Multilayer structural material and method of its production
SUBSTANCE: method for production of multilayer structural material includes mould filling, subsequent supply of layer materials, moulding, soaking, withdrawal from mould. At the same time serial filling of layer materials is carried out through placement of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto mould bottom, placement of foam polyurethane layer onto layers of basalt-plastic with further laying of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto foam polyurethane layer, with intermediate arrangement of carbon threads in between. Ends of carbon threads are taken outside. Moulding and soaking of all layers is carried out simultaneously in process of heating up to temperature of 60°C and pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa until resin hardens. At the same time ratio of foam polyurethane layer thickness to basalt-plastic layer thickness makes 20-80:0.5-1.5.
EFFECT: improved mechanical properties and reduced process cycle.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
The invention can be used in wall and roof sandwich panels for aircraft skin and deep-diving vehicles, river and sea vessels as a structural heat - and sound insulating material.
Known multilayer construction element consisting of a Central layer (strips of mineral wool) and surface layers located on two opposite major surfaces of the Central layer, obtained by gluing surface layers to the opposite main surfaces of the Central layer. The surface of the middle layer is made of profiled with grooves, and the surface layers repeat the circuit surface of the middle layer .
Profiling of facing sheets and mineral wool boards with exactly match the ledge with hollow sheet and plate, the adhesive on the outer layers and bonding complicate the process.
Known multilayer structural material used in sandwich panels, including two of the surface layer of the metal and the Central part, assembled from pieces of strips of mineral wool, between which there are longitudinal strips of molding foam (polyurethane and the like), where the Central layer of mineral wool strips alternated with a foam obtained by Gulf pieces of mineral wool is spininng mass polyurethane foam and the resulting structure are bonded sheets of metal .
The disadvantages of this design is the complexity of manufacturing, use as the outer layer of expensive metal sheets.
Known multilayer structural material used in the production of wall panels, characterized in that it consists of medium polyurethane foam insulation layer, the surface of which is shaped grooves, and the outer layers, made of galvanized steel with thickness of 0.5-0.7 mm with protective and decorative paint coating or without it.
Multilayer structural material obtained by pouring the foamed mass polyurethane foam in the mold, the profiled outer surface of the polyurethane layer grooves and bonding polyurethane foam blanks with pre-shaped sheet metal of the car .
The disadvantages of this design is the poor compatibility of the materials of the layers, low adhesion and Flexural strength, stiffness, multi-stage process.
Known multilayer structural material used in the production of wall panels, taken as a prototype, characterized in that it consists of two lateral sliced bars and located between the plates of polyurethane foam density 25-70 kg/m3while the front and rear side plates of panopolis the Tana closed layer of protective material, of paper, foil or plastic film, is fixed through the adhesive properties of the polyurethane foam. The material obtained by the Gulf of foamed mass in the mold, the bottom of which lay a protective material on the sides of the wooden blocks. On foam mass placed on protective material, after which the resulting structure is maintained under pressure .
Structural strength is provided by the properties of the polyurethane foam, the surface protective layers do not improve the mechanical characteristics of the material.
A known method of manufacturing a multi-layer building blocks containing cladding, insulation and structural layers, including installation in the form of technological partitions, form a consistent supply solutions cladding, insulation and structural layers, molding, extract, and eject from the mold. At the bottom of the form is placed plates of flexible resilient material, the dimensions and configuration of which correspond to the size and configuration of manufactured units, as technological partitions use plates located along their bottom ends and side surfaces of a film of an elastic flexible material, which set after completing the form, enter their bottom ends into the gap between the plates of ELAS the ranks of the material, the extract produced before setting solutions, and then remove the plate technological partitions, leaving the film is fixed between the ends of plates made of an elastic material prior to complete solidification of solutions.
The disadvantages of this method is a multistage process.
The objective of the invention is to improve the mechanical characteristics, the reduction process.
Unlike the prototype created in the multilayer structural material, the inner layer consists of polyurethane foam, and the surface layers are made of basaltoplastica, consisting of several layers of basalt fabric impregnated with resin or basaltoplastica, consisting of several layers of basalt fabric impregnated with resin and laid between them carbon fibers, used a combination of well-interoperable components - polyurethane foam and basaltoplastica and placement of carbon filament in basalt plastic, providing electric heating.
To achieve the mentioned technical result in the production method of the multilayer structural material including filling in forms consistent supply of material layers, forming, self-control, demoulding, consistent flow of the mother of the crystals of the layers is performed in the following sequence: place at the bottom of the shaped layers of basalt fabric, impregnated with epoxy resin, or layers of basalt fabric impregnated with epoxy resin, and between them is placed carbon filament, the ends of which are output. Then place a layer of polyurethane foam, preformed in identical form, it is placed layers of basalt fabric impregnated with epoxy resin, or layers of basalt fabric impregnated with epoxy resin, and between them is placed carbon filament, the ends of which are output. The formation and exposure of all of the layers takes place simultaneously when heated to 60°C and a pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa to curing resin.
To achieve this technical result in the multilayer structural material containing a Central polyurethane foam layer and the surface layers, the surface layers are made of basaltoplastica or layer basaltoplastica with stacked inside carbon fibers, the ends of which are brought out, when the ratio of the thickness of the layer of polyurethane foam to the thickness of basaltoplastica 20-80: 0.5 to 1.5.
To create the layered structural material used:
polyurethane foam stamps T-PN TU-011-43862634-07;
basalt fabric BT-12 TU 5952-031-00204949-95;
epoxy resin grade ED-20 GOST 10587-76;
carbon fiber - Balakovo fiber.
Figure 1 presents the scheme of formation of the multilayer construction is about material without carbon fibers inside basaltoplastica.
Figure 2 presents the scheme of formation of the multilayer structural material containing carbon filament inside basaltoplastica.
Table 1 shows the physico-mechanical characteristics of the prototype and the inventive multilayer structural material depending on the ratio of the thickness of the inner layer to the outer.
Example 1. Multilayer structural material (figure 1) consists of a lower layer of basaltoplastica 1 in the form of resin-impregnated layers of basalt fabric, a middle layer of polyurethane foam 2, the top layer of basaltoplastica 3 in the form of resin-impregnated layers of basalt fabric. The number of layers of basalt fabric layer 1 is two and layer 3 is equal to two.
Way to obtain is as follows. At the bottom of the mold stacked basalt plastic 1 - resin-impregnated layers of basalt fabric, which lay in advance obtained by forming a layer of polyurethane foam 2 identical forms, and laid on top of the basalt plastic 3 - resin-impregnated layers of basalt fabric. The resulting structure is crimped outer part press tooling, which can be smooth or with ridges. Order to shorten the curing resin raise the temperature of the outer layer of the multilayer structural material up to t=60°C due to external source of heat and withstand dauvergne resin. The layer thicknesses are (20:0,5) mm
Example 2. The same as in example 1 at a ratio of layer thicknesses (50:1,0) mm
Example 3. The same as in example 1 at a ratio of layer thicknesses (80:1,5) mm
Example 4. Multilayer structural material (2) consists of a layer of basalt fabric 1, impregnated with resin, which laid carbon fiber 2 with facing outward ends 3, a layer of basalt fabric 4, the resin-impregnated layer of polyurethane foam 5, a layer of basalt fabric 6, impregnated with resin, which laid carbon fiber 7 with facing outward ends 8, a layer of basalt fabric 9 impregnated with resin.
Multilayer structural material obtained by the sequential filling of the components of the mold: at the bottom of press equipments stacked resin-impregnated basalt fabric 1, which put a carbon fiber 2 from coming out all 3, and cover basalt fabric 4 impregnated with resin. Next place a layer of polyurethane foam 5, preformed in identical form, on which the stacked resin-impregnated basalt fabric 6, it put a carbon fiber 7 with facing outward ends 8 and cover basalt cloth 9 impregnated with resin. The resulting structure is crimped outer part press tooling, which can be smooth or with ridges. Order to shorten the approval of the resin increase temperature to t=60°C, why carbon filaments noise electric current, power and voltage which is determined by the size and configuration of the element. The curing process of the resin in the basalt plastic accelerated several times. Further heating elements of carbon fibers can be used as heat sources for heating the interior space. The layer thicknesses are (20:0,5) mm
Example 5. The same in example 4, when the thickness ratio of layers (50:1,0) mm
Example 6. The same in example 4, when the thickness ratio of layers (80:1,5) mm
Data defining the physical-mechanical characteristics of the material in comparison with the prototype, shown in table 1.
The advantage of the developed technology is.
High strength adhesive compound between the layers of basaltoplastica and polyurethane, which ensures penetration of epoxy resin into the surface of the polyurethane layer and filling a void, creates a solid adhesive layer. The presence of basaltoplastica as the outer layers significantly improves the strength characteristics of the structure, giving it the strength qualities of both materials. Low coefficient of thermal conductivity design provides a combination of materials. The presence of the layer of basaltoplastica electrically conductive carbon fibers, the cat is the second electric current, allows you to adjust the heating layer basaltoplastica, which contributes to the acceleration of the hardening process of the resin. Improving the efficiency of the insulation. Further heating elements of carbon fibers can be used as heat sources for heating the interior space.
In addition, profiling of the lower and upper surface of the element and pressing the snap, it is possible to obtain a multilayer structural element with ribs, while reducing transaction profiling as a separate, allowing you to create waste-free technology, further enhances the strength of the structure.
Used sources of information
1. Pat. 2270902, RF IPC E04C 2/26, 2/292. Sandwich-panel / Abulashvili SG, Kisielius BTW, Bobryshev VV // bul. - 2006. No. 6.
2. Pat. UM 65920, RF IPC E04C 2/292. Sandwich-panel / Khafizov MR // bul. - 2007. No. 24.
3. THE 5768-116-02495282-01.
4. Utility model 65919, Russia IPC IS 2/10. Wall polyurethane foam panel / Vasilets SV // bul. - 2007, No. 24.
1. The method of obtaining the multilayer structural material including filling in forms consistent supply of material layers, forming, self-control, removing from the mold, characterized in that the consistent flow of material layers perform the placement at the bottom of the form layer b is salloway fabric, impregnated with epoxy resin, placing a foam layer on the layers of basaltoplastica and piling on penopoliuretanovuju layer of basalt layers of fabric impregnated with epoxy resin with an intermediate location between the carbon fibers, the ends of which are output, molding and extract all of the layers takes place simultaneously when heated to a temperature of 60°C and a pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa to curing of the resin at the ratio of the thickness of the layer of polyurethane foam to the thickness of basaltoplastica 20-80: 0.5 to 1.5.
2. Multilayer structural material obtained according to claim 1, containing a Central polyurethane foam layer and the surface layers, wherein the surface layers are made of basaltoplastica or layer basaltoplastica with stacked inside carbon fibers, the ends of which are brought out, when the ratio of the thickness of the layer of polyurethane foam to the thickness of basaltoplastica 20-80:0.5 to 1.5.
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of building materials used in particular in low-rise and frame housing and also during building of civil and industrial projects with high requirements to decorative outer cladding of buildings, heat- and acoustic insulation of rooms, for example of multistorey apartment houses, cottages and other buildings. Set of blocks includes sets of main, corner and aperture blocks containing face layer with thickness A, bearing layer with thickness C and heat-insulating layer with thickness B located between them, they are attached to each other by polymeric bars, at that basic thickness of blocks in each set is chosen discretely either 300 mm or 400 mm, at that relation of thickness B of heat-insulating layer to sum of thicknesses (A+C) of face and bearing layers, i.e. (B:(A+C)) is chosen completed with basic thickness of blocks 300 mm either 0.50 or 0.67, and completed with basic thickness of blocks 400 mm - either 0.60 or 1.00, at that sum of thicknesses (A+C) of face and bearing layers is constant for all sets, at that each set consists of two groups of blocks. Thickness A of decorative layer in each group increases in arithmetic progression according to relation Ai=A0+10·n, where A0 is chosen not less than 40 mm, and n is integral number and corresponds to range from 1 to 6, and thickness C of bearing layer decreases in arithmetic progression in each group correspondingly. Blocks in each group are made according to regional weather conditions requirement and are characterised by thickness B of heat-insulating layer being constant in group for region. Each group is provided additionally with belt blocks made one-piece and consisting of face and bearing layers, and with air-exchange block provided with through-hole and ventilating grill rigidly fixed in it. Blocks of corner type are made in two forms, one of them is provided with equidistant L-shaped face and heat-insulating layers, and in cavity of heat-insulating layer shortened bearing layer is located. The other form of blocks is provided with equidistant L-shaped bearing and heat-insulating layers, and in cavity of heat-insulating layer shortened face layer is located.
EFFECT: improvement of universalisation of set of blocks and enhancement of their use in low-rise and high-rise house building under various weather conditions, simplification of technology of walls construction observing all required technical and technological parametres, optimisation of ratio of all layers dimensions, improvement of their strength properties and cheapening of building.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial construction materials, and more specifically to double-layer structures and method of making such structures, particularly non-sparking double-layer tiles, meant or covering floors in category A and B fire safety buildings. The non-sparking double-layer tile is in form of a concrete monolithic body with a face layer, which has a regular or irregular geometrical shape, where material for both layers is a mixture, used in semi-dry state, containing, wt %: composition of the mixture of the base layer: portland cement of at least grade 500 DO 20.55 to 22.78, construction sand with particle size 5 mm with fineness modulus of not less than 2.4 72.89 to 75.34, Poliplast MB-1 0.20-0.30, water - the rest; composition of the mixture of the face layer: portland cement of at least grade 500 DO 23.98 to 26.19, limestone in form of sand from siftings from crushing sedimentary rocks with strength grade of at least 400 with particle size 2 to 4 mm and fineness module of not less than 2.4 69.84-71.94, Poliplast MB-1 0.23 to 0.30, water - the rest, where the face layer has thickness of not less than 10 mm. The method of making the said tile involves preparation of each of the said mixtures with moisture content of 6-8% in mixers by successive loading the given filler, additive, portlant cement, stirring dry components for 30 to 60 s, then, while stirring, adding water and continue to stir the mixture for the base layer for 30 to 40 s, and the mixture for the face layer - for 2 minutes, placing the mixture for the base layer into a mould, preliminary compacting with light vibration or ramming without vibration, placing the mixture for the face layer on top of the compacted base layer, final compacting with vibrocompression for 20 to 23 s of the said mixtures and solidification in a steam curing chamber at temperature of 40°C, moisture 95 to 100 % and rate of increase and decrease of temperature not more than 25°C/h. Invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: increased compression and bending strength, reduced wearability.
4 cl, 4 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: masonry unit consists of a lightweight block with face being coated with decorative-protective layer. The vertical grooves are made on lightweight block face during forming. The face of block is implemented with a plate, which is glued leak tightly to the said block after solidification or represents pigment stained layer of highly strong concrete mix as forming open-end vertical channels in masonry unit parallel to block face.
EFFECT: wide functional applications of masonry unit due to increase gas permeability.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: security facilities.
SUBSTANCE: according to the first version the proposed sandwich fire protective structure based on composite plates can be fixed on the surface of the facility being protected and comprises low-density basalt-fibrous material layer, adhesive interlayer and heat-resistant protective-decorative plate which are sequentially adjacent to the above surface. Thicknesses and materials of the structure layers are chosen so that to provide for evaporation of water containing in the outer layer and adhesive interlayer, diffusion of the produced water vapour into the inner basalt-fibrous layer and under further heating evaporation of moisture condensed on the fibres surface, in case of fire attack or non-stationary heating of the structure outer layer surface. According to the second version the proposed sandwich fire protective structure can be fixed on the surface of the facility being protected with an air gap. The adhesive interlayer is made from heat-expanding material which is characterised by sooting when heated. Thicknesses and materials of the structure layers in this version are chosen so that to provide for precipitation of carbon particles on the inner layer fibres surface resulting from cracking of hydrocarbons which are included into the composition of the products of thermal decomposition of the adhesive interlayer organic or polymer part and for formation of an additional layer of foam coke resulting from thermal decomposition and swelling of the adhesive interlayer containing thermally expanding graphite, in case of fire attack or non-stationary heating of the structure outer layer surface . Fire protective structure layers are made with the consideration of physical effects appearing under heating and leading to the alteration of the adjacent layers composition; this fact allows blocking of radiant-convection heat flow coming from the flame to the surface of the facility being protected.
EFFECT: increasing up to the specified level fire resistance ratings of supporting and enveloping building structures primarily in high-rise buildings.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry, and namely to heat-insulating constructions. Heat-insulating block element consists of internal air-proof shell made from flexible material, and external air-permeable shell that protects internal shell from damage. External element shell has areas where it is firmly connected with internal shell as well as areas wherein there is no firm connection of external and internal shells. External shell is made, fully or partially, from air-permeable material at the location of latter areas; total external surface of internal shell equals or exceeds total internal surface of external shell. Internal cavity of air-proof shell is filled with gas and/or heat-insulating material capable of reversible deformation. Method of manufacturing heat-insulating enclosure from heat-insulating block elements is described.
EFFECT: reducing material consumption, improving enclosure heat-insulating characteristics, and providing possibility to produce heat-insulating enclosure of any configuration.
13 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electrogenerating masonry unit contains an obverse layer, concrete building layers and a heat-insulation layer located between them. The masonry unit has the box-shaped case from a monolithic concrete layer and a heat-insulation layer in the form of the porous core placed in the box-shaped case and closed by an obverse layer with terminal screws, executed in the form of two goffered punched plates from an electro wire material and planar solid-state electrolytic diaphragm located between them, made of a material, for example: "Nafion" or MF-4SK with the deposits of electrodes - the anode and the cathode located on opposite sides of the diaphragm. Two channel apertures located on the largest possible distance from each other are brought from the surface to the diaphragm through the body of the case and a porous core with fixed tubes for possibility of leading and assignment of fuel gas.
EFFECT: improvement of an operating ability of a masonry unit.
6 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building brick for building wall erection includes inner wall 10 and outer wall 20 which have reinforced structure and are located at some distance from each other. Clearance 40 between building bricks is filled with cement. Outer wall 20 consists of decorative plaster board. Foamed polymeric material 30 fills the space between inner wall 10 and outer wall; at that, inner wall 10 and outer wall 20 are pieced by foamed polymeric material 30. Protrusion 31 is created in foamed polymeric material 30 and stands out of inner wall 10 and outer wall 20. Clearance 40 between building bricks in front of and behind relative to protrusion 31, at that, inner wall 10 and outer wall 20 are embedded into foamed polymeric material 30 at some depth, and embedment of parts 11 and 21 results in adhesion strength increase.
EFFECT: increase of brick adiabatic and soundproof characteristics.
FIELD: construction, superstructures.
SUBSTANCE: principle applies to construction, in particular to production of face tiles and blocks and can be used in the preparation of wall blocks with face tiles from natural rock, or wood panels and also ceramic tiles. The technical result is to ensure the functional capability of blocks during cost reduction of its preparation. Firstly, flat decorative elements (FDE) are prepared, which can be done in the form of one or more tiles of natural rock or in the form of one or more wood panels, and also a combination of these. FDE may consists of number of fragments of each, and side surfaces of FDE are preliminary polished and are fitted one to the other and then placed in the frame, tightly tuck together and inundated with a liquid building mixture. One or more ready FDE is placed in a shaped tray and concrete is poured and the tray is put on a vibration press and vibrated to complete compaction of the concrete and then the ready block is dried under natural conditions. A formwork for a ready construction block is then prepared. Construction blocks can also be prepared from foam concrete, in which the foam concrete layer is placed in a vertical plane from the internal side of the block. In this case the foam concrete layers are made in the form of separate inserts or layer of foam concrete is made by pouring foam concrete into a tray frame using parting metallic plate, which is removed after the tray has been filled up by concrete and foam concrete. For the preparation of flat decorative elements, a moulding box with clamps is used. For the strengthening of the attachment of flat decorative elements to the surface of the construction block, a number of ways are used to preliminary work on rear surfaces of the flat decorative elements. To widen the nomenclature of construction blocks, blocks can be made in form of half-blocks, corner blocks or double sided polished blocks. For work convenience, blocks are prepared with an opening at the top with an undercut for proper handling and hand grip.
EFFECT: ensuring functional capability of a block and reduction of its production cost.
14 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: fixed constructions.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum concrete block comprises dense concrete outer envelop and more porous core. The outer envelop of the block has a gas-tight surface. The core of the vacuum concrete block has a gas-tight envelop. The core is connected from its centre with the outer envelop surface by means of a tube which is hermetically connected with the core envelop and the outer envelop surface having a locking device for closing in the tube hole, and capable of connecting to a vacuum pump. The method of making a vacuum structural block is defined.
EFFECT: enhancement of heat-insulating properties.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: gypsum compositions and gypsum plates made from such compositions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed composition contains hardened gypsum, binding matrix made from hardened and calcined gypsum, water and modifying material containing mixture of organic poly- phosphonium compound or mixture of organic poly-phosphonium compounds in the amount of 0.01-3% of calcined gypsum and borate in the amount of 0.1-2% of mass of calcined gypsum containing ulexite, colemanite or mixture of ulexite and colemanite or modifying material containing poly-carboxyl compound or mixture of poly-carboxyl compounds in the amount of 0.01-4.99% of mass of calcined gypsum and poly-phosphate compound or mixture of poly-phosphate compounds in the amount of 0.004-2% of mass of calcined gypsum.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
24 cl, 5 tbl
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.
5 cl, 6 dwg