 fibers (24) with the corresponding linear weighing 3.7 ctex and 1.6 ktex. The number of bundles intended for distribution and formation of transverse canvas and the district of canvas, and the width W of the strands obtained when the distribution of the bundles were chosen such to obtain the frame is essentially uniform density with the following characteristics:

- angle and between the strands forming the transverse canvas, and the tangent to the average circumference is in the range from 45 to 75, preferably about 60; and

- relation R, weights, represented by the district on canvas, by weight fraction, presents cross-canvas - approximately 1/3:2/3.

Below in table 1 are given different possible combinations to obtain the desired characteristics.

Table 1
ExampleUsed harnessesCanvas, forming after laying the cross canvasThe ring canvasRa
150 13 wiring harness9 wiring harness
W variable from 8 mm for Doup to 27 mm for Di
35:6560
3.7 ctexW in Do=25,9 mm
W in Di=17.7 mm
25011 wiring harness7 wiring harness
W variable from 10 mm for Doup to 33 mm for Di
34:6658,4
3.7 ctexW in Do=22,6 mm
W in Di=7.9 mm
35020 wiring harness9 wiring harness
W variable from 8 mm for Doup to 27 mm for Di
32:68to 54.3
3.7 ctexW in Do=17.4 mm
42428 wiring harness18 wiring harness
W variable from 4.7 mm for Doup to 11 mm for Di
34:6658,4
1.6 ctexW in Do=8.9 mm
W on Di=3.1 mm

Examples 5-8

The procedure was the same as in examples 1-4, but with other values for the inner and outer diameters, namely Do=553 mm and Di=289 mm

In the following table 2 shows the possible combinations to produce the same desired characteristics of the angle a and the ratio R, as in examples 1-4.

11 wiring harness
W variable from 8 mm for Doto
20 mm for Di
Table 2
ExampleUsed harnessesCross canvasThe ring canvasRa
55017 wiring harness35:65of 56.2
3.7 ctexW in Do=18,0 mm
W in Di=6.1 mm
65014 wiring harness8 harnesses
W variable from 9 mm for Doup to 29 mm for Di
32:6875
3.7 ctexW in Do=21,8 mm
W in Di=7.4 mm
75012 wiring harness12 wiring harness
W variable from 7 mm for Doup to 23 mm for Di
32:6875
3.7 ctexW in Do=13.1 mm
W in Di=6.4 mm
82428 wiring harness18 wiring harness
W variable from 4 mm for Doup to 12 mm for Di
34:66of 56.2
1.6 ctexW in Do=10,9 mm
W in Di=3.7 mm

1. A method of manufacturing a fibrous ring element, containing the following steps:
provide a first fibrous canvas, formed from the elements, essentially, one direction,
form a first transverse annular canvas by stacking the first fibrous canvas alternately in one direction and in the opposite direction between the coaxial outer circular ring and the inner circular ring with retention of the canvas on these rings,
provide a second fibrous canvas, formed from the elements, essentially, one direction,
form a ring second ring canvas by stacking the second fibrous canvas in the circumferential direction between the outer and inner rings,
connect the transverse and circumferential ring Ho the texts with each other and
lead transverse and circumferential ring canvases in rotation around the axis of the outer and inner rings to complete many full turns with obtaining directly from these elements in one direction of a thick annular fibrous element containing layers formed transverse canvas, which are interleaved and connected with layers formed by a circumferential canvas.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first fibrous canvas laid to the reduction of its width between the outer ring and the inner ring, and the ring canvas form with a density that decreases between the outer ring and inner ring.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a transverse annular canvas laid in such a way as to make it essentially constant density along any circle.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first ring canvas placed so that the fibrous elements girth canvas form an angle of from 45 to 75 with the tangent direction to the district in the middle of the circle girth of the canvas.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the said angle is approximately 60.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first fibrous canvas form from the distributed harness or set of distributed wiring harness, located the x next to each other.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the second fibrous canvas form from the distributed harness or set of distributed wiring harness located next to each other.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the annular cross canvas hold in the outer ring and the inner ring with pins installed on these rings.

9. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the transverse and circumferential canvases result in rotation by the outer ring and the inner ring.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the transverse and circumferential ring canvases form a horizontal support ring, which is arranged between the outer ring and the inner ring and which is successively lowered as the formation of the fibrous ring of the element.

11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that after forming an annular fibrous element is disconnected by relative vertical displacement between the annular support and the outer ring and inner ring.

12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cross-linking and the district of circular canvases are produced sequentially as they are laid.

13. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cross-linking and the district of circular canvases carried out by igloprobivnye.

14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the roundabout ring canvas laid after laying girth of the canvas and immediately before the binding canvases with each other.

15. Installation for the manufacture of a thick annular fibrous element containing layers formed fibrous transverse canvas, which are interleaved and connected with layers formed by a circumferential fiber canvas, containing:
the feeder of the first fiber of the canvas and its installation on the ring support alternately in one direction and in the opposite direction between the coaxial outer circular ring and the inner circular ring located on each side of the ring support to form a first transverse annular canvas,
elements to hold the girth of the canvas on the inner and outer rings,
the feeder of the second fibrous canvas on the support ring and its installation in the circumferential direction between the outer and inner rings for forming the circuit of the second ring canvas, a device for cross-linking and the district of circular canvases with each other, and
the device for driving the transverse and circumferential ring canvases in rotation around the axis of the outer and inner rings.

16. Installation according to 15, characterized in that the device for feeding and stacking of the first fibrous canvas contains:
the feeder of the first fibrous canvas and
forming the hook body made with the possibility in Vratna-and-forth movement between a position outside the outer ring and a position inside the inner ring and with the possibility of impact on the first fibrous canvas for its submission to the internal ring with a decrease the width of the canvas.

17. Installation according to item 16, wherein forming the hook body includes a curved area for emphasis in the first fibrous canvas to supply it to the internal ring into the canvas of curvature in the region of the inner ring corresponding to the curvature of the inner ring.

18. Installation according to 15, characterized in that the elements for retaining the transverse canvas made in the form of pins mounted on the outer ring and the inner ring.

19. Installation p, characterized in that it further comprises clamping elements in the form of motile curved rods, facilitating the handling of the first fibrous canvas on the pins by means of pressure on the first fibrous canvas.

20. Installation according to 15, characterized in that the device for driving in rotation contains the outer ring and the inner ring.

21. Installation according to item 15, wherein the bearing ring is made with possibility of vertical travel.

22. Installation according to 15, characterized in that the device for binding made in the form of punched device located in the direction of movement directly behind the feeder of the second fibrous canvas on the annular support.



 

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FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: brake disk comprises flange or splines for it to be attached to wheel hub, working surfaces to interact with brake liners and vent channels. The latter are arranged between working surfaces. Vent channel width A and disk thickness B are selected to satisfy the relationship A/B>0.38.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of cooling, reduced wear, longer life; stable braking.

1 dwg

Brake disk // 2370682

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: brake disk comprises flange or splines for it to be attached to wheel hub, working surfaces to interact with brake liners and vent channels. The latter are arranged between the working surfaces. Transition radius of surfaces that make vent channels exceeds four millimetres.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of braking, reduced coefficient of friction.

1 dwg

Brake disk // 2362922

FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, namely, to disk brakes. Proposed brake disk is made in cast iron and represents a sliding disk of the disk-type brake. Proposed disk comprises outer edges, inner edges and alternating teeth and gaps along the said inner edges. Note here that it incorporates means designed to reduce fracture formation caused by irregular characteristics of the brake disk elongation. The disk features zones with reduced material thickness in every tooth, as compared with that along the radius outside the gaps between teeth, and has no similar thickness reduction on gaps between teeth. Aforesaid material thickness reduction zones formed in disk casting are located in transition between teeth and main part of brake disk, and pass partially along imaginary circumference with radius of the gap lower parts. Aforesaid zones represent either zones not forming through holes, or zones representing axial openings or holes. Arc-like transition parts with adjacent teeth and or rectilinear or almost rectilinear part between the said transition parts form lower part of every gap. Each transition part features radius R, while rectilinear part length is smaller than 1.5R.

EFFECT: reduced risks of fracture formation, higher strength.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, particularly, to clasp brakes. The propose clasp brake incorporates a caliper enveloping one or more brake plates, a hub or a part linked up wit the hub. Spreader bars are arranged between the brake disk and hub or the part linked up wit the hub. The spreader bars are arranged to prevent contact between brake plate spline end faces and the hub spline end faces, or the part jointed to the hub, at whatever radial shift of the brake plate relative to the hub or the part jointed thereto. At least, one part of the spreader bar features such sizes and rigidity relative to the brake plate, hub or part splines that, at whatever radial shifts of the brake plate to the hub or part jointed thereto, all radial forces are transmitted from the brake plate to the hub or the part jointed to it only via, at least, one part of the spreader bar. The sizes are selected so as to provide a contact between the brake plate spline end faces those of the hub or the part jointed thereto in rotary engagement between the brake plate and hub or the part jointed thereto to transmit rotary motion in braking.

EFFECT: damping radial impacts or radial shifts between brake plate and hub, particularly, between end faces of appropriate splines.

13 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: clasp brake incorporates a caliper with one or more brake-shoe linings surrounding one or more brake disks. One of the brake disks slides on over the central part representing a hub, sleeve or the like part. The said central part is fitted on the wheel axle or the like part. The disks are coupled with the central part with the help of teeth, splines or the like parts so the disks cannot rotate but are fitted to slide on along the axle. The contact parts of the teeth or the like parts of at least one disk and/or of the central part feature an arc-like shape if seen along the wheel axle. The contact parts represent the parts of the teeth surfaces to be engaged with each other with the brake released. The said contact parts of every tooth and/or spline of the said central part feature the arc-like shape with the total arc length exceeding 360°/Z, and preferably larger than 2(360°/Z), where Z is the number of teeth of the disk and central part respectively.

EFFECT: reduced noise and vibration with brake released, higher wear resistance in interface between brake disks and central part.

15 cl, 13 dwg

Brake disk // 2277192

FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle multiple-disk brakes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake disk contains friction member made of carbon composition with rectangular slots uniformly spaced over circumference in each of which two metal U-shaped load-bearing clamp-like inserts are fitted. Each such clamp engages by walls with side surface of slot and end face surfaces of friction member, being secured on disk by rivets. At least two vertical cuts pointed to each other and displaced relative to each other are made in each clamp on walls in contact with end face surfaces of friction member. Cuts are made to provide elastic deformation of clamp and its mounting on friction member with preload to guarantee locking of clamp to prevent its turning relative to axis of rivet.

EFFECT: improved reliability and increased service life of disk owing to prevention of destruction of friction member made of monocarbon under action of thermal, power and vibration loads.

3 dwg

Disk brake // 2269695

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: disk brake comprises support that is rigidly connected to the brake and embraces one or more brake disks, at least one stop plate, and set of braking linings. The brake disks are mounted on the rotating hub without permitting rotation with respect to the hub and for permitting movement in the axial direction with respect to the hub by means of springs for transmitting brake moment from the brake disk to the hub. The braking linings are mounted for permitting movement in the axial direction inside the support that undergoes loading on the brake linings. The support has an opening through which the brake lining can be inserted or removed.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

13 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: surface of the rotor is subjected to electric-spark grinding or electro-erosion treatment. The part of the rotor of the braking mechanism to be treated by electro-erosion is made of a conducting material, preferably of ferrous metal, iron, and gray cast iron. The braking disk of the rotor is solid or ventilated.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

60 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: disc has assembly bulge for fastening to nave of transportation vehicle wheel and back band connected with bulge and having opposite surfaces of braking to provide interaction with brackets of brake's support to have an breaking effect onto transportation vehicle. At least one braking surface has at least one pair of channels, which have to be reflectively symmetrical to radius of disc. Channels pass in such a manner to embrace the whole thickness of back band, which intends for interaction with brackets. Continuity of each channel is provided along its total length. All four channels of at least one pair of channels pass the route which has at least one straight part and one curved part. Each channel of any pair of channels has at least a part of its route, which is located close to inner edge of back band and is oriented at radial direction mainly. Moreover mentioned channels of at least one pair of channels do not cross each other. All four channels pass the route without being damaged. Any channel passes the route from head or inner end to tail or inner end. The end mentioned is closed with dead edge where side walls of channel connect to each other.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation; improved reliability of operation of baking system.

27 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: method and equipment for manufacturing mats from continuous yarns supplied from bobbins and laid onto conveyor line.

SUBSTANCE: line for manufacture of mats comprises at least one bobbin put onto spindle, guiding means for yarns supplied from bobbin, at least one pulling means for pulling of yarn, and yarn laying means with the help of which yarn is laid onto conveyor belt. Yarn guiding means, yarn pulling means and yarn laying means are fixed and are arranged one behind another at the same level. Yarn laying means has rocking lever for laying yarn in direction transverse to conveyor belt. Yarn guiding means is constructed so that yarn is unwound from bobbin at its outer side.

EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to elimination of yarn curling, automated replacement of roving by means of automated roving replacement system, and optimized disconnection of warp yarns.

28 cl, 3 dwg

The invention relates to a technology for nonwovens and can be used for, for example, disposable absorbent products

Fibrous material // 2058453
The invention relates to the chemical industry, in particular fibrous materials derived aerodynamic method

FIELD: method and equipment for manufacturing mats from continuous yarns supplied from bobbins and laid onto conveyor line.

SUBSTANCE: line for manufacture of mats comprises at least one bobbin put onto spindle, guiding means for yarns supplied from bobbin, at least one pulling means for pulling of yarn, and yarn laying means with the help of which yarn is laid onto conveyor belt. Yarn guiding means, yarn pulling means and yarn laying means are fixed and are arranged one behind another at the same level. Yarn laying means has rocking lever for laying yarn in direction transverse to conveyor belt. Yarn guiding means is constructed so that yarn is unwound from bobbin at its outer side.

EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to elimination of yarn curling, automated replacement of roving by means of automated roving replacement system, and optimized disconnection of warp yarns.

28 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: machine containing the device for the filing the first fibre cloth and placing it on the ring bearing alternately in one direction and in the opposite direction between coaxial circular outer ring and inner-ring, located on each side of the ring supports, to form a transverse first ring canvas. Also the device contains elements to hold cross-ring canvas on the outer and inner ring, a unit for second fibre canvas feeding on the ring support and its installation in the circumferential direction between the outer and inner rings to form a circular second ring of the canvas, a unit for linking and cross-county circular canvases with each other, and a device for driving cross-county and circular canvases to rotate around the axis of the outer and inner rings.

EFFECT: reduction of textile operations and waste production, reduction of production cost.

22 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl, 19 dwg

FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: ventilated disk comprises friction ways connected with the bearing hub of the disk through connecting members made of studs distributed over the periphery of the bearing hub of the disk. One end of the stud is provided with a gripping device embedded in the material of the friction way. The opposite end of the stud is made of an insert which slides in axial direction in the material of the bearing hub of the disk. The friction ways and bearing hub of the disk are cast with the use of the common casting rod with studs.

EFFECT: improved performance.

7 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: disc has assembly bulge for fastening to nave of transportation vehicle wheel and back band connected with bulge and having opposite surfaces of braking to provide interaction with brackets of brake's support to have an breaking effect onto transportation vehicle. At least one braking surface has at least one pair of channels, which have to be reflectively symmetrical to radius of disc. Channels pass in such a manner to embrace the whole thickness of back band, which intends for interaction with brackets. Continuity of each channel is provided along its total length. All four channels of at least one pair of channels pass the route which has at least one straight part and one curved part. Each channel of any pair of channels has at least a part of its route, which is located close to inner edge of back band and is oriented at radial direction mainly. Moreover mentioned channels of at least one pair of channels do not cross each other. All four channels pass the route without being damaged. Any channel passes the route from head or inner end to tail or inner end. The end mentioned is closed with dead edge where side walls of channel connect to each other.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation; improved reliability of operation of baking system.

27 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: surface of the rotor is subjected to electric-spark grinding or electro-erosion treatment. The part of the rotor of the braking mechanism to be treated by electro-erosion is made of a conducting material, preferably of ferrous metal, iron, and gray cast iron. The braking disk of the rotor is solid or ventilated.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

60 cl, 4 dwg

Disk brake // 2269695

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: disk brake comprises support that is rigidly connected to the brake and embraces one or more brake disks, at least one stop plate, and set of braking linings. The brake disks are mounted on the rotating hub without permitting rotation with respect to the hub and for permitting movement in the axial direction with respect to the hub by means of springs for transmitting brake moment from the brake disk to the hub. The braking linings are mounted for permitting movement in the axial direction inside the support that undergoes loading on the brake linings. The support has an opening through which the brake lining can be inserted or removed.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

13 cl, 15 dwg

Brake disk // 2277192

FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle multiple-disk brakes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake disk contains friction member made of carbon composition with rectangular slots uniformly spaced over circumference in each of which two metal U-shaped load-bearing clamp-like inserts are fitted. Each such clamp engages by walls with side surface of slot and end face surfaces of friction member, being secured on disk by rivets. At least two vertical cuts pointed to each other and displaced relative to each other are made in each clamp on walls in contact with end face surfaces of friction member. Cuts are made to provide elastic deformation of clamp and its mounting on friction member with preload to guarantee locking of clamp to prevent its turning relative to axis of rivet.

EFFECT: improved reliability and increased service life of disk owing to prevention of destruction of friction member made of monocarbon under action of thermal, power and vibration loads.

3 dwg

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